RUIZ CANTERO, María Teresa, VIVES CASES, Carmen, ARTACOZ Lucia, DELGADO Ana, GARCIA CALVENTE María del Mar, MIQUEO Consue- lo, MONTERO Isabel, ORTIZ MONCADAS Rocio, RONDA pÉREZ Elena, RUIZ pÉREZ Isabel y VALLS Carme. «A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research» Revista Journal of Epidemiology and community health, 2007: 61 (supl. II) pp. ii46-ii53.
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Future research on the topic of gender bias in teacher evaluation could definitely include a much broader sample of students filling out the evaluations. It must be noted that, given the limited amount of recent research addressing this topic compared to the number of studies published before the year 2000, as well as the limited size of the study sample used in this case, the research conducted here can serve as a pilot or preliminary study. Further research with larger samples can yield more accurate the results, analysis, and findings. The evaluations could also be done in multiple departments of a single university to better gauge the thoughts of the entire campus, not just one group. Additionally, a multiple university study could be conducted to compare different schools as well as broaden the sample size to an even larger scale.
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A Practical Guide to Address Gender Bias in Academia and Research is the third toolkit produced within the context of the COST policy driven network Gender, Science, Technology and Environment, genderSTE. genderSTE is a multistake holder platform involving researchers and decision makers from 40 countries committed to promoting a fairer representation of women and men in scientific and engineering fields. The other two toolkits that we have produced address how to promote structural change in institutions, Cultural and Institutional Change Guidelines. Strategy and Recommendations, and how to integrate gender dimensions in industrial innovation, EU Guidelines for Gender Responsive Business and Innovation.
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The sociological analysis of each of these embeddings may be quite reward- ing, and offers very forceful clues as to the gender stereotypes that infiltrate not only our language, but also our social view and practices. In this study, however, we do not perform this sociological analysis. Our recent discovery of this methodology does not allow us to advance further than the operationalization of the neural net- work, and the implementation of the proof of concept that is presented here. For this, we offer only some brief notations related to the selected examples, consid- ering their semantic interpretation when this interpretation is not obvious. So, of the six previous examples, the fourth and sixth may require some clarification. In fact, in the fourth example: “Man is to fur- niture as woman is to shoes, textiles”, we understand that this reveals, at least, the traditional sexual division of work that is based on the masculinization or feminiza- tion of certain professions. Men appear to be associated with the production of fur- niture and carpentry, while women have a privileged relationship with clothing, their production, creation, etc. It may be ob- served that a clear occupational distinc- tion is embedded in the language, evident to anyone who knows the distribution of men and women in the labor market. So, the neural network unexpectedly hoards a “knowledge” which, in the “natural intel- ligence” world (of real life individuals), we
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Without disregarding the module’s po- tential, there are at least three aspects that could be expanded upon. On the one hand, its questions offer limited information regar- ding decision making and do not reveal who made these decisions, a particularly relevant study objective in order to determine not only how household economics functions but also gender relations in the couples (Dema, 2009). In accordance with this author, it is necessary to differentiate between at least three types of negotiating processes. First, there is a conventional model in which there is no negotiation since men and wo- men make decisions based on traditional gender roles whereby men make the major decisions and women occupy themselves with the everyday decisions. Second, is the model in which consensus is negotiated but not attained, given that there are not equal negotiating conditions for men and women. And finally, an egalitarian model in which men and women negotiate under equal con- ditions and actively seek consensus, acting freely when proposing initiatives and at- tempting to reconcile the wishes and inter- ests of both.
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Although such transitional justice mechanisms are supposedly neutral in terms of gender, there are factors that exert influence not only on the unequal impact of armed conflict and of repression on women and men, but also in terms of the exercise of the victims’ right to truth, justice, reparation and guarantees of non - repetition. That is, transitional justice is not without its share of gender bias, and the consequence for women is that crimes committed against them tend to benefit from even more impunity than those against men; the violations of their human rights are often sub-represented in truth- seeking processes, and their access to justice and measures of recognition and reparation is limited by the cultural, psychosocial, political and economic circumstances of the patriarchal organization in society 1 . Inequalities in this
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En sexto lugar, más que el feminismo, creo que han contribuido mucho a la ideología del gender los grupos GLBT (gais, lesbianas, bisexuales y transexuales), un conjunto muy dispar, donde hay algunas gentes con unos sufrimientos y una dignidad merecedoras del mayor respeto, y otras gentes de frivolidad muy poco humana, resumible en lo que me dijo hace unos años, un buen muchacho que andaba luchando por salir de esa frivolidad: “para mí, el sexo ha sido como tomarte un gintonic, pero mucho más sabroso, y, si eres hábil, un poco más largo. Nada más”. Pero quizá unidos ambos grupos por una comprensible necesidad de reconocimiento exterior, que supliese la falta de plena aceptación interior de sí mismos.
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For all the complexity of understanding bias and chance in the interpretation of the findings from clinical trials, another important consideration should not be forgotten. The findings from any given study relate to the patients included in that study. Even if an effect is assessed as probably real and large enough to be clinically important, a further question remains: how well are the findings applicable to other groups of patients, and do they particularise to a given individual? 12 Neither confidence intervals nor
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The above quality scale has been applied to a set of 28 experiments that are part of two SLRs. Obviously, there is a much greater number of experiments  and SLRs  available in SE. Because we need to estimate bias, however, we can only use experiments that have been combined as part of a meta-analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this confines the set of possible SLRs to  and . In fact, we cannot even use , as the between- study heterogeneity in that SLR could be confused with bias. Therefore we ran a specific meta-analysis  of the experiments on inspection considered in . This way, we were able to get a reasonably reliable bias calculation. Table II summarizes the characteristics of the SLRs used in this research.
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Abstract : The scientific literature has shown the relationship between sex and the hierarchy of values in adolescence. The present study transcends beyond sexual differences and explores how the internalized gender stereotypes are related, in feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated individuals, with the preference of social values, personal values and individualistic values in adolescence. The sample was made of 245 males and females, from 11 to 14 years old, from public and private primary schools and compulsory secondary education canters, randomly selected, from the Valencian Community, Spain. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance have been performed for the subsamples of boys and girls. The results show that social values (for both sexes) and personal values (only in girls) are associated to the feminine universe, and individualistic values are associated to the masculine universe and to androgyny, in boys. This study confirms the gender inequality in the internalized values, according to the adolescents self-identify as masculine, feminine, androgynous or undifferentiated. The results suggest that it may be helpful to include gender variables in the promotion of social values in adolescence .
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Abstract - This paper describes an off-line bias estimation and correction system for Air Traffic Control related sensors, used in a newly developed Eurocontrol tool for the assessment of ATC surveillance systems. Current bias estimation algorithms are mainly focused in radar sensors, but the installation of new sensors (especially Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast and Wide Area Multilateration) demands the extension of those procedures. In this paper bias estimation architecture is designed, based on error models for all those sensors. The error models described rely on the physics of the measurement process. The results of these bias estimation methods will be exemplified with simulated data.
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The best-fitting values are a = −0.36 and b = −1.52. After applying the redefinition of mass there is no difference in the clustering amplitude for massive haloes of high and low spin at large scales, as can be seen in Figure 2. In con- trast, it can be seen in the same figure an artificial assembly bias with respect to age using this set of parameters. Note that the assembly bias for objects of equal mass but different age affects low-mass haloes (Gao, Springel & White 2005). Therefore, the formalism applied to the assembly-type bias with the dimensionless spin parameter λ is not related with the successful overdensity peak height defined in Paper I. For example, Figure 3 shows that the mean radius for haloes of intermediate mass is 10r vir (solid line), which is larger com-
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When studying the relative effects of size and bias, we found a high degree of collinearity between size and bias in our meta-models. Multi-collinearity, and the resulting diffi- culties in interpreting models with potentially high variance inflation factors, casts doubt on the stability and validity of such models. Therefore, we chose to focus on a simplified, categorial measure of bias: bias polarity. Bias polarity ad- mits two categories of possible, Biasl and Biasm. Biasl, negative bias polarity, represents all the samples where we have Lower p > Higher p , where Lower p and Higher p rep- resent the probability of linking from Lower and Higher respectively. In case of Experience bias, this would indicate that inexperienced developers are more likely to link than experienced developers. Likewise Biasm, positive polarity represents all the samples where Lower p < Higher p . The samples are coded so that Biasl (resp., Biasm) take the value 1 if the sample has negative (resp., positive) bias po- larity. They both take the value 0 if the sample has neutral bias, viz., Lower p = Higher p .
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As regards the parties themselves, it is worth highlighting the forecasts obtained for ICV and CiU, on the negative side, and the estimates achieved for PSC and PP on the positive side. ICV accumulates the highest prediction errors. None of the estimators used seem to have been able to signifi cantly reduce the bias present in the raw data for this party (see Figure 2). The case of CiU is somewhat different. CiU tends to display po- sitive bias in samples simulated with nonres- ponse bias. Although this appears to be de- tected by all the strategies, the fact is that all of them over-correct it, resulting on average in signifi cantly negatively biased predictions. In both cases, in order to gain insight into the causes of the situations described above, it would be interesting to study the spatial dis- tribution of their support and to analyze whe- ther there were any specifi c anomalies in vo- ting transfer among parties between the 2003 and 2007 elections. At the other end of the scale it is worth highlighting the predictions
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In summary, we observed identical exchange-bias fields and different coupling strengths and anisotropy fields, ob- tained via FMR and magnetization measurements, when the direct coupling through pinholes in the Cu interlayer is not negligible in our IrMn/ Cu/ Co system. These features were attributed to magnetic layers with independent easy axis dis- tributions, to the distinct measurement times of the tech- niques, and to the role of AF grains with different sizes and different magnetic stabilities at the AF side of the interface.
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Nevertheless, the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Asso- ciation exclude the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in childhood (302.6) and, therefore, sexual identity disorder in adolescents or adults (302.85). The catego- rization as a mental disorder of gender discordant behaviors in children led to all kinds of treatment for these behaviors. None of these treatments significantly changed their normal behavior. In other words, they were completely unsucessful 26 .
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377 Interestingly, these results were especially true after the transition into high school, suggesting that the gender gap in 378 adolescents ’ perceptions was more pronounced after the transition. It is possible that the transition to a new school 379 environment challenges students ’ general self-esteem. However, whereas females show a pessimistic self-concept, young 380 males boost their math self-concepts (Jacobs et al., 2002). Likewise, in comparison to female students, male students were 381 more likely to belong to the optimistic group at both measurement times, as they rated their math abilities higher than their 382 actual performance in math (Watt, 2010; Gonida & Leondari, 2011). These ﬁ ndings may mirror male students ’ tendency to 383 exaggerate their own abilities in masculine domains (Guimond & Roussel, 2001), which may help young males to better 384 adapt to the new school environment and demands after the transition. In some cases, this tendency re ﬂ ects their study 385 choices (e.g., males who take math courses in high school may have a more optimistic perception of their actual math skills). 386 Some researchers have discouraged the design of interventions aimed at promoting overcon ﬁ dent self-concept or at 387 lowering students ’ ef ﬁ cacy beliefs (for instance, Schunk & Pajares, 2002). Following this idea, it would be important for 388 students to learn about their limitations and to deploy the right strategies to perform different tasks (Schunk & Pajares, 389 2002). However, individual students might need individually targeted support. For example, students with optimistic self- 390 Q10 perceptions but low performance would also bene ﬁ t from the enhancement of their competences. Consequently, recent 391 research (Baumeister et al., 2003; Gonida & Leondari, 2011; Narciss et al., 2011) has suggested that interventions should aim 392 to prevent students from having negative unrealistic assessments of their abilities in different domains. For instance, 393 teachers ’ feedback about students ’ academic progress and achievement can be crucial at modifying students ’ negative self- 394 evaluation in a positive direction (Narciss et al., 2011; Upadyaya & Eccles, 2014). More speci ﬁ cally, interventions should 395 address the tendency of young females to undervalue their math abilities.
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According to the present organization of science, the rules of play are assumed to be objective and are guaranteed to identify the excellence of candidates, which supposedly assures the recruitment and promotion of the best researchers. But candidates’ competitiveness hinges on, for instance, the relevance of their research topic, belonging to an influential network, their fundraising capability and productivity rate, and the support (or lack thereof) of gatekeepers being part of committee boards in journals and funding institutions. Women also would benefit from the same rules if they had a clear comprehension of their male-dominated environment and adopted the right strategies. Thus, women are confident about the neutrality and fair play of the meritocratic system, while other aspects related to gender discrimination remain in the dark. They are also certain of employment laws and gender policies supporting female careers, but ignore invisible practices and biased rules that eventually dishearten them from pursuing ambitious goals. Gender stereotypes lessen women’s opportunities since the work–life balance is clearly assumed as a burden to women and the ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’ acts on both sides, affecting the aspirations of women in scientific careers and promoting adverse opinions of colleagues and gatekeepers in recognising female talent. Likewise, factual consequences of the multiple roles that women take on as professionals, spouses, mothers, and scientists become a symbolic handicap for developing successful careers.
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In summary, after a brief review of experimental results and theoretical models of exchange bias, we have put forward an alternative mechanism to generate exchange anisotropy in a system where an antiferromagnet (AF) is in contact with a metallic ferromagnet (FM). It is based on the fact that ground-state ﬂuctuations reduce the zero- temperature magnetic moments of the spins in a quantum AF, giving rise to an exchange ﬁeld, an alternative that to the best of our knowledge had not been explored before. The model put forward here differs from the available literature in that it does not depend on interface lattice mismatch nor defects in the vicinity of the interface, but only on the presence of the latter. In fact, in the vicinity of interfaces, and other defects which break translational symmetry, the above quantum ﬂuctuations are not uni- form. Consequently, the magnetic moments of oppositely oriented spins do not compensate exactly, as they do in a bulk AF. Thus, close to a surface or interface, a relatively small magnetic dipole density is generated.
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The TL08x JFET-input operational amplifier family is designed to offer a wider selection than any previously developed operational amplifier family. Each of these JFET-input operational amplifiers incorporates well-matched, high-voltage JFET and bipolar transistors in a monolithic integrated circuit. The devices feature high slew rates, low input bias and offset currents, and low offset-voltage temperature coefficient. Offset adjustment and external compensation options are available within the TL08x family.
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