Scientists addressed the notion of computability even before the invention of digital computers, trying to define a priori what classes of problems can be solved by means of algorithms. A thorough analysisof this issue goes beyond the purposes of this dissertation because of its deep mathematical and philosophical implications, however in the following we briefly introduce the concepts of computability, universality, and Turing machines which will be extensively used in the rest of this chapter. In the remaining sections, we present an alternative proof of the universality of the CNN-UM which does not make use of the Game of Life. This result has two main consequences: first, it defines a general form for all CNN-UM programs; second, it suggests that the solution space can be explored through a technique called Genetic Programming . In this chapter we discuss the first aspect, whereas the second one will be tackled in chapter 4.
At the same time, the “philosophy of education” as a special area of research in philosophy and pedagogy is still being actively developed. “Person-oriented learning” affirmed the student’s personality as the focus of the educational efforts of the entire pedagogical system, but came across an insurmountable obstacle: the impossibility of methodologically and technologically describing the activities of the teacher implementing this principle. It turned out that teachers capable of this can work in a mode of game unpredictability that is natural for children, which, on the one hand, removes all the contradictions in the “teacher-student” relationship and does not worsen learning outcomes, and on the other, it directly rejects “technological methodism” ". In this contradiction is the root of the problems of theoretical pedagogy and the foundation of genuine pedagogical competence ”[4, P.81]. Rapid changes in the world around us, social relations, and ideological foundations prompt us to search for new approaches to educational problems. Therefore, the purpose of this article is a philosophical reflection of the educational process of Russia with a philosophical analysisof the foundations of culture, society, human self- awareness. Separate tasks that arise are the appeal to the axiological foundations of society, the application to the educational problems of the refinement of social philosophy (with a focus on the philosophical analysisof communicative processes and the relationship “I and the Other” as a ratio of personal and social), a comparison of Renaissance humanism and modern processes of humanization and humanization of education, as well as the definition of human self-development (Foucault's “self-education”) as a determining factor in education.
Considering the technical difficulties of reproducing bitumen vapours in a laboratory setting, it was decided to create a synthetic gas representative of these vapours to test the pilot-scale biofilters. A portion of solid bitumen was first heated to 170°C and then samples of vapour were drawn directly from the headspace above the bitumen. Analysisof the vapours was done first with a GC-MS (gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector) for a general approach and then with a GC-PFPD (gas chromatograph with a pulsed flame photometric detector) for sulphur compounds. It was possible to identify over a hundred compounds, ranging from light to heavy hydrocarbons (C-2 to C-24) with several sulphur compounds. Subsequently, this analysis was used to select specific compounds to incorporate in the synthetic gas. The final composition of the gas is given in table 1.
The tests performed in this study are related with an important problem concerning formation of shrinkage discontinuities phenomena in gray cast iron castings. Coupled shrinkage-expansion phenomena due to graphite phase increase do not exist in other technical alloys (e.g. cast steel, Al and Cu alloys etc.). These phenomena lead to shrinkage discontinuities reduction. This is the reason why these phenomena have been analyzed in this paper. Simulation tests using two codes and its macro models have been carry out. Also, other tests applying micro model (only with ProCast code) were realized. Generally, they confirm that is necessary to consider expansion-shrinkage phenomena modeling as well as an appropriate interpretation about dynamic shrinkage evolution during solidification process, before predicting a final casting shrinkage map.
The tactical planning in soccer should primarily base its constitution in the gaming functionality, considering both general and specific aspects, as well as factors outside the procedural terms of the game. In this way, the bibliographic and descriptive study aims to point out important principles for structuring a tactical planning in soccer, highlighting key components in this process. The generalaspects related to the club´s philosophy and working conditions conducted in accordance with specific aspectsof the game’s tactical nature are extremely important in structuring the planning. Therefore, understanding the game goes beyond its internal specificity, transcending to its other external aspects. Keywords: Planning; Soccer; general and specific tactic.
lo que de alguna manera se interpreta como el fin del camino y desalienta el esfuerzo investigador. Sin embargo no se encuentra entre este grupo a ninguno que, en ese momento fuese catedrático (esto no significa que no estuviese acreditado ya). Para estos profesores, posiblemente la promoción a catedrático sea, junto con la obtención de tramos el incentivo. Por otro lado, la concentración de estos profesores en básicamente dos de las universidades de la muestra, debe ser motivo de reflexión. Es posible que haya un efecto de grupo, de especialización en un tópico y/o sea consecuencia de políticas más activas por parte de esa universidad en concreto. No se observan diferencias significativas en la estructura de producción entre universidades públicas y privadas 3 , ni en general, ni respecto a los artículos indexados. Por el contrario, si se aprecia una diferencia significativa (al 1%) en la estructura de la producción entre las distintas categorías de profesores, tanto en general como en los artículos indexados. De esta forma, catedráticos, titulares de universidad y contratados laborales de perfil investigador (frente a titulares de escuela universitaria y contratados laborales de perfil docente) muestran una mayor propensión a publicar. Los profesores de universidad privada muestran una posición intermedia entre estos dos grupos. La diferencia entre categorías podría explicar diferencias entre las universidades fundadas antes y después de la aprobación de la LRU, así como entre universidades pequeñas, medianas y grandes, ya que unas y otras parecen tener estructuras de personal significativamente distintas (al 0,1%). Esta diferencia de estructura de la producción se observa en el conjunto de artículos, libros y capítulos de libros, que se muestra significativa al 5%, pero no respecto a los artículos indexados. Por tamaño de universidad, las diferencias en la estructura de producción no son estadísticamente significativas.
Tanto en árabe como en español la presencia femenina en el chiste es notoria. El cuerpo femenino aparece reiteradamente en el chiste bajo distintas manifes- taciones: como objeto de deseo, de codicia, de protección, de posesión, pero también como cuerpo desechado, repudiado, aborrecido… En esta represen- tación, el discurso chistoso está polarizado entre el cuerpo extremadamente «bello» y el cuerpo extremadamente «feo». En ello participa reseñablemente la dimensión temporal, encontramos a la jovencita «tentadora» en oposición a la «vieja» desechada, pero que se resiste a tirar la toalla. Esta dicotomía, no obstante, no siempre es paralela a la edad real y física de la mujer, sino que encontramos la vieja y la recién conocida, la primera y la segunda. Junto con este vector temporal interviene también, en la construcción del chiste, la dimensión intelectual: la mujer es generalmente ingenua y con las facultades mentales reducidas, y cuando el chiste hace una representación contraria, la capacidad intelectual se convierte en astucia y perfidia. En cuanto a los valo- res morales de la mujer, quedan supeditados a sus circunstancias personales y emocionales, por lo que aparecen inconstantes. Es decir, que la mujer se presenta, por lo general, más en el chiste español que en el árabe, moralmente insolvente; de hecho, se insiste más en la infidelidad femenina en el chiste español que en el chiste árabe.
In the Argentine of 1960, the only computing training courses were those offered by the importing companies conducted by their own personnel. That same year, an IBM subsidiary began to train its sales engineers as System Engineers (which included a stay at the head office in the United States). In 1962, Sadosky proposed the creation of the Curriculum of Scientific Computer in the Faculty of Exact Sciences. At first, people viewed it as a minor specialty though it lasted three and a half years. The curriculum included mathematics, programming, numerical analysis, operational research courses, ten obligatory courses, and some other courses that were optional. However, when it became evident that such scientific guidance reduced the labor opportunities of the graduates, they called people from IBM to give courses also. Mathematics and physics graduates from their own faculties (whose studies lasted for five years) mainly nurtured the curriculum. The faculty had already approved a great number of the curriculum courses. For that reason, the computing curriculum had produced its first graduates in 1963.
La caracterización morfométrica se reali- zó según la metodología de Horton (195) a partir de Gaspari et al (201). En el área en estudio se realizó a nivel geoespacial aplican- do un SIG, el programa ArcGis 10.1® y la extensión HEC-Geo HMS ®. La información de entrada es el modelo de elevación digital (DEM), de Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (AS- TER), Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM V2, 2011), generado por Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) / National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- tration (NASA) http://asterweb.jpl.nasa. gov/gdem.asp. Esta información consiste en una base de datos de elevación topográfica estereoscópica de la tierra, de un sistema de radar, cuya resolución espacial es 0 m x 0 m, para Argentina. El DEM fue reproyecta- do al sistema de coordenadas planas para Argentina (POSGAR 98) Zona .
hearing, smell, touch, taste, new textures, intriguing scents and tastes, wonderful music ” (Saatchi & Saatchi, 2013 d, p. 1) are necessary to build this emotional consumer-brand relationship. For Roberts (2004), when a brand is surrounded by the combination of different senses, the results are “unforgettable” (p. 109). Depending on the company strategy goal, senses can be used to create associations in consumers mind and heart transporting them into the past, present and future. The important role that senses play in memory can explain this phenomenon, specially the scent, as the olfactory system is directly connected to the limbic system (Emsenhuber, 2009). For instance, some smells, drive us immediately into past experiences, like our childhood. In branding literature, there is some interesting information about this topic. First, regarding hearing, Yorkston and Menon (2004), emphasize sound symbolism that “provide s cues about how the brand may perform on particular attribute dimension” (p. 43). They studied phonemes and theorized that if brands use those that can represent consumer’s desire, he or she would have more positive attitude toward a brand, even if it’s out of consumer’s awareness. Secondly, regarding scent, there is actually the term scent marketing (Emsenhuber, 2009) that “uses scent to manipulate consumer behavior by unconsciously raising emotions and consequently manipulating purchase decision” (p. 28). They can even evoke autobiographical memories, which can ease emotional consumer-brand connection. Many stores use a unique scent in order to create a ssociations in consumer’s mind, providing a pleasant environment and buying experience. One example of it is a new car aroma. It doesn’t smell like a metallic machine, instead of it, it has a particular pleasant unique fragrance.
Participants were asked to answer EuroQoL (EuroQol, 1990). The EQ-5D is a measure of self-reported health outcomes that is applicable to a wide range of health conditions and treat- ments. It consists of two parts: a descriptive system (Part I) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) (Part II). Part I of the scale consists of five single-item dimensions including mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain=discomfort, and anxiety=depression. Each dimension has a three- point response scale designed to indicate the level of the problem. Part II uses a vertical grad- uated VAS (thermometer) to measure health status, ranging from worst imaginable health state to best imaginable health state. Descriptive data from the five dimensions of Part I can be used to generate a health-related quality of life profile for the subject. Some studies evaluating test–retest reliability have demonstrated this is high for both individual items (r ¼ .90) and for all health states considered simultaneously (r ¼ .86). Reliability in our sample has been low (Cronbach’s alpha .58). We considered the decision of not including this scale in our further analysis due to
Internal contamination occurs when unprotected personnel ingest, inhale, or are have wounds contaminated with radioactive material. Externally contaminated casualties who did not have respiratory protection should be evaluated for internal contamination. Internal contamination is more likely if significant contamination is found on the face, in/around the nostrils or mouth, or in/around open wounds. Internal doses are assessed differently than external doses. The two primary differences are 1) Internal doses are calculated, not measured, and 2) The doses are committed doses. Internal doses are based on the intake – or the amount of radioactive material that initially enters the body. When a bioassay is performed one can ascertain the activity in the urine, for example, at that particular time. Calculations are then performed to determine how much activity initially entered the body to result in the concentration of radioactive material in the urine at the present time. The same for whole body counts, lung counts, or other methods for internal dose assessment. The concept of committed dose accounts for the fact that internal doses are protracted. In other words, once the radioactive material deposits into the target organ it is there until it decays or the body removes it through normal biokinetic processes. Obviously, these two processes are both at work independently of each other. The committed dose is the dose received over a fifty year time period due to an internally deposited radionuclide. For regulatory purposes, once the fifty-years-worth of dose is calculated it is assigned for the year the intake occurred.
One of the main lessons of this thesis is to acknowledge the great relevance that quantum information theory concepts have developed in recent years. Although until now the community has focused mostly in bipartite entanglement (mainly entanglement entropies), it is remains an open question to understand more sophisticated measures of entanglement on the boundary CFT and how are they related to the geometry in the bulk. As we saw, another concept new in holography and even classical gravity has been that of computational complexity. This remains largely an unexplored territory, even in QFT, where progress has just started to appear very recently, and only for non interacting theories. Moreover, it seems that Renyi entropies could have a much more important role to play, even in classical gravity. Generalising the classical theorems by Hawking and Penrose to their Renyi versions would be a fascinating area to explore. Certainly, one of the most interesting developments to follow in the next years will be this connection between quantum information and gravity.
be greatly affected by decreased river flow. Nutrient-rich sediments, which are deposited during flooding, are no longer periodically replenished. Flood plains are normally very rich are as of vegetative growth and agriculture, but this richness can slowly be lost by the lack of nutrient renewal during flooding. The cost of supplementing this agriculture with chemical fertilizers may be prohibitive. Techniques of bypassing sediment through the reservoir during floods merit engineering attention. Studies of the ecological consequences of flooding in river valleys should include the question of how much agricultural productivity is supported by the silt-bearing flood waters. The los s of such fertilization after the closing of a dam could prove to be greater than the value of the new power. This possibility should receive careful study, for example, an experimental comparison of harvests from land watered with present water supplies as compared with land watered with water supplies of predicted quality (e.g., after water has been allowed to settle in lagoons). A decrease in traditional agriculture has been reported in the flood plains below the Volta Dam (Hilton and Kown-tsei, 20), and Lake Kariba apparently does not produce the protein that the area was capable of producing prior to the dam.
suggested by Gigliarano and Mosler (2009) to multidimensionally identify the middle class does not ensure this. They define the middle class as a convex central region, typically a ball with center in the multidimensional mean of the attributes and a varying radius determining a region containing a given proportion (for instance, 50%) of the observations. The observations that are not classified as “middle class” are left unclassified. Indeed, even if it could be possible to argue that some of the observations are clearly worse-off that those belonging to the middle class (bounded to be “poor”) and some others are clearly better-off (the “upper class”), we are still faced with a relevant region for which classification is not trivial. On the contrary, our approach guarantees that the group defined as the middle class actually lies in the middle of the multivariate distribution. This is ensured both by the generation of a unidimensional welfare index as well as the identification of the different groups (poor, middle class, upper class) through multivariate quantiles.
Two further correlograms were calculated. One employing binaural recordings of crowd sounds in a semi-anechoic environment (Figure 5) and another employing binaural recordings of noise impulses emitted by eight loudspeakers in anechoic conditions (Figure 6). In both cases the ‘dummy head’ employed for the recordings was (homogenously) surrounded by sound sources. The correlograms obtained follow a pattern similar to that of the correlogram of Figure 2 and to the lateralization dominance of the auditory events of Figure 1b.
Knowledge of the variability of fl uid permeability of wood in general and of western hemlock in particular is of signifi cant importance to the primary and secondary wood products processing industry of coastal British Columbia. For the purpose of this study, ten hemlock trees were randomly selected and specimens were prepared from three tree heights from each tree, namely, 1, 4 and 7 m. The air permeability of sapwood and heartwood in the longitudinal direction was measured using a dynamic method. Tracheid lengths were also obtained with a fi ber quality analyzer and densities were measured by water displacement. The effect of tree height, tracheid length and density on the specifi c permeabi- lity of gross wood was then evaluated. The data revealed that height within the range measured has no effect on longitudinal permeability on heartwood whereas in sapwood the longitudinal permeability in- creases above 4 m of tree height. It was also found that longitudinal permeability was not signifi cantly infl uenced by the tracheid length and wood density.
Abstract: Mass vaccination is the collective achievement of immunization practice, using strategies such as campaigns, task forces and locks, made without considering the epidemic risks and other issues, resulting in the loss of autonomy and vulnerability of individuals. This study aims to conduct a discussion regarding the practice of mass vaccination from the perspective of bioethics principialist considered the role of the state and the cultural aspectsof this practice. This is a review of literature with time frame 1999-2013 in national journals. It was concluded that occurs devaluation of ethical principles related to autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice, as well as a disregard of cultural aspectsof vaccinees by the state and health professionals. The state is still the biggest supporter of mass vaccination practices by being simpler measures of disease prevention since there is still a precarious health infrastructure in the country, however, although, it would be necessary to stimulate public awareness and the improvement of sanitary control that would be long-term options needed for certain places if they stopped this practice.
Aspectsof Reason es el resultado del trabajo filosófico que emprendió Paul Grice desde 1975 y que constituye el tema de sus conferencias John Locke de Oxford en 1979. Estas reflexiones ocuparon a Grice hasta antes de su muerte, pero el texto que ahora reseñamos quedó inconcluso y fue publicado póstuma- mente. Su metodología y sus metas globales son consecuentes con su enfoque de la interacción comunicativa y la significación. Se basa en una cuidadosa investigación sobre la forma en como presentamos nuestras razones y los mo- dos en que se expresan nuestros razonamientos. El libro contiene numerosas discusiones de detalles, distinciones sutiles acerca de los usos de ciertas expre- siones y formas de expresión en lenguaje natural y varios análisis de la lógica del razonamiento práctico. Los cinco capítulos del libro conciernen a este tema general y conservan una unidad estructural subyacente, aunque algunas veces puede parecer poco claro cómo están conectados los capítulos entre sí.