Recently, new systematic and cartographic programs at 1:250.000 and 1:100.000 scale has begun. Although these cartographic projects implied strong efforts by the institutions involved in them, the frequent change in political and economical environments produced tough operative difficulties. During the 1996-2000 the Army Geographic Institute (IGM) have finished the complete topographic coverage of the country at 1:250.000 scale. This cartographic initiative was sponsored by the Argentina Mining Sector Promotion Project (PASMA, 1996-2000) with funds provided by the World Bank. The PASMA-IGM agreement had as objective the creation of a topographical framework for the National Geological Map Program (national law 24.224). This cartographic surveying was made by digitising available cartographic information and controlled by georeferenced Landsat TM images. Since 1996, an analogue geological mapping program has been performing by the Geological and Mining Survey of Argentina (SEGEMAR). About six years ago other important cartographic survey initiative at 1:100.000 was begun by the IGM and the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC, Catalunya, Spain), but the country economical crash at 2001 momentarily stopped the survey operations (IGM, GIS Day IGM Institutional Presentation 2004).
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The gvSIG application is currently considered one of the best tools for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) developed in free software. Among its many features is the ability to connect to servers offering WMS, allowing visualization of the cartographic image, with the advantage of being able to display the caption with multiple levels of disaggregation. Besides, it combines the display with the capabilities of a GIS tool: possibility of merging layers, mounting new layers with WMS as a reference, obtain information about the elements identified in the WMS service (Get Feature Info), etc. gvSIG allows the user to publish geospatial information and metadata through standard OGC Web services from the gvSIG interface without having to do it directly on the corresponding server software.
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In the case of geographic search engines for cartography, despite previous applications for the retrieval of this type of documentation since the very early stages of the Internet, it has not been until the last decade that they have acquired a volume and scope of full social significance, able to find, or- ganise and offer huge amounts of maps as well as algorithms to retrieve them, highlighting MapRank Search and OldMap- sOnline as featured portals in the international scenario. In relation to the mobile geolocation of old photographs, the development, recent popularisation, and normal use of apps designed for this purpose in mobile devices by the public, and especially tourists, travellers and visitors from other cities, has brought numerous advantages for the re- covery of the historical memory of a place from old pho- tographs. In this sense, companies such as Ma Ville Avant and Carbonbyte do a great job of disseminating historical heritage by relating and contrasting images of the past with their present-day reality.
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This is a special database-application constructed for administering geographic name places. With this kind of system cartographic names can be easily managed: a) places without geographical object reference may also be included; b) names are much more efficiently managed by centralizing information in one database; c) data could be spatially indexed by relating the data to the national map grid; d) names could be used in different map scales and representations (Leskinen, ....., Asato and Wright, 2004b). Although the cartographic name system was specially constructed for the Atlas project, this new development also reinforced the institutional GIS capability.
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roles it is responsible for the cadastral map, which is maintained under contract by the private sector. The cadastral map or the State Digital Map Base (SDMB) was digitised from hardcopy maps in the mid to late eighties. Like many other digital cadastral databases (DCDBs), the Victorian DCDB suffered errors in accuracy derived from paper maps and lacked topology information. Despite these limitations, the data was sold to commercial interests. These commercial entities were also sold licenses to meet their subsequent requirements. In many cases this data was used as a geographic foundation within detailed GIS .
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After conducting a study with civil Spaniard pilots in which the aim was to understand and to evaluate their needs related to Geographic Information; it has been pointed some processes associated with the use and provision of aeronautical cartographic information that can be improved significantly. The study highlights the need to supply aeronautical data from a universal, certified and updated data infrastructure. In response to these shortcomings, it’s proposed the development of an application which serves geoservices and data. It can be used as a tool for accessing and querying the different kinds of aeronautical charts in order to permit the use and operation of aeronautical data services through standardized tools. One of the advantages of the proposed service is that it would address the excessive growth of the data that must be represented on the charts due to the increase of air routes. In this way, the flight crews will be supplied with personalized information according to the profile of the aircraft, flight phase, and operational needs on the ground. Thus, the pilots (user system) will find centralized in a single system all the information that they require for each phase of the flight. Also, they will have tools that allow them to join and to link the information used in the different phases of the flight.
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Identification of IORR properties is an important first step in measuring potential risk. Once identified, IORR properties should be segregated from other residential loans so that the bank can effectively manage the risk. The OCC recognizes that borrowers can convert homes into rentals without notifying their bank, and that banks may not have historically identified or structured loans to allow for the heightened monitoring that is generally required for IORR loans. Banks should make every effort to properly identify, monitor, and structure IORR loan relationships. Such efforts would include banks taking steps to strengthen their ability to monitor and control the credit relationship, where possible, on known IORR loans. Banks that have not previously distinguished between IORR loans and owner-occupied one- to four- family residential loans should implement methods to draw clear distinctions.
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Changes in temperature across latitude and altitude can occur on a wide temporal range, from ﬂ uctuations within hours as a result of day – night or tidal cycles to those over many years as a result of global climate change (Pörtner et al., 2006). Indeed, the ﬁ fth assessment report (AR5) by the IPCC 2013 (www.ipcc.ch) indicates a trend towards increasing global temperatures and variability that is evident, yet not similar, in all continents. These events will drive many organisms towards their physiological upper limits of thermal tolerance, with potential negative impact on ﬁ tness (Finke et al., 2009; Clavijo-Baquet et al., 2014). Thus, understanding the nature of differential effects of global warming on biodiversity — from genes to ecosystems — is one of the many urgent challenges faced by contemporary science (Deutsch et al., 2008; Pörtner and Farrell, 2008). In this vein, recently, Araújo et al. (2013) tested if ectotherms, endotherms and plant species physiologically adapt their thermal tolerances to climate warming. These authors observed that tolerance to heat is largely invariant across lineages, but tolerance to cold varies. Sunday et al. (2014) also show that heat tolerance in terrestrial ectotherms is relatively invariant in comparison with cold limits. Besides, Schou et al. (2014) demonstrated a lack of increased heat resistance in replicate population of Drosophila exposed to augmented temperatures over time. All the above allow us ⁎ Corresponding author at: Departamento de Ecología, CAPES, Pontiﬁcia Universidad
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One of the key challenges of the geographic-information strategy of the Netherlands was to further develop a geo- information facility in order to give geographic information a prominent place within e-services and e-government. Existing key information facilities, that were created to improve services, enforcement, policy preparation and other processes in government, strongly focused on the creation, management and use of personal data. The same observation is made in the UK Location Strategy, stating that most data in the public sector are related to two aspects: the identification of individuals and companies (‘who’) and the location of communities, assets, events or environmental conditions (‘where’). While the importance of information about citizens and businesses is widely recognized, geographic information is often overlooked. As many areas of policy and service delivery require information on both issues, the UK Location Strategy wants to “complement the focus already being given to ‘who’ by introducing a parallel focus on ‘where’”. According to the Swedish SDI strategy, the national spatial data infrastructure should support the development of Swedish e-governance, the Swedish business community and international competitiveness. Improved access to geodata is considered as a precondition for expanded e-governance, and should result in a more efficient administration and a range of new e-services to citizens and businesses.
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In the Khazar period, interregional trading routes were used by merchants from Khwarazm, the countries of the Caliphate, as well as by the Scandinavians (called Rus’), and by the Jews, many of whom, apparently, were members of the international Radhanites (Radanites, in Hebrew Radhanim) corporation. In the fifth to eleventh centuries, its traders actively participated in the long- distance interregional trade. The Radhanites were the first merchants who established a trade network, partly maritime and partly overland, that stretched from Western Europe and the Middle East to India and China. Their advantage consisted in their reliance on Jewish communities at various points of this network. Thus, instead of carrying large amount of money, which was a risky business, they could use letters of credit. Mutual trust was very important for this trade, because in all probability, the Radhanites did not travel the whole route from Europe to China. They just traveled back and forth from one leg of this route to another, where they handed their merchandise to other members of their corporation (Adler 1983; Gil 1976; Goitein 1974; Naimark 1996:76 ff.).
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We have observed that PLC risk worldwide strongly depends on the geographical area, being those areas with the highest risk locaded in Eastern Asia and Middle- Western Africa. We have described the geographical variation of PLC risk taking into account the effect of the HBV and HCV prevalences in different world areas. It has been estimated first the risk of death by PLC among HBV male carriers worldwide. In Europe, it has been determined which are the countries with highest risk of PLC taking into account the effect of both hepatitis infections. In Spain, a high risk country for PLC among European countries, it has been estimated the time trends of PLC and liver cirrhosis during the last 15 years period with data available.
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Most of the drugs currently employed for the treatment of TB have been in use for over half a century. This, in combination with poor management, has made it possible for strains to develop resistant to one or all of the anti-tuberculosis drugs. The fourth global report on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance estimates that 20% of the new TB cases were resistant to one antibiotic (TB-DR), 5.3% were multi-drug-resistant (TB-MDR) and 11% were resistant to streptomycin (S+) 2 . Streptomycin, an aminoglycoside discovered in 1943, was the first antibiotic with proven specificity against TB, and has been used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis for more than 65 years. It functions by inhibiting the protein synthesis of mycobacteria in extracellular form, specifically binding to the 12S subunit protein and the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA 16S). Resistance to this drug is mainly associated with two genes: rpsL, codifying for the 12S subunit protein, with mutations at codons 43 (A/G, Lys→Arg, Thr) and 88 (A/G/C, Lys→Gln, Arg, Thr) as the predominant; and rrs, codifying for the 16S rRNA where the most frequent mutations are at loop 530 and region 912 3-12 . Despite progress in identification of mutations in rpsL and rrs in streptomycin- resistant tuberculosis isolates, these genes have been poorly studied and significant geographical diversity have been described in the associated mutations. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the type and frequency of rpsL and rrs mutations among isolates of streptomycin-resistant mycobacteria from the southeast of Mexico.
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For β-thalassaemia genotyping, 20 different mutations were tested: 19 by M-ARMS and one by simple ARMS technique. Genotyping of the 19 β-thalassaemia determinants were carried out in five separate multiplexed PCR reactions based on the shared thermo-cycling conditions of respective allele-specific primers as described by Hassan et al. (2013) with slight modification . In the first M-ARMS-A reaction, allele specific primers for four mutations IVS 1-5 (G > C), Cd 41/42 (−TTCT), Cd 17 (A > T) and Cd 26 (G > A) were multiplexed, while IVS 1-1 (G > T), Cd 8/9 (+G), −28 (A > G) and Cd 71/72 (+A) mutations were amplified in M-ARMS-B reaction. In the third M-ARMS-C reaction, alleles IVS 1-1 (G > A), Cd 43 (G > T), Cd 16 (−C), and Poly A (A > G) were multiplexed, while M-ARMS-D had allele-specific primers targeted at −88 (C > T), initiation codon (ATG > AGG), Cd 15 (G > A) and −29 (A > G) mutations. Finally, allele specific primers used in M-ARMS-E reaction were to screen mutations −86 (C > G), Cd 19 (A > G) and Cap + 1 (A > C) . IVS 2-654 (C > T) was tested in a separate ARMS reaction.
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The geographic origin of T. infestans has been hypothesized to be the Andean valleys in Bolivia, either in Cochabamba (Usinger et al., 1966; Panzera et al., 2004; Bargues et al., 2006) or the area of Sucre-Vallegrande-Potosı´ (Dujardin et al., 1998; Giordano et al., 2005). The main evidence supporting this hypothesis was that these areas were thought to support the only known sylvatic populations, while reports of the species elsewhere surfaced only in domestic/peridomestic areas. The subsequent discovery of sylvatic populations elsewhere challenged this view (Noireau et al., 2005; Bacigalupo et al., 2006, 2010; Ceballos et al., 2009; Noireau, 2009; Buitrago et al., 2010). Although molecular studies have generally suggested a Bolivian Andean origin of T. infestans, those studies remain inconclusive. For example, phylogeographic studies recovered two reciprocally monophyletic groups of T. infestans (Monteiro et al., 1999; Bargues et al., 2006; Piccinali et al., 2009), and Bolivian populations were not basal (as expected for an ancestral group). Older alleles have a greater probability of being interior haplotypes in intraspeciﬁc gene genealogies (Posada and Crandall, 2001). Our phylogeographic haplotype network showed that samples from Bolivia were peripheral, suggesting a low probability that they represent the location of ancestral popula- tions. Although one of our simulations (assuming a higher effective population size) did not reject the hypothesis that samples from Bolivia represent the ancestral group, results tend to favor the hypothesis that samples from Bolivia clustered with Peru´ and northern Chile. Alternative hypotheses may explain these results: (1) The origin of T. infestans was not Cochabamba, but instead elsewhere in Bolivia, as previously postulated (Dujardin et al., 1998; Giordano et al., 2005). Dujardin et al. (1998) postulated Sucre (and nearby areas) as the geographical origin of the species. Giordano et al. (2005) found a haplotype from
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The poverty-reduction potential of agriculture as well as is a principal theme of the World Development Report 2008, though the report also emphasizes the growing importance of non-farm rural activities. None of the noted evaluations of agricultural policies in Mexico includes an analysis of rural/agricultural labor markets. This remains one of the least studied aspects of the rural economy in Mexico (see Esquivel 2009 for a recent research outline of this area), and has important policy implications in the present context, as the regressive concentration of subsidies in the richer, northern state producers has often been rationalized by the claim that these subsidies “trickle down” to the poor through agricultural labor markets. However, given the compensatory rather than productive objectives in the design and allocation of most of these subsidies, these have tended to favor established large-scale, capital-intensive grain production, rather than the development of more labor-intensive fruit and vegetable production. There is no evidence of positive employment effects of agricultural subsidies at the state level. Over the last decade agricultural employment has declined significantly in most states, but disproportionately so in those receiving the larger subsidy shares (section 5.3).
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Scientists generally record geographic data as a regular array of values of one o more ob- servations over some area. Nevertheless they gather it with dierent remote sensing platforms (typically satellite or airborne methods), the aim had been to get graphic representations show- ing the interaction between surfaces and spatial lines which own, by convention, a particular geological meaning; in other words, a Topographical Map .
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In 2014, both Resolutions were reinforced with the implementation of a National System of Occupational Risk Prevention Management  (SGP), again forcing employers to perform self-audits on the risk prevention management of their businesses to reduce occupational accident rates through the identification, measurement, evaluation and control of the existing workplace risks .
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In Latin America, in the last two decades, the threat that exotic species represent is starting to be noticed. Therefore, it is important to research about exotic birds in urban and modified environments, since these spe- cies typically reach them due to the great variety of re- sources that these places provide (Eguchi and Amano, 2004; Butler, 2005; Garcia del Rey, 2007; Runde et al., 2007). For instance, the European starling (Sturnus vul- garis), was introduced in 1890 in the New York city, it has now colonized most of North America (except north zones; Sibley, 2000), from Canada to the Mexico Central (Coffey 1959; How- ell and Webb, 1995). Due to the invasive potential that some species can have, it is necessary to perform an opportune detection of their presence in new locations, follow their popu- lations and carry out action of prevention or control (CANEI, 2010; Pineda-Lopez and Malagamba, 2011a). In this re- spect, this study reports the presence of twelve species of exotic
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J.F. Martínez-Montoya, J. Herrero-Isern, J. Aceves-de Alba, J. Palacio-Núñez, V.M. Ruiz- Vera, and G. Olmos-Oropeza. 2012. Approximation of the surface of gypseous soils in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Cien. Inv. Agr. 39(3): 545-556. The gypseous soils of San Luis Potosí State, México, are not well map-delimited, despite their broad extent and the specific agricultural and environmental management they require. The present article highlights the location and extent of the gypseous lands in the Altiplano and Zona Media of San Luis Potosí State. For this purpose, soil, geology and vegetation maps as well as studies related to gypsum-rich soils, aerial photographs, and satellite maps (termed ‘espaciomapas’ in Spanish, these refer to Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images of Red-Green-Blue:432 composition printed at 1:250,000 scale) were reviewed. Additionally, field and laboratory work were carried out. The maps provided by the Commission for Studies of the National Territory (CETENAL) proved very useful during the mapping process, especially as an initial reference to the presence of this soil type. The gypseous surface extent (397,258 ha) delineated in this study is double that (193,907 ha) reported in the CETENAL cartography at 1:50,000 scale. Moreover, areas with shallow gypsum, i.e., a gypseous horizon occurring at a depth of less than 50 cm, were discriminated from areas with deep gypsum (termed shallow and deep gypsum phases, respectively). This distinction between shallow and deep gypsum phases is very useful for resource management planning. The maps produced serve as a reference for specific studies aimed at evaluating the suitability of land for production or environmental purposes at large scales, in which case more detailed mapping will be required.
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Abstract. Mammillaria pectinifera is an endangered cactus endemic to the Tehuacán Valley. In the mid-1990s, 6 localities with few individuals were known. This information was crucial for protecting the species through national and international legal instruments. To enhance the knowledge on its geographic distribution and conservation status, exploratory expeditions were made: first throughout ecological areas similar to those known with existing populations, and later based on a predictive model of geographic distribution. Results show that the species is composed by at least 31 localities and a much larger number of individuals, and suggest the need of stronger emphasis on exploration with the best available methods and tools in order to assess the distribution, abundance and pressure on a slightly conspicuous species. In spite of the substantial increase in localities, and considering the fact that 55% of them are within the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, the cactus is under high anthropogenic pressure, suggesting that the species is vulnerable to disappearing in some localities if deterioration rates of its habitat are not reduced in the short term.
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