Groundwater is the major source of water in Jordan for different purposes, including domestic, agricultural, and industrial. However, because of the rapid development of living standards, high population growth, and massive migrations in the region, the demand of water has increased dramatically. This has led to depletion of groundwater resources and saltwater intrusion deteriorating its quality (El-Naqa and Al-Shayeb, 2009; MWI, 2001). The problem is intensified by the fact that Jordan is a water-poor country. The present study was initiated to assess the quality of B4 aquifer which forms the upper most aquifer of the study area. More specifically, the study is focused on assessing: (1) groundwater pollution in the vicinity of Al Ramtha Wastewater Treatment Plant (RWWTP) using pollution indicators, mainly nitrate, and (2) the impacts of RWWTP on the underlying groundwater quality.
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Present day environmental researches should not only study scientific or technical aspects but also try to inte- grate environmental aspects. Water in the region is a fragile natural resource, first because of its scarcity and second because of the threats to its quality. Every year the ab- straction from the lake increases and so does the use of fertilizer and pesticides in the agricultural areas. A sub- stantial part of these products ends up in the lake waters thus contaminating it. These contaminated waters are used again for irrigation and once more will return to the lake with added contamination. It has been seen from the model solution that lake waters are flowing into the aquifer in some parts of the area. In that situation the groundwater quality may become affected by such products. This has implications not only for agricultural activities in the zone but also for human health because among the numerous water wells in the area, some are used for human con- sumption. Agricultural development in the area is likely to increase in the coming years and the same holds for water consumption. This situation will inevitably lead to higher water abstraction from both lake and aquifer and there- fore a decrease in groundwater levels is to be expected in the aquifer. If this is the case the model results show that more water will flow from the lake into the aquifer. Moreover, due to the variability in climatic conditions of the catchment this scenario might be even worse.
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The Handbook looks at several aspects of the relationship between wetlands and groundwater, notably: the role of groundwater in maintaining wetland character and wetland ecosystem services; the role of wetlands in groundwater recharge and discharge; and the management of impacts on wetlands of changes in groundwater quality and quantity. As the Handbook makes clear, many wetlands worldwide have close associations with groundwater but these relationships are often complex and varied, in both space and time. Even for wetlands of similar type and surface appearance, some can be highly dependent on groundwater for their maintenance whilst others are wholly fed by surface waters, depending on their underlying geomorphology and its permeability. Furthermore, the same wetland can at different times and seasons be fed by groundwater and at other times by surface waters, which in turn may, through the wetland, recharge underlying groundwater aquifers. It is thus essential that wetland and water managers understand if and how groundwater systems function in relation to specific wetlands and river basins, and new knowledge and techniques are now becoming available to support improved quantification of the hydrological and ecological links between groundwater bodies and their associated wetland ecosystems. Without this understanding, managers risk making incorrect decisions on water and wetland management if these are based solely upon surface water relationships.
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Natural sources will always contribute some organic compounds to groundwater, often at low levels. Natural organic matter comprises water-soluble compounds of a rather complex nature having a broad range of chemical and physical properties. Typically, natural organic matter in groundwater is composed of humic substances (mostly fulvic acids) and non-humic materials, e.g. proteins, carbohydrates, and hydrocarbons (Thurman, 1985; Stevenson, 1994). While natural organic matter is a complex, heterogeneous mixture, it can be characterized according to size, structure, functionality, and reactivity. Natural organic matter can originate from terrestrial sources (allochthonous natural organic matter) and/or algal and bacterial sources within the water (autochthonous natural organic matter). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is considered to be a suitable parameter for quantifying organic matter present in groundwater; however, DOC is a bulk organic quality parameter and does not provide specific identification data and may also incorporate organic compounds arising from human activity. Natural organic matter, although considered benign, may still indirectly influence groundwater quality. For example, contaminants may bind to organic-matter colloids allowing their facilitated transport within groundwater, a process proposed (but not proven) to be of most significance for the more highly sorbing organic compounds. Also, routine chlorination of water supplies containing natural organic matter may form disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes. However, because of their low direct health relevance, natural organic substances are not addressed further herein.
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In recent years, groundwater quality has been deteriorating in many parts of Jordan as result of agriculture expansion, solid waste disposal, and industrialization. A preliminary assessment of vulnerability to groundwater contamination in Russeifa watershed area was undertaken because of the presence of the largest solid waste disposal site in Jordan, which is known as Russeifa landfi ll. The major geological and hydrogeological factors that affect and control groundwater contamination were incorporated into the DRASTIC model, to produce groundwater vulnerability and risk maps. Moreover, a Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydrogeological data. The fi nal DRASTIC index indicated that the area surrounding the Russeifa landfi ll is highly vulnerable to groundwater contamination.
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Groundwater is a valuable resource, supplying ~20% of the water for agriculture, industry and municipalities worldwide, and the main source of drinking water in most of Europe, 40% in the USA and 70% in China; it is also important for the ecology. Its exploitation is controlled by the low flow rates in the vast subsurface water reservoirs, and the long residence times. This major water resource is threatened increasingly by intense use and by contamination. Careful management is required to check the intense use, while prevention and remediation are necessary to ensure good groundwater quality. Basis for the study of groundwater are geology, hydrology, hydraulics and geochemistry, all contributing towards a competent analysis of complex groundwater problems. This chapter presents tools for a first study of flow and of mass transport in aquifers. Elements of Porous Media (PM) Physics
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A principal component analysis (PCA) of groundwater quality indices was performed, and the data were analyzed using standard methods. The graphic software Origin Pro version 9.1. was used to evaluate index correlations and yearly change. The PCA is based on combination of linear variables with maximum variance within data set. This analysis describes vectors that meet a number of observations within a specified dimensional space, and are orthogonal to each other (Ng, 2009). Principal components with high eigenvalues and compris- ing variables with high factor loading are those that better represent the system features. Hence, the principal components with eigenvalues >1 and factor loading >10% were chosen (Brejda et al., 2000). Pearson's correlation coefficients resulting from principal component analysis were used to determine strength of the relationship between calculated groundwater quality indices (Andrews and Carroll, 2001).
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Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos bibliográficos médicos de Pubmed, SciELO, Hinari, Cochrane, ClinicalKey y CUMED durante los meses de junio y julio del 2015. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó las palabras claves: quality of life and pelvic organ prolapse, quality of life and urinary incontinence, quality of life and fecal incontinence, sexual changes in pelvic floor disorders, quality of life questionnaire for pelvic floor disorders, health related quality of life and pelvic organ prolapse, con sus respectivas traducciones al español para los buscadores SciELO y CUMED. En la búsqueda realizada se especificó como límites a los artículos en idioma inglés y español publicados desde el año 2006 en adelante.
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In addition, Houston (2008) maintains that organized activities, such as teaching, research, and service, are seen as means to improve learning, to contribute to academia, and to serve societies. Likewise, QAA processes are expected to serve similar purposes; however, these are seen as ends in themselves when controlled by the state (Houston, 2008). For QAA processes to serve institutions, the following questions must be considered: Do institutions have the capacity and adequate resources to undertake these processes? Are structures in place to facilitate the process? Who has the authority to define the scope and boundaries of the analyses? How would the process serve various interest groups? With these questions in mind, Filipakou and Tapper (2008); Matimbo (2016); and Welsh and Dey (2002) embrace quality enhancement as an institutional property that is shaped by stakeholders, such as faculty, staff, administrators, students, employers, and others at the institutional level, as a means for ongoing improvement and creation of a culture of quality in universities. On the contrary, Babury and Hayward (2014) and Hayward (2015) clearly state that QAA in Afghanistan is a top-down process, which requires all HEIs to undergo the accreditation process.
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Education theory has evolved considerably over the past decades and now encompasses a wealth of approaches, strategies, and research findings that can be applied to the pursuit of quality. Philosophically, social constructivism, embraced by Kiraly (2000) for translator training, empowers the individual and contributes to forming independent and self-reliant future professionals that strive for quality and recognize it when presented with it. The so- called learner-centeredness with its focus on persons and their abilities rather than content knowledge reflects the current interest in competence and skills, much better warrants of quality than pure knowledge. Learning styles take account of individual differences and can guide students in discovering and working on their strengths and weaknesses, translator or interpreter, project manager or team translator, free-lance producer or employed terminology harmonizer. Only in a learning style compatible work environment can top quality be achieved. Collaborative learning prepares students for future team assignments and promotes consensus as to what quality means. Reflective learning helps students examine their own progress and relationship to quality. The ultimate goal would be the construction of a sense of self- efficacy with a view to resources, skills, and quality work. Motivation, however, one of the all-time ingredients of successful teaching, is probably one of the best stimuli for quality performance or the production of quality work.
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Regarding the first pillar, there exists research that deals with quality views and quality models. An example is the standard ISO 25010 , where different quality views and their ‘influences’ and ‘depends on’ relationships are presented. However, the explicit meaning of the quality view concept is missing. Rather, it outlines quality views in the context of a system quality lifecycle model, where each view can be evaluated by means of the quality models that the standard propose. Another initiative related to quality views is analyzed in  in which just the ‘influences’ relationship between EQ and QinU characteristics is determined by means of Bayesians networks, taking as reference the ISO 9126-1 standard superseded by . However, it does not discuss a holistic quality evaluation approach that links quality views with ME/MEC strategies, as we propose. Finally, in  the 2Q2U quality framework is proposed. This framework extends the quality models defined in  and considers the ‘influences’ and ‘depends on’ relationships for three quality views. But the explicit quality view component as we propose in this paper is missing. Also, the 2Q2U quality models were instantiated using an integrated strategy called SIQinU . SIQinU is an instance of one of the strategy patterns we propose in Section 5.
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a person responsible for its management, and confirmation to customer about the initiation of the resolution process, the customer is more likely to perceive that the company diligently attempting to solve the problem. Homburg & Fürst (2005, 2010) show that the quality of the norms established by the company for the complaint management process positively affect customers’ evaluations. Accordingly, we posit that the existence of a well-defined protocol of action by the organization, with an adequate allocation of tasks and responsible personnel for its implementation, can improve customers’ perception of justice to the extent that a competent and user-friendly complaint management system conveys a sense of security and confidence to customers. Conversely, procedures that are inconsistent or arbitrary, especially those that cause disruption to the customer, can contribute to a higher cost for customers and lower their assessment of justice (Tax et al. 1998). Given this discussion, we state our next hypothesis:
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customer’s point of connection. Moreover, a guaranteed high quality of voltage supply requires large investments in the network. Among various PQ problems, mainly harmonics in the network often interact adversely with the network components and cause inconveniences to the network operators. The operations of power electronic devices produce harmonic currents that lead to additional harmonic power flow and increase network’s total apparent power demand while decrease true power factor of the network. Large harmonic current can also cause overloading and extra power losses in the network components. In extreme cases, it can lead to high thermal stresses and early ageing of the network devices. Imposing penalties to the harmonic producing customers is not presently feasible because of the lack of proper measuring devices. Harmonic currents when combined with high grid impedance increases voltage distortions in the network and in extreme situation can shift zero-crossing points of the supply voltage waveform. This increases noise and electromagnetic interference in the network. Transformers, cables and power-factor correction (PFC) capacitors are the network components that mainly get affected by PQ disturbances and are discussed briefly in the following sub-sections.
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high values of specific yield and hydraulic conductivity (0.010 to 0.30 and 0.2 to 20 m/d respectively). Furthermore, as a consequence of the predominance of this type of soil, the estimated drainage increases in the vicinity of the San Pedro River, which is likely enhanced by extensive agricultural practices in this area due to the high return volume of irrigation water to the subsoil. Conversely, the regions with the lowest estimated rates of GWR, located at the north and south boundaries of the valley, as well as in the metropolitan area of the city of Aguascalientes, is attributed to the large discharge of groundwater that lowers water levels and consequently thickens the vadose zone and results in reduced levels of estimated recharge. Also, possibly contributing to the reduced estimates of recharge is, the presence of sandstones and conglomerates exhibiting a low specific yield and small hydraulic head variations. Interestingly, these low recharge areas are where the highest calculated contributions by drainage occur. Clearly, the high drainage does not appear to make a significant difference in the general estimation of recharge.
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A SRS is considered organized if its content is organized, that is, readers can easily locate information and logical relationships between adjacent sections are evident [2, 12,13,20]. According to Davis et al. , to achieve a useful organization: 1) a stan- dard must be followed, and 2) one of the five organizational models must be used: group the functional requirements by user class, common stimulus, common response, feature or object. Some authors define the quality property Organized [2,12,13,20] and others only describe it as a required feature for achieving other quality attributes, such as Modifiable .
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Cada entidad en una geodatabase ArcHydro debe tener un identificador que es único en toda la geodatabase, no sólo dentro de una clase de entidad. Este identificador único se llama el HydroIDs. El HydroIDs se utiliza para construir relaciones entre las clases y/o tablas de características. Por ejemplo, vamos a utilizar los hydroIDs de los pozos para las mediciones de nivel de agua correspondientes en la tabla TimeSeries. En un proyecto típico, normalmente se utiliza la herramienta Assign HydroID GW en el conjunto de herramientas de Groundwater Analyst para generar HydroIDs únicas para las nuevas características. Esta herramienta requiere algunos pasos adicionales para relacionar los pozos a los datos de series de tiempo que vamos a importar en el siguiente paso. Por lo tanto, con el fin de mantener este tutorial sencillo vamos a copiar los valores en el campo hydroCode al campo HydroID. Esto dará lugar a IDs único para este ejercicio. Para copiar los valores :
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Second, we also look at the number of well operators that are selling water and water deliv- ery conditions. Shah (2000) suggested that when wells are sunk in a fairly dense manner, and when there are lined conveyance structures in a village, there is less of a probability that a single seller will have monopoly power and that the price of water will be relatively more com- petitive. Using this approach with our survey data, we ﬁnd that in almost all villages, there are many tubewell operators selling water, not only just one. On average, in each village, there are 18 tubewells (and 13 private ones) and more than 70% of the private tubewells are selling water. Furthermore, the adoption rate of sur- face pipe (or hoses) in groundwater irrigation regions of northern China (i.e., the use of eﬃ- ciency-enhancing conveyance technologies) is common. Our survey found that more than 70% of tubewell owners are using surface pipes to deliver water. The adoption of surface pipes greatly increased the ability of farmers to choose tubewells from which they want to buy water. Therefore, based on these analyses, it seems that groundwater markets in northern China almost certainly are not monopolistic.
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Recent findings on intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy in social psychology indicate that enjoyment plays important roles in determining a person’s behavior. Davis et al  put enjoyment followed the construct of perceived ease to use. As staff has to sacrifice their personal time to learn at home, the user will look for more pleasure on using the e-learning course based on the opportunity cost concept. Hence, it is proposed that enjoyment should be the precedent construct to perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the model and should have more coverage than the construct of confirmation as suggested by Bhattacherjee  in this case. According to DeLone and Mclean  and Seddon  on IS Success Model, the construct of system quality, information quality and service quality would affect user satisfaction. In combining the recent theoretical developments, the following framework is proposed to understand how individuals will continue to use the business and management e-learning courses:
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development of design plans. The procedure ensures all the required elements are effectively incorporated into the project. The Quality Assurance (QA) consists of 5 distinct stages at which an independent team comprehensively reviews the content and accuracy of the plans and proposal. The four stages are the Scope Verification Meeting, the Plan Review Meeting, the Omissions and Errors Check (OEC) Meeting, and the Final Project Turn-in as shown below. All projects do not require each of the 5 stages. For instance, a Base Plan Review is not required on any projects. To determine the process required on a project, reference should be made to the Table titled “QA/QC Review Process by Template”. In addition, the complete project development network should be reviewed for a thorough understanding of the entire plan development process.
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This article has several implications for institutions and quality assurance practitioners. As discussed in the beginning of this article, some have argued that quality is indefinable; however, given the increasing public and governmental interest in quality in higher education, this argument may no longer be acceptable. Institutions must be able to provide evidence to support claims of quality, which often includes systematic assessment of quality. One must be able to define quality in order to assess it. As shown in Table 3, the authors have recommendations for defining quality and quality assurance depending on the existing state of quality initiatives at an institution. The aim of the recommendations for definition quality and quality assurance is to meet institutions and quality assurance practitioners where they are in an effort to help them bring greater clarity and alignment to existing quality assurance practices. In addition, the recommendations must be considered in the context of institutional mission and existing cultural, regulatory, and political environments.
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