Results: Swelling was increased as the concentration and viscosity of HPMC increases. Tablets formulated using guargum and HPMC alone were gave initial burst effect followed by controlled release for 8 hr. It was evident from the study that the formulationsF7,F8 &F9 have optimum swelling index and in vitro drug release up to 44% in 8hrs. The stability studies of optimized batch showed that there was no change in hardness, swelling index and in-vitro release up to 12 weeks.
Theophylline controlled release matrix tablets were prepared with guargum in two ratios and with three different hardness of 5, 6 and 7kg/cm 2 . Theophylline controlled release granules were prepared and evaluated for the angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and hausners ratio. All the formulation showed good flow properties. The compressed tablets were evaluated for the hardness, uniformity of weight, friability, drug content and invitro dissolution studies. All the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopial standards. There was no interaction between drug, polymer and other excipients. It was confirmed by FTIR studies. Among all the formulations F6 (i.e. polymer ratio1:2 and hardness 7kg/cm 2 ) showed prolong release when compare to other formulations. The drug release kinetics showed zero order. The optimum formulation (F6) was stable when it was stored at 4 0 + 2 0 C, 28 0 + 2 0 C and at 45 0 + 2 0 C for 6 months.
Internal turbulent flows are commonly found in industrial applications in fluid transport. This flow regime is associated with additional energy losses in relation to the laminar flow due to the existence of complex dissipative structures in the flow and to the greater friction suffered by the flow with the internal walls of the pipe. In order to maintain this flow regime, the main flow must supply energy from the pumping unit. Reducing the demand for energy to promote internal turbulent flows can be done by the injection of drag reducing additives, usually polymeric in nature. In the studied condition the polymers undergo mechanical degradation and lose the ability to promote drag reduction over time. Studies indicate that the drag reduction may be related to the flexibility of the polymer and the size of the macromolecules of the additive used, which can interact with the vortices and reduce energy dissipation. In this study, the aqueous solution of the guargum polysaccharide 400 ppm was subjected to a turbulent flow regime with the objective of monitoring, in an experimental plant, molecular degradation, drag reduction and energy demand. For this purpose, solution samples were removed during two hours of flow and the polysaccharide was isolated for characterization of the degradation. FTIR and NMR spectroscopy suggest that the mechanical degradation occurs with the hydrolysis of the α (1 → 6) bond of the main chain with (D) -galactose due to the appearance of the carbonyl functional group. Thermal analysis revealed a decrease in the thermal stability of the polysaccharide by the decrease of the polymer chain. Finally, the understanding of this mechanism aims at the use of more efficient polymers in the reduction of drag and the decrease of the demand of energy in pumping processes that use these drag reducing macromolecules. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid state nuclear
In recent years, different additives have been used in WBMs to improve their rheological and filtration properties. Among them, natural polymers (starch, isolate soy protein, arabic gum, guargum, diutam gum, welan gum, xanthan gum-XGD-, polyanionic cellulose-PAC-, tamarind gum, scleroglucan, chitin, and others cellulose derivates) (Caenn and Chillingar 1996; Carico and Bagshaw 1978; Ezell et al. 2010; Gao 2015; Hamed and Belhadri 2009; Iscan and Kok 2007; Jang et al. 2015; Li et al. 2015a, 2018; Mahto and Sharma 2004; Menezes et al. 2010; Navarrete et al. 2000, 2001; Olatunde et al. 2012; Robert and Baker 1974; Villada et al. 2017; Warren et al. 2003) synthetic polymers (polyacrylamide and polyacry- lates) (Nunes et al. 2014; Yan et al. 2013), and inorganic nanoparticles (graphene, graphite, nanosil- ica, carbon nanotube, and metallic oxides) (Barry et al. 2015; Cheraghian et al. 2013; Fazelabdolabadi et al. 2014; Ismail et al. 2016; Kosynkin et al. 2011; Nasser et al. 2013; Sayyadnejad et al. 2008; Sensoy et al. 2009; Sharma et al. 2012) have been extensively investigated. Currently, many studies have been reported on the development of new formulations for high performance WBMs, from environmental, eco- nomic, and performance points of view. In this sense, the use of polymers from renewable and biodegrad- able sources that also exhibit good properties and low cost represent a promising alternative. The potential uses of lignocellulosic sources in the development of novel, high value-added products have generated enormous interest not only in the academic commu- nity but also in the industry (Li et al. 2015b; Xu et al. 2013).
This study provides relevant information on hydrocolloids extracted from pulp and seed of the Hymenaea courbaril fruit, harvested in Mexico. The chemical characteristics of both hydrocolloids show a high content of carbohydrates and fiber that contribute significantly to the delay of the hydrolysis of starch and the diffusion of glucose. The func- tional characteristics of SH are similar to guargum, so it could be proposed as an interesting alternative for its application as a stabilizing agent. Additionally, the low viscosity and high solubility of the PH together with its rheological behavior suggest its incorporation in food systems such as juices, drinks and emulsions and SH in the formulation of edible films.
The objective of the research was to evaluate the incidence of percentages of guargum and passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis) in the physicochemical and organoleptic quality of the nectar to establish the ideal formulation; a completely randomized design (DCA) was used in a bifactorial arrangement A * B (3*2) with three replicates per treatment, as factors were used factor A rubber percentages with 3 levels (0.2%, 0.3%; 0.4%), for the B percentage of passion fruit juice used in 2 levels (15%, 20%), the viscosity, density, pH, sensory, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and microbiological parameters were evaluated. The results showed that the factor A was statistically significant for the variables pH and viscosity but not in density, the B factor was not statistically significant. The best treatment was T4 (0.3% guargum and 20% juice) with pH
There is relatively little research respect to the e ﬀ ect of polymeric additives on the rheological behavior of WBMs. Several WBMs based on aqueous solutions containing bentonite, barite, polymers (XGD, PAC, starch, carboxyl methyl cellulose, acrylamide, scleroglucan, guargum) and electrolytes (Iscan and Kok, 2007; Hamed and Belhadri, 2009; Khodja et al., 2010b; Olatunde et al., 2011; Wan et al., 2011; Zhong et al., 2012; Fakoya and Shah, 2013; Vipulanandan and Mohammed, 2014; Jang et al., 2015; Ziaee et al., 2015) were investigated. Khodja et al. (2010b) studied the rheological and ﬁltration characteristics of WBMs prepared with XGD, PAC, PHPA and electrolytes used for shale formations of Algeria. In spite of the important e ﬀ ect of the polymers on the physicochemical and rheological properties of the WBMs, no pub- lication has been found regarding WBMs used of shale formations of Argentina.
2. Estabilización de Helados: los postres congelados se han estabilizado de manera efectiva con goma guar. Las propiedades de hidratación y capacidad de ligar agua le han dado un uso muy importante en estabilización de helado; particularmente para usarse en procesamiento por alta temperatura y corto tiempo (HTST). En estos métodos “rápidos” para la manufactura de las mezclas de helado, las condiciones de proceso reclaman generalmente temperaturas del orden de 170-180 ºF durante 25- 30 segundos, que requieren hidrocoloides capaces de desarrollar su hidratación completa en un ciclo de procesos muy corto.
Background: A number of studies with conflicting results have evaluated the effect of chewing gum on post-operative gastrointestinal recovery in patients after major colorectal surgery. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the efficacy of chewing gum in patients with rectal cancer after elective open proctectomy only. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. We recruited patients who would undergo elective open proctectomy for rectal cancer in Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital. Patients in the intervention arm received chewing gum 3 times a day postoperatively. All patients in the trial were placed on the same perioperative management and standardized post-operative care plans. The primary outcome was time to the first peristalsis sounds, time to first flatus and the first defecation. Results: A total of 89 patients were recruited. The time to the first flatus was 42.33 ± 3.46 h in the gum group and 49.20 ± 1.42 h in the control group (p < 0.05). The time to the first defecation was significantly shorter in the gum-chewing group than in the control group (66.07 ± 2.36 vs. 78.37 ± 1.62 h; p < 0.05). Post-operative ileus (POI) was confirmed in 2 patients in the gum-chewing group and in 7 in the control group (7.0% vs. 23.9%; p = 0.028). Discussion: The present study suggests that chewing gum is a method to reduce the time to first flatus, time to first defecation and POI in patients undergoing elective open proctectomy for rectal cancer.
extruded flour was the system where the presence of the gums had less impact on the properties of the final gels. All this in agreement with the results obtained from the pasting curves above. Contradictory data regarding viscoelasticity can be found in the literature, depending on the type of starch and probably the way the gels were prepared. The addition of up to 3% hydrocolloids such as pectin, HPMC, gum Arabic and konjac gum has been shown to decrease the G’ and G” values of wheat/potato starch gel mixtures (Varela, et al., 2016). Earlier, the presence of xanthan, as in the present case, has been shown to reduce the gel strength of corn starch in agreement with an inhibition of the formation of a strong network probably due to coating of starch by xanthan, also substantially reducing starch retrogradation (Christianson, 1982). Later on, a more rapid initial increase in gel firmness, but a decrease in firmness and elastic behavior upon extended storage was also found for maize starch+ xanthan systems (Alloncle & Doublier, 1991). Subsequent studies have also reported an increase of G’ values, with the addition of guar and xanthan gum to tapioca starch (Chaisawang, et al., 2006) or to waxy corn starch (Achayuthakan, et al., 2008).
Patients were divided in two groups: (i) A: gum-chew- ing group, and (ii) B: patients who had standard post- operative recovery. Group A patients began to chew sorbitol-free gum within the first 24 hours after sur- gery, for 15 minutes every four hours throughout their hospital stay, with six resting hours at night. Nurses of each patient supervised the chewing gum adminis- tration protocol, whenever it was indicated. Patients from group B received no further intervention. Both groups were compared in terms of serum albumin levels, hemoglobin, ASA scale (American Society of Anesthesiology), and comorbidities. The primary end- points were the presence of ileus, time for the first flatus, and hospital stay. The presence of nausea, vom- iting, abdominal distension, oral tolerance at 72 hours, postoperative complications, and mortality were also analyzed. Patients were deemed to have POI when they had absence of adequate bowel function on postop- erative day 5, or the need for the insertion of a naso- gastric tube because of abdominal distension, nausea, and emesis after having started a liquid diet, in the absence of mechanical obstruction 17 . The passage of
Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the effect of xanthan gum (XG) on the gelation process of bovine sodium caseinate (NaCAS) induced by acidification with glucono- δ -lactone (GDL) and on the mixed acid gel microstructure. Before GDL addition, segregative phase separation was observed in all the NaCAS-XG mixtures evaluated. The gelation process was analyzed by using a fractional factorial experimental design. The images of the microstructure of the mixed acid gels were obtained by conventional optical microscopy and the mean diameter of the interstices was determined. Both the elastic character and the microstructure of the gels depended on the concentrations of XG added. As XG concentration increased, the kinetics of the gelation process was modified and the degree of compactness and elasticity component of the gel network increased. The microstructure of gels depends on the balance among thermodynamic incompatibility, protein gelation and NaCAS-XG interactions.
Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de dos hidrocoloides (goma xantana y goma guar) a dos concentraciones (0.3 y 0.5%, 1.0 y 1.5%) y tres tiempos de almacenamiento (0, 3 y 6 días) sobre la firmeza instrumental, contenido de humedad, volumen específico y aceptabilidad general en pan tipo pita integral. Las pruebas estadísticas para las variables paramétricas y no paramétricas se realizaron con un nivel de confianza del 95%. La prueba de Levene modificada demostró homogeneidad de varianzas. El análisis de varianza indicó un efecto significativo de la adición de goma guar y tiempo de almacenamiento sobre la firmeza instrumental, adición de goma xantana y tiempo de almacenamiento sobre el contenido de humedad, y la adición de goma xantana, goma guar y tiempo de almacenamiento sobre el volumen específico. La prueba de Duncan determinó que la adición de goma xantana al 0.5% y goma guar al 1.0% y tiempo de almacenamiento de 6 días permitió obtener el menor valor de firmeza instrumental con 6.26 N y valores similares de humedad (38.42%) al tratamiento control a los 3 días de almacenamiento con 39.90%. Asimismo, con 0.3% de goma xantana, 1.0% de goma guar y 0.5% de goma xantana, 1.0% de goma guar permitieron obtener los valores de volumen específico 4.75 y 4.82 cm 3 /g respectivamente al día 6
stabilizer gum xanthan gum to 2% and 3% respectively, reflected in the stability and viscosity, relevant parameters in this research; This research revealed significant differences between their two best treatments, with the exception of the stability that showed high significance. Concerning organoleptic variables determined by mean sof an affective test using a five-point hedonic scale test, comparing the best treatments such as A 1 B 2 and A 1 B 3 against a witness which did not contain any rubber showing
el objetivo del presente estudio, es estimar la incertidumbre en la medición del área total de un triángulo aplicando la guía de estimación de la incertidumbre GUM ISO 1995 y utilizando el programa de cálculo simbólico MAPLe 11. La medición la realizó un grupo de 10 estudiantes de la maestría en Química y Gestión de la Calidad, utilizando el mismo objeto de medición y el mismo instrumento de medición. Se derivó el modelo matemático, se identificaron los componentes de las incertidumbres a través del diagrama de causa-efecto, se calcularon los coeficientes de sensibilidad utilizando el programa de cálculo simbólico Maple 11, se elaboró un balance de las incertidumbres y un diagrama de Pareto donde se reflejan las variables que más influyen en la incertidumbre del mensurando. Se calcularon las incertidumbres combinada y expandida con un factor de cobertura igual a t al 95% de nivel de confianza y 22 grados de libertad efectivos. Finalmente, se evaluó el intervalo de confianza, encontrándose un valor de (50.72 ± 0.39) cm 2 . La incertidumbre expandida relativa fue menor del 1%, indicando buena precisión en el proceso
Tabel 5 menunjukkan bahwa variasi rasio bahan penstabil CMC dan gum arab berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap rasa velva alpukat. Penilaian sensori secara deskriptif yang dilakukan oleh 35 orang panelis semi terlatih terhadap rasa velva alpukat berkisar antara 4,03-4,46 (berasa alpukat). Hal ini disebabkan karena CMC dan gum arab merupakan jenis hidrokoloid yang tidak berasa . Menurut fardiaz (1989) CMC dan gum arab termasuk golongan hidrokoloid yang tidak berasa. Rasa velva alpukat yang ditimbulkan oleh buah alpukat, gula dan asam. semantara itu, variasi rasio bahan penstabil CMC dan gum arab tidak memiliki rasa saat ditambahkan dalam adonan velva yang dapat mempengaruhi penilaian panelis.