Health Impact Assessment

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Operational short term health impact assessment of air pollution modelling system over Europe

Operational short term health impact assessment of air pollution modelling system over Europe

The system has been fully operational since the beginning of 2013; results can be visualised at http://ind1.lma.fi.upm.es/eu-health. The system is fully automated, meaning that the entire procedure of running the models and producing the visualisations is controlled by automated scripts. The results are checked every day and we can conclude that results show a high sensitivity to the dynamical meteorology and chemical components in the atmosphere. The impact of air pollution in the mortality is very important (percentages higher than 20% are very common). The system offers an effective and easy tool, helpful in health services organisation and decision-making.
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Intersectoral decision-making skills

Intersectoral decision-making skills

More recently, the contacts with ESAMI were re-established and a process of proposal development has been initiated. This was spurred by the in- creased interest in Health Impact Assessment, particularly at the World Bank. This, in turn, stems from the recognition that its comparative advan- tage in new partnerships such as Roll Back Malaria lies in the unique possi- bilities the World Bank has in ensuring that health safeguards are included in the infrastructure projects for which it provides loans. The start in 1999 of a partnership to promote HIA capacity-building in Africa south of the Sahara is providing new momentum. Its members, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the World Health Organization (headquarters and its Regional Office for Africa), ESAMI and the two WHO collaborating centres involved from the start, the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, currently aim to institutionalize this course by 2002.
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Download the full document: Health impact assessmentpdf, 187kb

Download the full document: Health impact assessmentpdf, 187kb

Environmental Health Activities (CEHA) in Amman, Jordan, is responsible for Environmental Health Impact Assessment as part of its overall mandate in environmental health. The regional Plan of Action for Health and Environment in the Eastern Mediterranean had been adopted by the WHO Regional Committee in 1997. This regional Plan of Action called for an integrated approach to health and enviromental management and, inter alia, referred to promoting the use of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA) as a tool in maintaining healthy development and a healthy environment. Nineteen countries in the EMR had formulated national strategies and plans of action for health and environment. In relation to EHIA, CEHA had organized, at the regional level, one seminar, two workshops and two consultations on the subject. In addition, it had supported 12 national seminars in Member States in the Region. It had established collaborative links with Health Canada, the Canadian Federal Environment Assessment Review Office and Carleton University, as well as with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
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				Determinantes sociales de la salud (inequidades) – situación europea y estímulo para la acción

← Volver a los detalles del artículo Determinantes sociales de la salud (inequidades) – situación europea y estímulo para la acción

Of course, impacts have not halted from affecting peoples’ health as well. A report by the UCL Institute of Health Equity (2012) pointed out that data from past recessions suggest that the likely impacts of economic downturns are more mental health problems, increases in domestic violence and a rise of infectious diseases, as well as higher mortality (20). Particularly, long- term unemployed people show poorer physical and mental health. Data confirm that the EU-27 average of suicides witnessed a decline since 2000, but started to increase in 2008 and 2009, in times of recession (4,33). However, countries with good social protection were able to counteract increases in suicides. Thus, economic downturns without an upward trend in suicides are not inevitable (3). Unfortunately, such welcoming lessons learned are not the rule. A survey in Spain conducted in 2006 and 2010 offered evidence that patients from primary care centres had significant increases in depression, anxiety, somatoform and alcohol-related disorders, which were associated with unemployment and mortgage-payment difficulties (34). Also Greece reported about worsening of mental health problems (4). Unfortunately, the statements of the UCL Institute of Health Equity (2012) (20) were further confirmed, for instance, by Greek infectious diseases data. Particularly HIV infections rose dramatically (3,4). Another Greek study by Zavras, et al., reported about associations between poor self-related health and the economic crisis, too (35). In contrast, fewer road traffic deaths were predicted due to income cuts in households and therefore less car use (3,20). However, as road safety is quite good in many European states, effects were only reported from European countries where road deaths are still common (3,4). To conclude, health impacts of the economic crisis have been considerable, especially in countries such as Greece and Spain. The question is though, whether measures by the governments helped to protect the people or whether they reinforced the widening of health inequities.
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Validez y confiabilidad de la versión española del geriatric oral health assessment index en adultos mayores de la ciudad de Bucaramanga: Prueba piloto

Validez y confiabilidad de la versión española del geriatric oral health assessment index en adultos mayores de la ciudad de Bucaramanga: Prueba piloto

Es importante conocer el impacto que tiene la salud oral sobre la calidad de vida en la población de la tercera edad, ya que la calidad de vida se puede ver afectada por diversos factores, entre esos, problemas estomatognáticos que pueden perjudicar de una manera negativa la salud en general de estos individuos. El presente instrumento no solo evalúa aspectos fisiológicos y de dolor, sino también psicológicos que influyen en la calidad de vida de las personas de la tercera edad. Por eso, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la validez y confiabilidad del instrumento de la versión española del Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) en los adultos mayores institucionalizados de Bucaramanga, asimismo se estableció la consistencia interna del cuestionario. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, de 89 hogares geriátricos, se seleccionaron 3 y se entrevistaron 30 participantes que fueron escogidos por medio de un tipo de muestreo no probabilístico por convenienia. Los resultados evidenciaron una buena confiabilidad del instrumento al evaluar la consistencia interna con el alpha de Cronbach, como también demostró que evalúa una única dimensión que es la Calidad de Vida relacionada con la Salud Oral y se concluyó que ocho de los doce ítems que contiene el GOHAI ajustaron al modelo Rasch. Palabras clave: Adulto mayor, calidad de vida y salud oral.
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Validez y confiabilidad de la versión española del geriatric oral health assessment index en adultos mayores de la ciudad de Bucaramanga: Prueba piloto

VALIDEZ Y CONFIABILIDAD DE LA VERSIÓN ESPAÑOLA DEL GERIATRIC ORAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT INDEX EN ADULTOS MAYORES DE LA CIUDAD DE BUCARAMANGA: PRUEBA PILOTO

Es importante conocer el impacto que tiene la salud oral sobre la calidad de vida en la población de la tercera edad, ya que la calidad de vida se puede ver afectada por diversos factores, entre esos, problemas estomatognáticos que pueden perjudicar de una manera negativa la salud en general de estos individuos. El presente instrumento no solo evalúa aspectos fisiológicos y de dolor, sino también psicológicos que influyen en la calidad de vida de las personas de la tercera edad. Por eso, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la validez y confiabilidad del instrumento de la versión española del Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) en los adultos mayores institucionalizados de Bucaramanga, asimismo se estableció la consistencia interna del cuestionario. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, de 89 hogares geriátricos, se seleccionaron 3 y se entrevistaron 30 participantes que fueron escogidos por medio de un tipo de muestreo no probabilístico por convenienia. Los resultados evidenciaron una buena confiabilidad del instrumento al evaluar la consistencia interna con el alpha de Cronbach, como también demostró que evalúa una única dimensión que es la Calidad de Vida relacionada con la Salud Oral y se concluyó que ocho de los doce ítems que contiene el GOHAI ajustaron al modelo Rasch. Palabras clave: Adulto mayor, calidad de vida y salud oral.
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Ramsar COP11 DR10, Rev.1 Draft Resolution XI.10 , Rev. 1 Wetlands and energy issues

Ramsar COP11 DR10, Rev.1 Draft Resolution XI.10 , Rev. 1 Wetlands and energy issues

16.quart ALSO INVITES the STRP, with inputssupport from Contracting Parties that have already established and adopted such ecological impact criteria for energy generation related to wetlands, and with support from other interested organiszations and Ramsar‟s IOPs, to compile information on approaches and best practices for applying these to establish and implement said approaches and best practices to establish and implement said impact criteria in selection of energy generation sites, and to report to the Standing Committee on the progress of this work, and to submit this for consideration atby COP 12; and
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Foot health-related quality of life among elderly with and without lesser toe deformities: A case–control study

Foot health-related quality of life among elderly with and without lesser toe deformities: A case–control study

(three items), and general foot health (two items). Pain and function assessments were based on physical characteristics, footwear evaluation related to shoes availability and com- fort, and general foot health perception was based on the patients’ self-assessment of their foot state. Each question provided various answers, and a Likert-type ordinal scale (words or phrases corresponding to a numeric scale) was applied. The descriptors for these scales varied for each subscale, and the questionnaire was completed by indicating only one response, whichever was thought to be the most appropriate. A global score was not provided. Nevertheless, an index for the responses of each domain was obtained by a computer program (The FHSQ, Version 1.03). After processing the data, we obtained a score ranging from 0 to 100, where 0 represented the worst state of foot health and 100 represented the best possible state. Furthermore, the software also provided graphical images from the outcomes.
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Background materials concerning environmental and strategic impact assessment

Background materials concerning environmental and strategic impact assessment

3. FURTHER RECALLING Resolution VII.16, which “calls upon Contracting Parties to ensure that any projects, plans, programmes and policies with the potential to alter the ecological character of wetlands on the Ramsar List or impact negatively on other wetlands in their territory, are subjected to rigorous impact assessment procedures and to formalise such procedures under policy, legal, institutional and organizational arrangements”; and which requested “the Scientific and Technical Review Panel and the Ramsar Bureau to work in cooperation with their counterparts from the CBD and other relevant conventions and expert organizations, to review existing guidelines and available information on
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2013 Puente et al Bilingualism and its impact on psychological assessment

2013 Puente et al Bilingualism and its impact on psychological assessment

In order to determine the variables that affect language acquisition in bilinguals a clear understanding has to be evident in the actual biological processes of language. At present there is a lack of available evidence in the existing literature that could create that clear understanding. An example of a recent study that demonstrates the need for clear evidence (Sebastian - Galle s & Bosch, 2002) investigated the impact of bilingualism in acquisition of phontactic information by examining the timing and exposure to a second language. The conclusion was that it remains unclear as to whether phonotactics of a segment can be learnt by not having a segment that is clearly involved. Despite the lack of evidence based literature, there is some research that investigates the age of language acquisition in bilinguals. Hernandez and Li (2007) concluded that sensorimotor learning is an important milestone that determines variables
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Biomedical Scent Detection Dogs: Would They Pass as a Health Technology?

Biomedical Scent Detection Dogs: Would They Pass as a Health Technology?

To be approved as a clinically valid health technology by regulatory bodies, biomedical scent detection has not reached the required standard yet. Whether it will, depends on the crucial research that needs to be done. In the current age of high-tech medical devices competing in the market, setting a realistic target for the canines might speed up the process as it is a race of who has the most clinically effective and cost-effective method first. In order to make biomedical scent detection a reliable health technology, understanding of the canine olfactory learning processes is needed both through a clinical research and psychophysical approach.
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TítuloHelping the family carers of Alzheimer's patients: from theory    to practice: a preliminary study

TítuloHelping the family carers of Alzheimer's patients: from theory to practice: a preliminary study

In general the carers had an improved perception of their health status, illustrated by the fact that they took a greater interest in their own health, with the number of visits to the doctor increasing. They also displayed an awareness that there were certain types of tasks which could impact negatively upon their health and for which they needed to ask for help.

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Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

Resolution X.17 Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance

b) Interventions acting as direct drivers of change. If a proposed intervention is know to produce or contribute to one or more drivers of change with known impact on ecosystem services (see box 3 above), special attention needs to be given to biodiversity. If the intervention area of the policy, plan or programme has not yet been geographically defined (e.g. in the case of a sector policy), the SEA can only define biodiversity impacts in conditional terms: impacts are expected to occur in case the policy, plan or programme will affect certain types of ecosystems providing important ecosystem services. If the intervention area is known it is possible to link drivers of change to ecosystem services and its stakeholders;
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NOISE PREDICTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN JAPAN

NOISE PREDICTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN JAPAN

Based on the “Basic Environment Law”, the “Environmental Impact Assessment Law” was issued and enforced in June 1999. According to this law, environmental impact assessment has become mandatory for large-scale development projects. To cope with this law, the related ministries are preparing practical prediction methods for environmental impact assessment. In environmental impact assessment regarding noise, noise level is predicted by calculation and the result is assessed by referring the existing regulations/standards. Here, the problem is that the different noise indices are specified in different regulations/standards according to respective characteristic of each noise problem and all of these indices are not necessarily suitable for theoretical calculation.
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Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) “Wetlands: home and destination”

15. ENCOURAGES Contracting Parties to identify the capacity, expertise and technical information which are needed, particularly in relevant public sector and local government institutions, to address the specific issues and potential impacts of the energy sector on wetlands as described in this document; FURTHER ENCOURAGES Contracting Parties to implement, through the Ramsar Regional Wetland Centres and where necessary through partnerships with public, private and NGO sector organizations, appropriate training and capacity building programmes in order to strengthen if necessary regulatory oversight of energy sector activities and to enhance application of guidance for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) contained in Resolution X.17, as well as application of the guidelines in Resolution VIII.1 on allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands; and REQUESTS the Secretariat, in collaboration with the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP), the CEPA Oversight Panel, the Regional Initiatives and Contracting Parties to support, resources permitting, Contracting Parties‟ training and capacity building efforts;
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The Biotrade Impact Assessment System

The Biotrade Impact Assessment System

This indicator aims to assess the level of commitment and compliance of a BioTrade organization with legal requirements needed for the operation of its business activity. Afterwards, it assesses if the organization is committed to implementing additional social and environmental responsibility issues that aimed for the conservation of biodiversity and the respect for the rights of all actors involved, including indigenous communities. Particularly, the compliance with national, regional and international legislation related to the operation of the business is basic for its existence, however compliance with environmental and socio-economic aspects are also a key issue for the fulfillment of BioTrade Principles and Criteria. For instance, if there is no compliance with a specific environmental and social legislation, the business is not socially, environmentally and economically feasible as there are associated risks that will not only impact its long-term existence but also that of its employees and surrounding environment.
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Assessment of fluid intake as a determinant of lifestyle and its impact on health

Assessment of fluid intake as a determinant of lifestyle and its impact on health

Beverage intake has been recognized as an important issue in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. For this reason, the focus of the present thesis was on three dimensions: the assessment of fluid intake and the evaluation of the association between fluid and beverage intake and lifestyle and its relation with health. First, a fluid-specific assessment questionnaire was designed in Spanish language and validated in a middle-age and elderly Spanish population, for a better beverage assessment. In addition, we assessed the total fluid intake in adults from Spain and other 12 worldwide countries in order to: a) describe and compare the beverage consumption pattern between countries; b) compare the fluid intake coming only from beverages with EFSA fluid adequate intake values; c) compare the free-sugar coming only from beverages with the WHO recommendations; and d) describe the associations between the beverage consumption and some lifestyle variables, such as MedDiet adherence and physical activity practice. Additionally we analysed the association between the frequency of consumption of sweetened beverages and MetS incidence in middle-age and elderly individuals at high CVD risk.
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Guidance for addressing the implications for wetlands of policies, plans and activities in the energy sector

Guidance for addressing the implications for wetlands of policies, plans and activities in the energy sector

16. Transparent processes and systematic approaches for planning and decision making involving all relevant sectors can help to ensure the integration of wetland conservation and wise use into energy policies and plans, and can facilitate the participation of wetland policy makers, wetland managers, and other stakeholders in these processes. Contracting Parties have recognized the value of SEA approaches in supporting decision making that reflects the wise use of wetlands (Resolution X.17, Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance, 2008).
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Validez y confiabilidad de la versión española del Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index aplicado en adultos mayores institucionalizados de la ciudad de Bucaramanga

Validez y confiabilidad de la versión española del Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index aplicado en adultos mayores institucionalizados de la ciudad de Bucaramanga

Dentro de los cuestionarios más utilizados se encuentra el Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) diseñado por Atchison y Dolan en California (Estados Unidos) en 1990 (9). Debe su popularidad a sus excelentes propiedades psicométricas (validez y confiabilidad) por lo que se ha traducido y adaptado transculturalmente a varios idiomas, entre ellos el español (10)(11)(6). Si bien en Colombia, este cuestionario ha sido usado por algunos autores (2), aún no hay un trabajo publicado que refleje el proceso de validación del mismo. Aránzazu y colaboradores presentaron un poster en el Encuentro Mundial de la International Association for Dental Research (IADR) en 2015 sobre la validación del GOHAI en una población del municipio de Floridablanca (Colombia) pero aun no hay publicación al respecto (45).
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Meeting the nutritional needs of older persons

Meeting the nutritional needs of older persons

Dawson-Hughes et al. (54) reported that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were lower in winter only among healthy postmenopausal women with daily vitamin D intakes under 220 IU. Those women with low vitamin D intakes had intact parathyroid hormone levels that were higher, although still within the normal range. Treatment of this population with a 400 IU vitamin D supplement prevented significant seasonal variation in either 25-hydroxyvitamin D or parathyroid hormone and, more importantly, reduced wintertime bone loss from the spine. During this vitamin D trial, both the placebo and supplemented groups had similar significant gains in bone density of the spine and whole body in the summer/autumn. Overall, there was a significant net benefit at the spine from vitamin D supplementation. Those subjects exhibiting seasonal bone changes (increases in summer/autumn, decreases in winter/spring) also experience seasonal changes of similar magnitude in lean tissue mass. As indicated earlier, moderate changes in body composition can have a significant impact on level of function in older persons. Much is still to be learned about why bone, and lean and fat tissues, fluctuate with the seasons. Potential contributors to these circannual changes include seasonal differences in exercise, nutrition and blood levels of hormones that are known to affect the metabolism of these three tissue compartments.
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