The analysis of the Health Science Corpus showed that phraseological patterns are not only present in everyday language but also in scientific language. As corpus linguistics research (Sinclair 1991, 2004, Stubbs 2001, Biber, Conrad and Cortes 2004, Biber and Barbieri 2007, Römer and Schulze 2009) and psycholinguistics (Nattinger and DeCarrico 1992; Wray 2002, 2008) have shown, speakers frequently use recurring combinations of words that they have stored in their brain and are important elements in the construction of discourse (Biber 2009). More recent studies (Carrió-Pastor 2017) consider that the identification of the phraseological patterns used in specific settings is a crucial issue, since phraseology is clearly register-specific (Vincent 2013). We also found that the knowledge of these units is fundamental to determine the author's membership to the scientific community, since they show their familiarity with the typical conventions of the register. As Laso and John (2013: 327) say:
39 Lee mas
In Bolivia, recent political, social, and economic advances have increased interest in strengthening the national research agenda and in developing sustainable approaches to supporting research(3) however; research capacity has been historically limited by insufficient funding and support. In 2013, the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA, provided approximately 25 mil- lion USD (216 MSEK) for the 2013-2017 period to strengthen research capacity in Bolivia through education, funding of research projects, and sup- port to university administration(4). The national conversation among scientists suggests that the time is right to develop educational programs to improve the ability of Bolivian researchers to con- duct research that incorporates ethical practices with the goal of improving health for all(3). Few academics, researchers and health profes- sionals have received formal training in research ethics (RE) and there are significant challenges to the consistent application of RE practices in the conduct of research(5,6). A study assessing the status of RE practice in Bolivia reported a lack of knowledge on how to protect research subjects and an absence of functioning research ethics committees (RECs), insufficient RE infrastruc- tural support and RE training(3). These findings highlight the importance of developing a system- atic approach to RE education and support for strengthening institutional policies and practices.
11 Lee mas
The studies included in the review were of a low methodological quality according to the Jadad scale. In view of these findings, one priority that emerges is the need to increase the number of RCTs with methodological rigour, which would make it possible to minimise biases and facilitate the identification of progress in scientific evidence regarding BLS training among health sciences students. To this end, the use of this same scale in other reviews or similar studies would facilitate this process. The articles are also characterised by the absence of homogeneity in establishing BLS training, technical CPR skills and use of AEDs. Despite this, the results have shown how studies that used VAM [9,11,12,18] improved all skills immediately or in the long term, though in the study by Isbye et al.  ventilations were not improved at first.
15 Lee mas
purposes) to the Ministry of Health Research Work- ﬂ ow which manages all activities related to national biomedical research. Open access institutional repositories are rapidly developing: the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) OAI-PMH-compliant repository (DSpace ISS, http://dspace.iss.it/dspace/) holds the ISS production and aggregates scienti ﬁ c publications from NHS partner institutions (30 000 records). The ISS Documentation Service in 2001 launched the SIBIL database (http://www.iss.it/sibi/), which contains Italian works in Bioethics (7500 records, from 1995), and completed the of ﬁ cial translation into Italian of the Medical Subject Headings (MESH), also included in the NLM Uni- ﬁ ed Medical Language System (UMLS) project. The SlBIL database was recently included in the European Portal Ethicsweb 9 (www.ethicsweb.org).
6 Lee mas
INH (600 mg), rifampicin (RIF) (600 mg, or 450 mg if body weight was < 50 kg), pyrazinamide (PZA) (2,000 mg), and ethambutol (EMB) (1,250 mg) every other day in the first two months and then INH and RIF were continued for another four/six months. The retreatment patients meanwhile received strep- tomycin (SM) (750 mg) every other day in the first two months and continued receiving EMB for ano- ther six months. When patients developed some ADRs (such as ATDH, gastrointestinal reaction, allergic reaction, nervous system disorder, arthral- gia), their treatment would be adjusted according to the severity of ADRs. A total of 4,304 patients ulti- mately finished six to nine months follow-up. The ADACS was approved by the Ethics Committee of Peking University Health Science Center. Written informed consent was obtained from every partici- pant before enrolment.
8 Lee mas
(Pediatric Endocrine Associates, United States); Philip Raskin (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States); Heather Risbeck (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, United States); Henry Rodriguez (Riley Hospital for Children, United States); Luisa Rodriguez (Baylor College of Medicine, United States); Michelle Rogers (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, United States); Leticia Rubalcava (Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, United States); Bill Russell (Vanderbilt University, United States); Desmond Schatz (University of Florida, United States); Carla Scott (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, United States); Jin--‐Xiong She (Medical College of Georgia, United States); Heather Shilling (Benaroya Research Institute, United States); Dorothy Shulman (University of South Florida, United States); Leslie Soyka (University of Massachusetts Memorial Center, United States); Phyllis Speiser (Schneider Children’s Hospital, United States); Harold Starkman (Atlantic Health System, United States); Andrea Steck (Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, United States); Sarah Stender (University of Tennessee, United States); Lorraine Stratton (University of Arizona, United States); Daniel Sur (Roche Molecular Systems, United States); Shayne Taback (University of Manitoba, United States); Kathryn Thrailkill (Arkansas Children’s Hospital, United States); Ellen Toth (University of Alberta, Canada); Patricia Trymbiski (Doylestown Hospital, United States); Eva Tsalikian (University of Iowa, United States); Katherine Vertachnik (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, United States); Jack Wahlen (Endocrine Research Specialists, United States); Xujing Wang (Max McGee National Research Center of Juvenile Diabetes, United States); Sandra Weber (Greenville Hospital System, United States); Diane Wherrett (Hospital for Sick Children, Canada); Steven Willi (Children’s Hospital of Phildelphia, United States); Darrell Wilson (Stanford University, United States); Jerry Youkey (Greenville Hospital System, United States); Neal Young (National Institutes of Health, United States); Liping Yu (Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, United States); Lue Ping Zhao (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute, United States); Donald Zimmerman (Children’s Memorial Hospital, United States).
34 Lee mas
As can be seen, except for Science and Technology, all sectors experienced a significant growth in the five years analyzed. The health sector in 2007 doubled the number of documents published in 2003. A key moment of the period was 2006, when universities and health institutions began an intensive production. Moreover, the number of institutions that contribute to the growth of scientific production in journals indexed by Scopus progressed substantially, from 178 in 2003 to 317 in 2007. The health sector showed the greatest contribution, doubling in 2007 the number of institutions achieved in 2003.
12 Lee mas
During the 1980s and 1990s, science as a service lost ground to science for profit. Little by little, public science disappeared to be replaced by science for profit. On the one hand, legal bases were established for public research centres and public universities to be driven by the logic of profit and be subjected to the requirements of sponsors. In the United States, the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 allowed universities to retain ownership of the patents that they registered and any resulting profits, leaving them with the key commodity of intangible knowledge in their hands. The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act, also in 1980, complemented the subordination of science as a service to capital by allowing government laboratories to sell services and guaranteeing the transfer of technology to companies. As pointed out by Nowortny, Scott and Gibbons, "Both schemes are now widely copied elsewhere". Prior to Bayh-Dole, universities in the United States produced around 250 patents a year. By 1998, this number had risen to 4 800 patent applications. This led to another series of effects, such as the possibility of professors retaining a percentage of patent property, and the rise of private companies created by professors who work in public centres and as a spinoff of these (Press and Washburn, 2000).
16 Lee mas
with basic SCUBA training and ease of access from shore. Beyond this depth, the knowledge of reefs rapidly tails off such that below 30 m, reef systems are known through very few stud- ies. This results in a “shallow reef” bias in the scientific community’s understanding of reef ecosystems. Assuming that the same processes, stressors, health issues, and rates of change operate at the same level for deeper reefs far- ther offshore may be inappropriate. Deep reefs at the edge of the photic zone may be both more susceptible to particular stresses, such as shading by turbidity, and also insulated from others such as warm surface waters in areas with thermal stratification of the water column. Similarly, reefs further from shore may be more susceptible to stresses originating off insular and continental shelves such as cold water influxes and also isolated from land-based pol- lution and sedimentation.
14 Lee mas
built environment above and before the individual (at the familial, community, organizational, and societal levels), constrain, limit, reward, and induce the behavior of individuals. For example, social class is a product of labor relations at higher levels of social organization. Black males in the presence of white power structures are exposed to discrimi- nation (at lower levels of organization). The health behaviors of black males are, in turn, shaped, constrained, and induced from above in a complex relational web. 1 This point is by no means new (Macintyre, 1994; Mackenbach, 1998; McMichael, 1999; Susser, 1998; Syme, 1987); however, much of public health continues to treat behaviors such as diet, smoking, violence, drug use, and sex work as if they were voluntary decisions, without regard to social constraints, inducements, or pressures. There are important examples of progress toward con- textualizing behaviors (for example research on the role of advertising on smoking initiation), but for the most part, constraining factors on health behavior have been limited to individual psycholo- gical factors (such as depression, coping styles, self- efﬁcacy, or ‘‘readiness to change’’). Variation in rates of smoking, drug use, or violence across time, space, and between social groups are often ignored, in part because explanation of population-level phenomenon requires different theories, data and methods. The question is: how can behavioral and public health scientists move further beyond this emphasis on individual decision making, toward a more ecological perspective? We address this issue next.
22 Lee mas
Health (medical) informatics takes its roots from Medical Science, Informatics Technology and Information Theory. Perhaps this can explain why it finds application in many diverse areas whereas it is hard to predict when a formal theory of medical informatics will be brought to light.
9 Lee mas
Cognoscitive progress in science depends on the theoretical base; technological advance depends on the technical base and this in turn depends on those disciplines which are most directly linked to the artifacts; and changes in performance, organization, agents and as a result, theories of actions depend on the organizational base. How does the social factor manifest itself in these three elements? In the first it may play a part in the selection of prioritized lines of research. Even today different lines of research may develop within the research of pure sciences and there is no doubt that a particular field of research which forms part of (or may form part of) the theoretical base is a point in its favor when it comes to prioritizing and granting financial support. In the second element the social factor is of greater and more direct importance. Many possible technological strategies are possible in order to satisfy a need. It is clear that technology is not the answer to everything but, in most cases, there are various ways of solving a problem with benefits and harmful effects for distinct social groups. Therefore, both technical possibilities and prevailing sociopolitical and ethical values converge in this element. In the third element the social factor is the main one and that which determines progress. Everything revolves around human action (individual and collective), which means that the part played by social agents is crucial in this third element.
232 Lee mas
From the perspective of the main the- oretical-epistemological fundamentals, the preventive stage not only tackled health as a social production – revealing the limits of the models focused in biomedicine – but also the inclusion of health in education of the disci- plines and issues which translate health-so- ciety relationships. In the pioneer years of preventive medicine, the professional’s trans- formations and the modifications in the health care system were believed to become more profound by implementing changes in the curricula of undergraduate programs; in the seventies, planning of programs for graduate education started. Then, we may say that during this period, an intense problemati- zation of health versus medicine took place, establishing what sociology scholars named connectivity and communication, which launched another phase within the institution- alization process: “regularization of discourses and practices and forms of organization.” (1)
14 Lee mas
Methods. Fourteen Spanish (54 ± 3) perimenopausal women from a health centre of Granada were enrolled to participate in a 9 weeks (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week) moderate-intensity (i.e. 12-16 rating of perceived effort) exercise intervention. We assessed fatigue severity by means of a Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) with 5 domains: general fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, reduced activity, and reduced motivation. Each domain consists of 4 items and has a potential score range from 4 to 20, where higher scores indicate a high degree of fatigue. The sleep quality was assessed trough the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire with 7 “component” scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep effi- ciency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction before and after the exercise intervention. Because fatigue and sleep quality variables were not normally distributed, nonparametric tests were used (Wilcoxon test for paired samples). Results and discussion. We observed an 18% decrease in redu- ced motivation fatigue and a 12% in the use of sleeping medications after 9 weeks of exercise intervention (both, P < 0.05). No diffe- rences were found in the remaining variables. Despite the results displayed, an improved tendency in all the MFI and the PSQI domains after 9 weeks of exercise program was observed. However, due to the small sample size and the length of the exercise program we cannot confirm this approach significantly.
28 Lee mas
members of the scientific community in this field of knowledge claim that health inequa- lities are avoidable through interventions that reduce inequalities in income distribution, they are not referring to a consistent set of facts, but to consistency with a fictional ar- gument that must be superimposed on the facts to avoid seeing them. According to the distinction that Aristotle made between his- tory and literature, these fictional arguments do not represent what has actually happened but rather what might have happened. It is the way to maintain the balance of the narra- tive discourse between science, politics and ethics, the way to preserve the previously mentioned idea about the origin of the socioe- conomic distribution of health.
6 Lee mas
e-Bug is a web-based PHE-funded project to develop and dis- seminate, across Europe, a junior and senior school educational resource for teachers covering microbes, hygiene, antibiotics and prevention of infection. e-Bug has demonstrated knowledge ac- quisition in 9–11 year olds with hand and respiratory hygiene modules. To-date there has been no oral health module. Working in partnership with the e-Bug team at Public Health England, our research group has developed a new module ‘Oral Hygiene, Pre- vention of Infection’. The module is evidence-based, follows cog- nitive and social theories of learning, aiming to impart oral health related knowledge and support development of healthy behav- iours, specifically: reducing amount and frequency of free sugars intake; increasing and improving tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste. Aim: To work with teachers, local education and health authorities to develop the new Oral Health module; evaluate teach- ers’ views of content and structure to inform completion of mate- rials. Methods: Evaluation conducted with school teachers in London. Three, one hour focus groups were set up commencing with presentation of the lesson plan and supplementary materials followed by semi-structured interviews to establish teachers’ views. Results: Teachers across Years 3, 4 and 5 contributed covering child ages 7–10 years. Teachers were very positive to using the on- line lesson plan and engaged well with the materials. Several themes emerged regarding lesson duration, nutrition content and the feasibility of some of the activities. Conclusions: Following modifications to the module, it will be incorporated into e-Bug online and made available for evaluation with schoolchildren in selected primary schools. This research team is developing a European research consortium to examine the effectiveness of the Oral Hygiene e-Bug module in the development of healthy sugar and brushing behaviours in schoolchildren.
73 Lee mas
In the UK parliament, an all-party committee is allo- cated to each department of state. The committees can shape policies through the task of writing reports with recommendations. All reports are published and an official response by a parliamentary debate is compul- sory. The Health Select Committee (HSC) is in place to support the health department. Despite efforts to tackle health inequities explicitly since 1997, the gap widened. Thus, the HSC announced an inquiry in health inequities in the year 2007 and invited for the submis- sion of written evidence. Subsequently, 154 written papers were submitted. Afterwards the Committee undertook eleven oral sessions with experts, interested parties, officials and ministers to discuss the raised issues and gather further evidence. The committee report of March 2009 identified several key challenges and produced recommendations about actions on the SDOH. In May 2009 the government’s response was published and the recommendations were taken on. Even after elections, the implementation did not lose importance and tackling health inequalities is still a high priority in the UK (41).
16 Lee mas
Home-based care is effective for rural, peri-urban, and semi-urban areas. An average of fifteen children ages 3-5 are cared for together in a family's home. In some countries, home-based care also is utilized for children ages 0-3. One educator or facilitator is responsible for ten or more homes, and two or three mothers (depending on the country) are responsible for each home. The care is oriented toward child development and pregnant and nursing mothers. The mothers receive program or economic support for daily feeding of the children. In Bolivia, each participating home includes a person in charge of cooking. In Colombia and Bolivia, loan programs are available for improving the housing conditions. In Colombia, communities contribute funds to support the payment of mothers' wages, the purchase of food, and the administration of resources (e.g., the selection of beneficiaries and welfare homes). A variation of this modality of care is directed by educators; captures the use of mothers in health centers, maternities, or medical posts; and involves community agents as well as mothers.
24 Lee mas
2) what she also claims there about nēpenthes (νηπενθές), that is an adjec tive not a noun in Hellenic and that it is not a pharmakon, but characterizes the medicine referred to in Homer’s Odyssey ( IV : ℓℓ. 220–221, which is actually true) are not well expressed, and for sure this word is of Hellenic and not of Latin origin as she falsely claims (the car ni vorous nepenthaceæ plants have nothing to do with this!). Additionally, in several cases the au thor is using the Portuguese, i.e.: her ma ternal language instead of English (e.g.: p. 22, col. I, Table: passim; pp. 31–32, Table, col. II; p. 39, col. I, § 2; p. 41, col. II, § 5; & c.). Another thing that is egyptologically unacceptable is that the author is using in almost all instances assumed phonetic renderings of the ancient Egyptian words, instead of the correct reference to the hiero glyphic word itself, closely accompanied by its phonetic trans literation (e.g.: p. 28, col. II, § 2: “maat-kheru”, instead of the correct mAa-xrw ; p. 37, col. I, § 3: “Per– Ankh”, instead of the cor rect Pr-anx ; p. 37, col. II, § 7: “O pesechef” (sic!), in stead of the correct psS-kf ; p. 46, col. I, § 3: “se nef”, instead of the correct znf & “ueseshet”, instead of the cor rect wsSt ; p. 63, col. II, § 4: “hemat” & “hesmen”, instead of the correct HmAt & Hsmn ; & c.). Addi tionally, the appe- arance of the hieroglyphic words and inscriptions is many times very asym - metrical in relation to the normal text of the book, which is a cause of aesthe - tically unpleasant feelings (e.g.: book-cover: the word snb/health; main title’s page: idem; pp. i & 1: the word HkA ; p. 3: the names of the ancient Egyptian seasons & the word itrw /river; p. 5: the word aA /disease; p. 29: the word wxdw /pain; pp. 61–63: passim, with words like irTt /milk, swHt /egg, rri /pig, rm /fish, HmAt /salt, Hsmn /natron; & c.). Finally, important works have not been mentioned in her Biblio graphy, which shows not only a certain hastiness and carelessness, but also incomplete knowledge of the basic and significant bibliography, which is usually replaced by hasty website references and also
9 Lee mas