The methodological component, which is shaped by the methods, resources, and techniques applied by teachers, is considered the most important one because if these aspects are successfully applied, the teaching-learning process will be of great importance to achieve effective results. That is why this research refers to the additional materials that teachers use in class, which play a very important role in English classes as a tool to facilitate the EFL learning process in private and public highschools.
45 On the contrary, the 20% of teachers who answered that there were 26 to 30 students worked at night. In the same way, 7% of teachers who indicated that classes have between16 to 25 students also worked in evening hours. In the observed public highschools with night schedules there were adult students who work during the morning, they have not completed their studies, and need a High School Diploma to enter the university. Similarly, there were young students who help their parents at home or private business and they study at night. An important aspect observed in these classes was the high amount of absent students. That fact influenced class size because there were fewer students than usually and it was not possible to observe the teaching- learning process under real conditions.
The results showed in this study were: the availability of the instructional resources varies from school to school. Another factor was the class size influence in the achievement of the students, the effect was very negative because in classroom overcrowded teacher need more materials and resources, and they have no available enough materials in the schools. It was found in Nepal that only a few highschools have a policy about how many students they receive in their highschools. It was determined that in larger classes the teachers not give individual attention to each student. As recommendation, the researcher suggested: include leasing space, collaborative, recollecting, administrative space, and district-wide redistribution of the space.
This research study was carried out in the city of Cariamanga, which is located in The Province of Loja. Two public highschools were selected randomly to apply a survey for this study. In these highschools , one course of 8 th , 9 th and 10 th years of basic education and 1 st and 3 rd years of senior high school were surveyed to gather the field information .The 8 th year was composed of around thirty seven boys and girls , The 9 th year was composed of around thirty five boys and girls , The 10 th year was composed of around thirty seven boys and girls , The 1 st year was composed of around thirty five boys and girls , The 3 rd year was composed of around thirty five boys and girls. Approximately, the students are 12 years old in the 8 th year , 13 years old in the 9 th , 14 years old in the 10 th year of basic education , 15 years old in the 1 st , 17 years old in the 3 rd year of senior high school. The Level of academic knowledge of the English language showed by most of the students was basic. There were some exceptions of students who demonstrated to have good competence on the use of English.
In the analysis, three questions raised for the purpose of research were answered. All of the questions followed the same process, first the question was written, later the table was inserted with the results obtained on the students´ questionnaire that respond to this question. Finally, the results were described and supported with opinions, theories and principles included in the literature review in order to know how large classes influence in the English language teaching – learning process in Ecuadorian highschools.
Perhaps, this particular point is of essence in Ecuadorian public highschools today, mainly because of the number of students that a public school teacher has to handle on a daily basis, which does not allow him or her to pay much individual attention to one particular student, even if they have all the good intention to do it, there is simply not enough time, which is 40 minutes or 45 in the best cases. It was observed that when teachers wished to review materials, such as quizzes, homework, or simply run an indiviual performance quiz, they did it in two class periods, in other words in 80 minutes. For this reason, they preferred group activities to teach their lesssons.
Nowadays, the learning of English language is considered something very essential. It is used in almost all areas of knowledge and human development. Regrettably, most of the students of Ecuador that finish high-school recognize that they do not have a good level of English that will allow them to have an effective academic development. Consequently, students often lose a lot of opportunities such as jobs with better payment, trips, immersion programs, opportunities to improve their creativity and self-confidence to develop any work that involves English. For this reason, it is essential to do a research about the factors that affect the English language-teaching learning process, especially in Ecuadorian public highschools, in order to find out some practical alternatives that will help to the improvement of the students’ English level and to the teaching - learning process.
English as a foreign language is a subject that all public and private highschools include in their curriculum. However, it has been noticed that when students enter the university, their lack of knowledge of this language limits their academic performance especially because students may not have the opportunity to obtain a scholarship to study in countries where English is used. Besides, English is now required in certain jobs in Ecuador; therefore, these students will miss the opportunity to find a job that is
Finally, the last section denoted with no score was represented by Grammar Translation Method. At this point, after the observation of classes in the six public highschools it was noted that 46,67% of the monitored teachers used The Grammar Translation Method, which can be clearly evidenced since their use of English while explaining grammatical points was very limited. In addition, to teach students new vocabulary, they just translated the utterances literally to Spanish to get students understand the meaning. No listening or speaking exercises were done to help oral production. In the observed classes a teacher stated telling students some sentences in Spanish and he asked them to translate sentences to English; it was clearly
Nevertheless these advances, there are others aspects in the process of teaching English that have not even been considered. In addition, the low English level of graduate students attending universities demands for more investigation in this field. That was the motivation for researching the factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high school. The specific objectives were: (1) identify student´s English level and their needs in the classroom, (2) diagnose the classroom environment in which English lessons take place, (3) define the characteristics of in-service English teachers, (4) investigate institutional facilities and norms regarding quality education. The value of this research consists on discovering the situation of the teaching English language in highschools. Through the analysis from different perspectives: teacher, students, classrooms and institutions; this study has tried to meet how all these interrelated factors influence in the teaching.
“ Yo , Pazmiño Paredes Diana Carolina declaro ser autor (a) del presente trabajo de fin detitulación: “Factors that influence the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian privat e highschools” , de la Titulación de Ciencias de la Educación mención Inglés, siendo Mgs. Nina Nesterenko director (a) del presente trabajo; y eximo expresamente a la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja y a sus representantes legales de posibles reclamos o acciones legales. Además certifico que las ideas, conceptos, procedimientos y resultados vertidos en el presente trabajo investigativo, son de mi exclusiva responsabilidad.
Before the year 1912, the English Language Teaching in highschools of Ecuador was completely strange. It was after that year that this language started to be taught in many schools of this country. It became mandatory all over in Ecuador in 1950, under the government of Galo Plaza Lasso. At first, there were fewer hours of English teaching and there were not enough English teachers, but with the course of time, this situation changed favorably. Twenty years ago, the English Language Teaching in Ecuador improved thanks to the project CLADLE, implemented by the Ministry of Education of Ecuador. Later on, the education experienced positive changes when Rafael Correa became the new president of Ecuador in 2007. His government also made some changes regarding teacher and student rights. Now English teachers have to take a TOEFL test and get a B2 level certificate or higher. Fortunately, over the last twenty years, the English Language Teaching in Ecuador has gradually developed, to such an extent that it is now taught in every school, either public, private or parochial schools.
This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public highschools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public highschools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
From the study, 9 teachers agreed that a class with10 to 15 students is appropriate for effective English teaching. This number represents 60 % of the total. Then, 5 teachers said a classroom with 16 to 25 students is appropriate; this figure accounts for the 33 % of the total. After that, 1 teacher said that the appropriate number of students is from26 to 30 representing 7 % of the total. There was no teacher claiming more than 31 students is acceptable to have a successful English lesson. Woodward (2011), establishes that large classrooms pose several problems like the noise, and too many students restricted to a small area as well as not having enough time to provide them with correct feedback assessment or any individual attention. These are good reasons to consider why most observed teachers agreed on having fewer than 16 students in a classroom. Nevertheless, there is a reasonably large group of the observed teachers who claim a larger number is appropriate instead. The reason is because although the number is high, there are ways to counter-
Teaching English as a foreign language is a very complex task. This research stresses the need to make English language lessons easy and enjoyable through the use ofinstructional aid. In most schools, the poor performance in English language is the result of teachingonly based on a textbook. Teachers do not have enough teaching aids and where they areavailable they are inadequate and obsolete and used inappropriately. This study is aimed at finding whether or not teachers in public and private highschools usesupplementary materials in their classes, and if they are used how pertinent, appropriate, and qualified these materials are.
ineffective because at the end of EFL instruction most of students are not able to write, read, listen or speak the foreign language even at a basic level. A demonstration of this problematic scenario is that the mean score of a diagnostic English test administered to students in the last year of general basic education and the last year of high school was 13.13 over 20 points; this assessment was part of an investigation carried out in 2011 by the Ministry of Education (National Secretariat of Higher Education, Science, and Technology, 2012).
According to the results presented in the statement 15, from 100%of surveyed students (195 students) in this public high school, 27% of students are in total agreement, 23% are in agreement; as well, 20% are in partial agreement, and the 30% are in disagreement with this subject matter. It shows that half of students acknowledge that the atmosphere is tense in large classes, so the activities such as changing the classroom desk arrangement, dynamics, conversations, and feedback are not sufficiently carried out by the teacher. Hence, teachers do not scope in these classes what Woolfolk (2007) states that the goal of classroom management is to preserve a friendly, productive learning environment.
Fisher, J., Hoover, G., & McLeod (2003) claim that the organization of the space also affects the way students behave and move around the classroom as well as how much attention they pay to instruction. A high quality instructional program requires efficient use of space, where students can work alone, in groups and with the teacher. On this ground, Gower, Phillips, & Walters (2005) state that the position of the teacher and the way the teacher organizes the positions of the students in class is of great importance. Bear in mind that concepts of personal space vary from culture to culture. For example, Arab people when they talk to each other, like to get closer than Northern Europeans. In multicultural classes, teachers and students sometimes cause unease or even offend other students because they get too close. Or some students may think that people who like to keep a greater distance are cool and even unfriendly.
Lightbown and Spada (2006) state that learners with high aptitudes learn quicker and easier than students with lower aptitudes; they also state that with perseverance, students with lower aptitudes also learn. Besides, they mention that some students have skills in different areas of language learning; for example, one student might have better memory recall, and another, better language analysis skills. Institutions or teachers can implement learning programs that are more appropriate to certain students and less to others. Similarly, John Carroll (1991), who was one of the pioneers in this area of study, characterized aptitude as the ability to learn languages quickly.
After that, the field research was carried out. The design utilized throughout this research was based on the qualitative and quantitative methods. The data collection was accomplished through observations during the EFL classes in a public and a private high school. Regarding this aspect, fifteen observations were performed in each high school during the EFL classes in order to identify how supplementary materials are being used in these educational institutions.