The desert fog oases or lomas of coastal Peru and Chile are striking for their rich plant biodiversity despite very low rainfall (0 – 200 mm per annum) and often no access to groundwater. The persistence of these diverse communities is attributed to frequent water inputs from coastal fog that far exceed rainfall (Rundel et al. 1991; del-Val et al. 2006). Less discussed is the presence of a considerable epiphyte biomass and diversity (Weberbauer 1945) in quantities pro- portionally analogous to cloud forest. The low stature of the vegetation (<10 m) and simpliﬁed ecohydrology (mini- mal run-oﬀ and leaching, discrete and rare rainfall events) make these ecosystems ideal for plant-scale experiments on the biophysical eﬀects of epiphytes. We circumvented many of the diﬃculties associated with epiphyte removal by studying these ecosystems with relatively small mature woody plants and non-overlapping canopies, yet high epi- phyte abundances. We recorded the eﬀects of epiphyte removal on soil moisture and canopy microclimate dynam- ics, considering the following predictions: (i) epiphytes will retain water; however, where fog inputs are high, the increased volume intercepted by epiphytes will overcome retention by epiphytes, resulting in greater throughfall in the presence of epiphytes; (ii) increased water inputs will translate into longer periods of soil moisture availability under the host plants; (iii) presence of epiphytes will buﬀer host plant canopy microclimate, and hence (iv) plants with epiphytes will beneﬁt from greater water-use eﬃciency and show greater growth and reproduction.
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ABSTRACT. Egg laying site selection by a host plant specialist leaf miner moth at two intra-plant levels in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. The spatial distribution of the immature stages of the leaf miner Angelabella tecomae Vargas & Parra, 2005 was determined at two intra-plant levels (shoot and leaflet) on the shrub Tecoma fulva fulva (Cav.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae) in the Azapa valley, northern Chilean Atacama Desert. An aggregated spatial pattern was detected for all the immature stages along the shoot, with an age dependent relative position: eggs and first instar larvae were clumped at apex; second, third and fourth instar larvae were mostly found at intermediate positions; meanwhile the spinning larva and pupa were clumped at basis. This pattern suggests that the females select new, actively growing leaflets for egg laying. At the leaflet level, the immature stages were found more frequently at underside. Furthermore, survivorship was higher for larvae from underside mines. All these results highlight the importance of an accurate selection of egg laying site in the life history of this highly specialized leaf miner. By contrast, eventual wrong choices in the egg laying site selection may be associated with diminished larval survivorship. The importance of the continuous availability of new plant tissue in this highly human modified arid environment is discussed in relation with the observed patterns.
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and walnut populations in the Maule Region of central Chile. Walnut is often regarded as a sec- ondary host for codling moth in comparison with apple because of the high content of secondary metabolites (e.g., juglone) that the walnut fruit contains (Piskorski and Dorn, 2011). Effective metabolism of juglone was found in codling moth larvae feeding on walnut, although a longer devel- opmental period and a male biased sex ratio were observed when reared in this host plant (Piskorski and Dorn, 2011). In our study, we used adults obtained from apple and walnut trees; therefore, we selected those individuals who successfully developed on those host plants.
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Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen, infects its host plant, resulting in massive tissue destruction and, depending upon the level of infection, may result in plant death. In this paper, we have demonstrated that Chilean Botrytis cinerea isolates from grapes (U11) infect Arabidopsis thaliana. Fungal spores germinate on the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana within 24 hours. Mycelium are seen within 48 hours and hyphae with 72 hours.
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A circular hole was cut the of the upper half of the separator to which the rim of the top of a plastic collecting jar was glued. were distributed the sample holding trays by screwing the base of a collecting jar, holding a sample to be separated, onto the separator. The insects and plant residues were distributed the sample holding trays with a gust of from a 1.27 cm horse compressor
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and community composition in plants. For herbivores, many ques- tions remain regarding how plant defenses shape host choice and community structure. We addressed these questions using the tree genus Inga and its lepidopteran herbivores in the Amazon. We con- structed phylogenies for both plants and insects and quantified host associations and plant defenses. We found that similarity in herbi- vore assemblages between Inga species was correlated with similar- ity in defenses. There was no correlation with phylogeny, a result consistent with our observations that the expression of defenses in Inga is independent of phylogeny. Furthermore, host defensive traits explained 40% of herbivore community similarity. Analyses at finer taxonomic scales showed that different lepidopteran clades select hosts based on different defenses, suggesting taxon-specific histories of herbivore–host plant interactions. Finally, we compared the phylogeny and defenses of Inga to phylogenies for the major lepidopteran clades. We found that closely related herbivores fed on Inga with similar defenses rather than on closely related plants. Together, these results suggest that plant defenses might be more evolutionarily labile than the herbivore traits related to host associ- ation. Hence, there is an apparent asymmetry in the evolutionary interactions between Inga and its herbivores. Although plants may evolve under selection by herbivores, we hypothesize that herbi- vores may not show coevolutionary adaptations, but instead “ chase ” hosts based on the herbivore ’ s own traits at the time that they encounter a new host, a pattern more consistent with resource tracking than with the arms race model of coevolution.
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Abstract The area of Intrusion Detection is very important these days. Companies have acquired more interest in having this type of systems beacuse of the importance that information has for them. Machine learning algorithms are being used along with IDSs as an efficient approach. For these reasons we work with this approach in this thesis, presenting from general to specific, the information of the models and types of IDSs, and some machine learning algorithms and some fusion rules for them, that can help achieving a good IDS. In this work, we focus on Host-based intrusion detection, and three machine learning algorithms, which are C4.5, RIPPER and PART. It is showed a method to reduce false alarm rates and with this, increasing the possibility of detecting true alarms when our system trigger them. Discipline Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas / Engineering & Applied
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studying eukaryotic TEs. In response to this chal- lenge, various protocols have been developed to analyse TEs on a whole-genome basis rather than one at a time. Some of these protocols are described in this review in the context of analysing two types of TEs that are present in very high copy number in plants: miniature inverted-repeat transposable ele- ments (MITEs) and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Circumstantial evidence is rapidly accumulating that plant genomes are remarkably dynamic, largely due to the activity of TEs. Paradoxically, however, the high-copy-number ele- ments that so dramatically contribute to genome evolution at both the interspecific and intraspecific levels seem to be transpositionally inactive. We con- clude the review by describing recent studies that offer the promise of reactivating these sleeping giants so that they can be characterized to the same extent as the TEs first described by McClintock.
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Se debe realizar la configuración de la misma mediante el uso de Packet Tracer, los routers deben ser de referencia 1841 y los Switches 2950. Por cada subred se deben dibujar solamente dos Host identificados con las direcciones IP correspondientes al primer y último PC acorde con la cantidad de equipos establecidos por subred.
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DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, en español Protocolo de Configuracion Dinámica de Host es un protocolo de red de tipo cliente/servidor mediante el cual un servidor DHCP asigna dinámicamente una dirección IP y otros parámetros de configuración de red a cada dispositivo en una red para que puedan comunicarse con otras redes IP.
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system and will be released as litter/ rhizodeposits beneath the plant canopy before being decomposed and either immobilised by soil microbes or taken up by plant roots (Ridolfi, Laio & D’Odorico 2008). Areas with greater plant diversity may, in turn, promote the fertile island effect by harbouring more beneficial and active soil microbial communities (Van der Heijden et al. 2008; Schnitzer et al. 2011), which may also enhance ecosystem functioning by mobilising and re-translocating nutrients such as N more efficiently from the surrounding soil matrix (Van Der Heijden et al. 2008; Schnitzer et al. 2011; Graham et al. 2016). Greater plant cover and relative woody cover are also likely to provide a more suitable habitat for microbial communities than areas with sparser vegetation by buffering patch-level temperature extremes and maintaining greater soil moisture values, thus resulting in greater soil fertility (Cortina & Maestre 2005).
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La función principal de la capa de transporte es mantener un registro de las conversaciones de múltiples aplicaciones en el mismo host. Sin embargo, cada aplicación tiene determinados requisitos para sus datos y, por lo tanto, se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de transporte para que cumplan con estos requisitos. Los protocolos de la capa de aplicación definen la comunicación entre servicios de red, como un servidor Web y un cliente y un servidor FTP y un cliente. Los clientes inician la comunicación con el servidor adecuado y el servidor responde al cliente. Para cada servicio de red existe un servidor determinado que escucha, en un puerto determinado, las conexiones del cliente. Puede haber diversos servidores en el mismo dispositivo final. Un usuario puede abrir diferentes aplicaciones del cliente para el mismo servidor, pero cada cliente se comunica, en forma exclusiva, con una sesión establecida entre el cliente y el servidor. Los protocolos de la capa de aplicación se basan en los protocolos TCP/IP de menor nivel, como TCP o UDP. Esta práctica de laboratorio examina dos protocolos populares de la capa de aplicación, HTTP y FTP, y la manera en que los protocolos de la capa de transporte, TCP y UDP, administran el canal de comunicación. También se examinan las solicitudes más comunes de los clientes y las correspondientes respuestas del servidor.
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meiofauna, among others) exert different effects on plants and their associated microbiota (Boyer 1982; Kloepper and Schroth MN 1988; Glick 1995; Lazarovits and Nowak 1997; Bertin et al. 2003; Lindow and Brandl 2003; Dong and Kahmann 2009). One of the relevant abiotic factors affecting plant soil ecosystems is the use of man-made herbicides. For obvious reasons, studies have mainly focused on the effect of herbicides on target and non-target plants (see for reviews Duke 1990; Sterling and Hall 1997; Grossmann 2000; Zheng and Hall 2001; Ninomiya et al. 2004; Grossmann 2010). A lot of attention has been also directed to microorganisms, mainly bacteria, that are able to degrade/mineralize herbicides, especially aromatic compounds (Jacobsen 1997; Aislabie et al. 2005; Pérez-Pantoja et al. 2008; Sørensen et al. 2009; Pérez-Pantoja et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2011), and studies addressing both the fate of herbi- cides in plant soil ecosystems and potential for bioreme- diation (Newby et al. 2000; Germaine et al. 2006; Mastretta et al. 2006). A few studies addressing effects in bulk soil and rhizospheric microbiota are also avail- able (Jofré et al. 1996; Smit et al. 1996; Top et al. 1998; Shaw and Burns 2004; 2005; Macur et al. 2007). The analysis of the relevant literature indicates that specific effects for individual herbicides are observed, however, some general conclusions can be drawn. As examples, organophosphate herbicides are more easily degraded than organochlorinated ones; aerobic bacteria are more versatile and efficient than the anaerobic ones, and that ideal target specificity, i.e. the herbicide only affects the target plants leaving untouched the non target ones, is rarely attained (Sterling and Hall 1997; Grossmann 2000; Zheng and Hall 2001). Despite the extensive literature available, several relevant issues still remain relatively ignored. Among them, do microbial commu- nities in the rhizosphere respond to herbicides in a different way than in bulk soil? Does an exogenously added herbicide degrader behave the same in these two microenvironments? One rarely utilized approach is the simultaneous study of the effects of an herbicide in the triad occurring in planted soils exposed to a man-made compound, i.e. the plant, the associated rhizospheric bacterial community and the herbicide degrading bacteria. Therefore, this work addressed the effects that one single model herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), provokes on an appropriate herbicide degrading model bacterium (Cupriavidus pinatubonen- sis, ex. C. necator JMP134), and on a plant that hosts this bacterium and its bacterial rhizospheric community. To
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location. The results describe two means of operation, one of “flow tide” and the other “flow-ebb tides”, with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in ”flow tide", “ebb tides” or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level infor- mation taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports.
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Al proporcionar un mecanismo para que los usuarios completen perfiles y carguen fotos, es poco probable que Airbnb se enfrente a consideraciones legales que afecten su diseño o el interfaz del usuario (Ert, et.al. 2016). Además, las imágenes son una parte importante del diseño de Airbnb y de las conversaciones con los invitados de Airbnb (Edelman & Luca, 2014). Las imágenes ayudan a los huéspedes a aceptar la estancia en una propiedad con un desconocido o la oferta de un extraño (Teubner, 2017). Las imágenes del host anterior reducirían la disposición de algunos huéspedes a utilizar Airbnb (Edelman & Luca, 2014). Por lo tanto, si Airbnb tomara medidas para reducir el grado de discriminación, la decisión se basaría en la ética, en lugar de la ganancia o la ley (Edelman & Luca, 2014).
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integrated asset management strategy, combining technical analysis and operation and maintenance management can help to improve plant performance, flexibility and reliability. In order to deploy such a model it is necessary to combine plant data and specific equipment condition information, with different systems devoted to analyze performance and equipment condition, and take advantage of the results to support operation and maintenance decisions. This model that has been dealt in certain detail for electricity transmission and distribution networks, is not yet broadly extended in the power generation sector, as proposed in this study for the case of a combined power plant. Its application would turn in direct benefit for the operation and maintenance and for the interaction to the energy market.
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In this section, we will describe a kinetic model that accounts for the very diversified behavior of the host and its guests in solution, in a similar fashion to what has been done in the last chapter. The labels used in this model are based on Figure 4.4. The model takes into account the background cycloaddition reaction happening in solution. It also includes the changes of conformation of the host leading to the formation of the capsule through several paths. The kinetic model also handles the processes of guest inclusion and exchange. All reversible reactions are implemented as well as the possibility of dislocation of the capsule. To summarize, all the relevant complexes and the transition states that relate them enter a kinetic model that is conceptually similar to the one we built in the previous chapter. We set a value of 25 mM for A, 50 mM for B and 5 mM for the supramolecular catalyst E, as well as 6.67 M for the solvent, all taken from the experimental conditions. Please note that logarithmic scales have been used to plot the data that spans many orders of magnitude in concentration and time. The results obtained are summarized in Figure 4.27. We do not present all the species but we select the most relevant ones for clarity.
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Ryncholaelia glauca is abundant at the studied forest; however only half or less of the studied population reproduces each year. Resources and previous reproductive efforts could influence new reproductive events in some orchid species (Montalvo and Ackerman 1987, Ackerman 1989, Ackerman and Montalvo 1990, Murren and Ellison 1996). Plant size (v.gr., total shoots and leaf number) should be a good indicator of potential repro- ductive capacity (v.gr., total flower number) (Murren and Ellison 1996), particularly in R. glauca where the number of inflorescences and flowers developed is constrained by the number of shoots and new pseudobulbs pro- duced. We observed some large plants (clumps with many growing shoots and leaves) devel- oping only one flower, and nearby small ones (with few growing shoots and leaves) develop- ing two flowers. Large R. glauca plants with few flowers could be old ones. Also, we recorded some R. glauca individuals flowering and fruiting both study years. Apparently, in this species, previous reproductive effort does not limit the next one reproductive expression. Individual floral display of R. glauca was low (1.8 flowers/plant). However flower life- time (15-18 days, from one quarter to half of the flowering season) increases each individ- ual floral display and the flower population density. Flower display and density have been associated with female and male function (Kunin 1993, 1997, Murren and Ellison 1996). Therefore longer flower life span could increase pollen export and pollination possibil- ities. On multi-flowered plants, large inflores- cence size could result in increasing pollinia
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El escaneo TCP FIN, también conocido como Stealth scan (se trata del escaneo silencioso más conocido), es uno de los más discretos que podemos encontrar dentro de las técnicas convencionales. Se apoya en una particularidad de los estándares internacionales de TCP/IP. A la hora de realizar el escaneo, se envía un paquete FIN al puerto del host destino que queremos escanear. Los estándares de TCP/IP dicen que al recibir un paquete FIN en un puerto cerrado, se ha de responder con un paquete RST. Así pues, si se recibe RST por respuesta, el puerto está cerrado, y en caso de no recibir respuesta (se ignora el paquete FIN) el puerto puede encontrarse abierto o silencioso. Esto supone uno de los principales inconvenientes del escaneo TCP FIN, y es que los puertos que nos figuran como abiertos, pueden estar en realidad en estado silencioso (puesto que un puerto silencioso por definición ignora cualquier paquete recibido). Así pues, este tipo de escaneo no obtiene unos resultados fiables, y ese es su talón de Aquiles. Otra gran desventaja de este sistema de escaneo viene de los sistemas Windows, en los cuales un puerto cerrado ignora los paquetes FIN, por lo que escanear un sistema de este tipo con SYN FIN nos generará una enorme lista de puertos abiertos, aunque realmente estén cerrados o silenciosos. Como ventaja, tenemos el que estos escaneo pasan desapercibidos en la gran mayoría de los firewalls, al no intentar establecer ninguna conexión. Un IDS bien configurado, lo detectará.
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Hylamorpha elegans (Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interest- ing opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs in H. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua (Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. obliqua revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies.
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