the pavement condition before and after treatment application. Table 1 shows the objective of the treatment application as well as its expected performance based on the pavement condition (i.e., PSI) before and after treatment application, respectively, for different traf- ﬁc levels (i.e., road classiﬁcation). For example, if a chip seal was applied on a state route with a PSI value of 2.3, then the treatment purpose is to hold the current condition of the pavement surface from further deterioration. If the treated pavement exhibited a PSI value of 2.8 after treatment application and decreased to a PSI value of 2.5 after 3 years of service, and afterward to a PSI value of 2.3 in the follow- ing 2 years of service, then in regard to performance, the treatment improved and extended the pavement condition for 3 years and held it for 2 more years, with a total overall minimum perfor- mance of 5 years. Furthermore, if the PSI of the section contin- ued to drop and reached the terminal value for state routes (i.e., 2.0) after 1.5 years, then the maximum pavement performance life is reported as 6.5 years (5 years to previous pavement condition plus 1.5 years to terminal serviceability). In summary, the performance of the chip seal for that speciﬁc pavement would be characterized as improve and extend, with an expected performance life of 5.0 to 6.5 years.
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In this context, the performance evaluation knowledge area has been used to contribute to different economic sectors (L. Ensslin, Giffhorn, Ensslin, Petri & Vianna, 2010). The literature has highlighted the importance of performance evaluation (PE) in ports, and several works seek to propose tools, performance measures or indicators for use in this context (Chou & Liang, 2001; Chou, 2007; Li & Jiang, 2014; Simões & Marques, 2010; Talley, Ng & Marcillac, 2015). However, these publications are spread throughout various media, which has hindered the reuse of these sources of knowledge and the construction of a solid theoretical framework. The authors of this study thus argue for the need to further consolidate and reflect on the findings in this segment of literature investigating port performance evaluation. This argument is strengthened when we consider the concept/notion of the performance evaluation knowledge area and its practical use, i.e., there is a need to verify the existence of a theoretical alignment with the practical scenario, in order to identify new practical and theoretical opportunities.
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In order to test and develop classification models in fMRI we use an artificial image or a real image and the corresponding gold standard. In the first case we know the expected result, the exact location of activated and non-activated voxels, but it is difficult to simulate the noise distribution of noisy and complicated fMRI signal. Using real fMRI images requirers multidisciplinary efforts to determine the gold standard. The results presented in this section are based on the first approach, results of RADSPM on real fMRI images are reported in [11, 4]. We generated a simple artificial 4-D fMRI, with 10 × 10 × 3 voxels per volume and 84 volumes. Voxels values were 16000 corrupted by zero- mean Gaussian noise with standard deviation σ = 4000. Active voxels had their values increased by 1000 and 1500 for artificial images (A.I), that we also call phantom images I and II respectively. The fMRI had alternating blocks of 6 non-active and 6 active volumes, beginning with non-active volumes. Activated volumes had a 6 × 6 × 3 activated region in the center of the volume, with two non-activated regions of 2 × 2 × 3 voxels each.
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same one used for the evaluation without failures. Figure 10 shows the average response time of the three systems. The yellow vertical line (i.e.700 seconds on x-axis) marks the point where one replica is killed. The behavior of these systems right after the fault occurs shows that for Middle R to recover from the node failure needs about 60 seconds while in case of C-JDBC it takes about 180 seconds. The response time for Middle-R and C-JDBC before fault and after the recovery is about 30-35 milliseconds. That is, both systems are able to stabilize after some time. The recov ery time for MySQL Cluster is lower, about 5-10 seconds. MySQL Cluster with two replicas performance is not very good when executing TPC-W. We can observe the increase in response time until the fault occurs and after the recov ery, the response time is lower and stable in comparison to the response time before the failure.
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Another successful application of PTC came between 1906 and 1911 where Frank Shuman and Charles Vernon Boys created a solar concentrator system in an Egyptian village to generate energy. Their design used several strips of flat mirrors with slits in between each of them to allow the wind to blow away the dust. It also used a thermopile (or thermostat)- controlled motor to automatically track the sun in the sky, where an increase in temperature would start the motor until it was shaded again. The plant was so successful that Shuman was asked to develop more solar plants around the world but the advent of World War I plummeting oil prices and this type of technology was economically impossible to implement .
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The Mataquito Bridge is a 320 m-long, 8-span, reinforced concrete structure that crosses the Mataquito River close to the Pacific Ocean. Each abutment of this bridge was supported by two rows of four drilled shafts of circular cross section. The selected borings for liquefaction evaluation were S-1A and S-2A located near the south and north abutment, respectively (Figure 2.1a). The north abutment showed negligible damages, and since the most notable damages were near the south abutment, the presented results are based on the S-1A boring. Boring S-1A showed that the presence of liquefied mate- rial was confined to the upper 5 m of the soil deposit (Figure 2.1). Given that the piles’ length was ∼17 m, approximately two thirds of the piles lengths were well embedded. This probably provided enough vertical and lateral support for the piles to resist the verti- cal and lateral loads, despite the occurrence of liquefaction at shallow depths. An average value of (N 1 ) 60 cs ≈ 9 blows/ft was estimated for the full depth of the liquefied layer. The
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The frequent need of localized small pavement repairs during the year, presents CMA as the perfect candidate for this type of work. Initial studies in the late 70’s evalu- ated the use of cold mixes in pavement patching operations . Prowell and Franklin evaluated a wide variety of cold mixes in the mid 90’s for the Virginia DOT patching oper- ations, and developed a performance rating system involv- ing visual inspection of the patches for the presence of bleeding, dishing, debonding, raveling, and pushing/shov- ing, as well as measurements of workability and patch sur- vival rate . They concluded that mix instability is one of the major limitations preventing the use of cold mixes as successful patching materials.
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Currently, the evaluation of the work performance of public servants must respond to the achievement of a highly qualified, motivated and efficient staff, and that allows to improve the results of the objectives and goals set by the institution. The objective of the research is to theoretically analyze the evaluation of work performance and show some ideas regarding the evaluation of the job performance of public servants in the Republic of Ecuador. At first, the terms model and performance evaluation are conceptualized, then, different considerations are shown regarding the management models for the evaluation of work performance, the proposals of steps presented by the authors, the policies to be followed and different models addressed in the literature. In a second moment, the evaluation of the job performance of public servants in the Republic of Ecuador is characterized.
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of unconstrained sharing, the performance seen by an individual user in a multi-user environment is dependent on the load placed on the system by other users. Users have no reasonable guarantee of minimum performance even if they are using much less than the share of the resources they are assigned to. A single user or process can easily load the system unfairly, and tie up a large fraction of the resources. Examples of activities that can lead to unfair load are a user starting many processes, a process touching a large number of pages resulting in a huge working set, or a process making a large number of accesses to a disk.”
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This thesis deals with the detection of masses in mammographic images. Such masses are signs of breast cancer. The contribution of the thesis is the development of a new framework for the detection of masses by taking breast density into account. As a ﬁrst step, Regions of Interests (ROIs) are detected in the image using templates containing a probabilistic contour shape obtained from training over an annotated set of masses. Firstly, PCA is performed over the training set, and subsequently the template is formed as an average of the gradient of eigenmasses weighted by the top eigenvalues. The training set is clustered into sub-sets of equal size so that PCA can be applied. The template can be deformed according to each eigenmass coeﬃcient. The matching is formulated in a Bayesian framework, where the prior penalizes the deformation, and the likelihood requires template boundaries to agree with image edges in both position and tangents. In the second stage, the detected ROIs are classiﬁed into being false positives or true positives using 2DPCA, where the new training set now contains ROIs with masses and ROIs with normal tissue. Mass density is incorporated into the whole process by initially classifying the two training sets according to breast density. Methods for breast density estimation are also analyzed and proposed. The results are obtained using four diﬀerent mam- mographic databases (three digitized and one digital). FROC and ROC analysis demonstrate the validity of our approach. The results show a better performance of the approach relative to competing methods. The false positive reduction stage improves the outcome signiﬁcantly, and the breast density information provides also an improvement.
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Communications in mobile opportunistic networks, instead of using the Internet infrastructure, take place upon the establishment of ephemeral contacts among mobile nodes using direct communication. In this paper, we analytically model the performance of mobile opportunistic networks for contact-based messaging applications in city squares or gathering points, a key challenging topic that is required for the effective design of novel services. We take into account several social aspects such as: the density of people, the dynamic of people arriving and leaving a place, the size of the messages and the duration of the contacts. We base our models on Population Processes, an approach commonly used to repre- sent the dynamics of biological populations. We study their stable equilibrium points and obtain analytical expressions for their resolution.
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Since its release, the Java programming language has attracted considerable attention from the high- performance computing (HPC) community because of its portability, high programming productivity, and built-in multithreading and networking support. As a consequence, several initiatives have been taken to develop a high-performance Java message-passing library to program distributed memory architectures, such as clusters. The performance of Java message-passing applications relies heavily on the communications per- formance. Thus, the design and implementation of low-level communication devices that support message- passing libraries is an important research issue in Java for HPC. MPJ Express is our Java message-passing implementation for developing high-performance parallel Java applications. Its public release currently con- tains three communication devices: the first one is built using the Java New Input/Output (NIO) package for the TCP/IP; the second one is specifically designed for the Myrinet Express library on Myrinet; and the third one supports thread-based shared memory communications. Although these devices have been successfully deployed in many production environments, previous performance evaluations of MPJ Express suggest that the buffering layer, tightly coupled with these devices, incurs a certain degree of copying overhead, which represents one of the main performance penalties. This paper presents a more efficient Java message-passing communications device, based on Java Input/Output sockets, that avoids this buffering overhead. Moreover, this device implements several strategies, both in the communication protocol and in the HPC hardware support, which optimizes Java message-passing communications. In order to evaluate its benefits, this paper analyzes the performance of this device comparatively with other Java and native message-passing libraries on various high-speed networks, such as Gigabit Ethernet, Scalable Coherent Interface, Myrinet, and Infini- Band, as well as on a shared memory multicore scenario. The reported communication overhead reduction encourages the upcoming incorporation of this device in MPJ Express (http://mpj-express.org). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The primary aim of this study was to analyse all technical elements used in the Rhythmic Gymnastics Kiev World Championship 2013, and identify the Structural characteristics of the technical content of elite Rhythmic Gymnastics individual routines. The data has been collected from the difficulty forms concerning 288 individual routines. To allow the comparison between gymnasts with different levels the individual routines were clustered into 3 subgroups according to their final ranking competition. Body difficulty elements were organized, according to the composition requirements stated in the RG Code of Points (FIG, 2012). Non-parametric tests - Kruskal-Wallis, Mann- Whitney and Friedman test were applied to determine whether there were significant differences between groups. As main results we can point out that in general the rhythmic gymnasts used similar body difficulties with limited variety. The highest valued elements are Dynamic Elements with Rotation and throw (DER) and rotations and these represent 50% of the total value of the routine. Concerning the dance steps and mastery, no differences were found between the routines of gymnasts place in the three parts of the ranking. The routines had differences in the composition pattern between the gymnasts according to the final ranking of the gymnasts in following items: (i) on the number of rotations of flat foot or other part of the body, Fouetté rotations and Mixed Difficulties; (ii) on the value of jumps, rotations, DER and Mixed Difficulties.
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The Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model was developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Grell et al. (2005) and Fast et al. (2006) updates incorporated into the WRF the chemical transformations, complex gas-phase chemistry, photol- ysis, and aerosols, creating in this way the WRF-chem model. In order to work with the WRF-chem model outputs, there are several computing packages: NCL (NCAR, 2015); GrADS (COLA, 2015); NetCDF (UNIDATA, 2015); and the Unified Post-Processor (UPP), developed at NOAA (DTC, 2015). All of them are very useful to visualize and extract information. Also, there are statistical tools that serve to evaluate the performance of model simulations, in some cases comparing the simulation results against observations.
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Abstract. This article presents the result of a study whit the objective to identify and measure the impact of the factors that the citizens uses to evaluate the public management performance in a specific territorial and temporary space in the sphere of action of local government. With a sample of 250 Mexican citizens that normally live in Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon, Mexico conformed by 126 (50,4%) women of between 23 and 73 years with a mean of 43 years old and 124 (49,6%) men of between 18 and 71 years with a mean of 38 years old, the most important findings allowed to identify the factors that mainly influence the evaluation that the citizen does about the local government performance are: the effectiveness of the public services, the honesty of the public workers and the accountability just only linked to the access of public information. The study also offers evidence that confirm variation does not exist between men and women in their way of local government performance evaluation. Palabras clave: Acceso a la información pública, desempeño de la gestión pública, efectividad de servicios públicos, gobierno municipal, percepción ciudadana
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These shortcomings are a source of future research. For example, AHP pairwise comparisons might be replaced by another technique that does not relies so heavily in expert availability. Moreover, AHP is a well-known approach for solving MCDM problems that has being researched for several years. In this dissertation I used a classic implementation of AHP, yet many variants of the process has being proposed over the years and their application to this particular problem can be analyzed. On the other hand, due to the partial execution of PECA, there is still a lot of work to be done. A research about good metrics for the evaluation attributes presented in Figure 4.2 and their respective measurement methods would be an excellent complement to this effort. The development of complex distributed systems is often a roadmap filled with obstacles that we must overcome. This dissertation allow us to make a step on this direction by supporting engineers in the execution of a fundamental task for assuring the success of the systems based on the reuse of OTS software.
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pertenecen, y debate críticamente su interpretación basándose en indagaciones sobre el tema, género y contexto. (J.4., S.4.) (Ministerio de Educación, 2016, pág. 148). I.LL.4.9.1. Compone y recrea textos literarios que adaptan o combinan diversas estructuras y recursos, expresando intenciones determinadas (ironía, sarcasmo, humor, etc.) mediante el uso creativo del significado de las palabras y el uso colaborativo de diversos medios y recursos de TIC (I.3 I.4). (Ministerio de Educación, 2016, pág. 149). I.LL.4.7.3. Utiliza elementos gramaticales en la producción de entrevistas (adverbios, locuciones adverbiales, oraciones compuestas coordinadas, adjetivos connotativos y no connotativos, reglas de uso de la c, reglas de uso de la z, reglas de uso de la coma), en función de mejorar la claridad y precisión y matizar las ideas y los significados de oraciones y párrafos. (I.3., I.4.) (Ministerio de Educación, 2016, pág. 147) .
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Symbol spotting systems are intended to produce a ranked list of regions of interest cropped from the document images stored in the database where the queried symbol is likely to be found. Symbol spotting can thus be seen as a particular application within the Information Retrieval (IR) domain. Usually, retrieval systems are evalu- ated by precision and recall ratios which give an idea about the relevance and the completeness of the results (we will briefly review these measures in section 7.3). These basic measures can be enhanced considering many other indicators depending on the application. For instance, Lu et al. evaluate in [LSS07] a set of desktop search engines by deriving a set of ratios from precision and recall to indicate the abilities of the systems when incrementally retrieving documents. M¨ uller et al. evaluate in [MMS01] content-based image retrieval systems, proposing some strategies to take into account the way the number of items stored in the collection affects the results and how user feedback can improve the response of such systems. Kang et al. eval- uate in [KKL04] a text retrieval system which uses semantic indexing, focusing on the distribution and amount of key-indices used to index the database. Finally, we can find in [HWH07, NBM06] the performance analysis of some information retrieval systems having the information distributed in a peer-to-peer network (P2PIR), which takes into account the query response time, the network resources requirements and the tradeoff between distributed and centralized systems. As we can see, the coverage of information retrieval topic is so wide that even if researchers use similar indicators to evaluate the performance of their methods, no general evaluation framework can be defined. In our case we will also base our measures on the notions of precision and recall by adapting them to the recognition and location abilities that the spotting systems should present.
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diferentes escalas con el fin de caracterizar mejor la funcionalidad de los individuos. Las escalas de fun- cionalidad más utilizadas en los pacientes oncológicos son la Escala del Estado Funcional de Karnofsky (Karnofsky Performance Status scale; KPS scale o escala KPS) y la escala ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group). Además de estas 2 escalas que se utilizan para los pacientes con cáncer, se ha desarro- llado la Escala Paliativa de Funcionalidad (Palliative Performance Scale; PPS o escala PPS), la que está enfocada no sólo al paciente oncológico en fase final de vida sino que también para el paciente en cuidados paliativos en general. El detalle de las escalas se en- cuentra en las Tablas 1, 2 y 3, respectivamente.
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Typically, computationally intensive codes present little overhead when run- ning on virtualized environments, whereas I/O bound applications, especially network intensive ones, suffer significant performance losses . Thus, mes- sage passing applications whose scalability heavily depends on start-up latency performance were initially highly inefficient in such virtualized environments. There have been many studies of virtualization techniques in the litera- ture, including performance enhancements focused on reducing this I/O over- head. Paravirtualization  was introduced in order to reduce the perfor- mance overhead associated with emulated I/O access to virtual devices. Liu et al.  describe the I/O bypass of the Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM), or hypervisor, using InfiniBand architecture, extending the OS-bypass mech- anism to high-speed interconnects. The use of this technique has shown that Xen hypervisor  is capable of near-native bandwidth and latency, although it has not been officially integrated in Xen so far. Nanos et al.  developed Myrixen, a thin split driver layer on top of the Myrinet Express (MX) driver to support message passing in Xen VMs over the wire protocols in Myri-10G infrastructures.
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