empirical strategy for the identification of the impact(s) of interventions, thus excluding studies based on beneficiary satisfaction and participation self-evaluation. The systematic review suggests that Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have experienced a large increase in the number of IE studies conducted in the last decade, and the time trend in our sample of countries is similar to that one in the rest of LAC. Peru has been very productive and is clearly a leader in the first sample while Mexico leads the second group. In both areas, about 70% of the studies were produced after 2005. In terms of thematic focus, social protection programs make up for the largest share of the evaluated programs, 24% of the studies in our area of focus and 29% in the rest of LAC. This is partially due to the fact that most of the countries in the region have implemented a cash transfer program, but also to the example of the Mexican Progresa- Oportunidades program that benefitted from a rigorous impactevaluation strategy. In addition, accessibility to IE databases led to a multiplicity of studies per program. In both our area of study and the rest of LAC, programs in the fields of education and entrepreneurship (including microfinance) were also assessed through rigorous IE studies. On the other hand, agricultural and rural development programs are more important in our area of focus, while urban development programs are more prevalent in the rest of LAC, which is likely a reflection of the difference in relative importance of rural and urban poverty in the two groups of countries.
Abstract: Rural poverty, a widespread problem for the Paraguayan government over the last decade –as well as for other economies in the region-, led to the implementation, in 2016 and 2017, of the “Sembrando Oportunidades Familia por Familia” pilot program, an initiative based on the graduation approach to reduce the incidence of extreme poverty in rural areas. Evaluating the intervention results is essential to understand the effectiveness of this approach in reducing poverty in the Paraguayan context, where the government is in charge of its implementation. For this evaluation, an instrumental-variable impactevaluation and a results evaluation were conducted, showing significant positive changes in the treated households’ productive capacity and savings behavior as well in their perception of wellbeing. These results are useful for the design of a program that can help to effectively overcome extreme poverty in this and other developing countries. This exercise is part of the set of evaluations carried out by the Platform for Evaluation and Learning of the Graduation Program in Latin America (www.plataformagraduacionla.info).
The challenge of carrying out an impactevaluation is to be able to compare the firm ’ s performance after program intervention to what would have happened if the firm had not participated in the program (Storey, 2004). Since the hypothetical scenario (not participating in the program, having made it) cannot actually be seen, the challenge of impact evaluations consists in identifying a group of firms that are similar to the group receiving the treatment (program beneficiaries) in all aspects, except for their participation in the program. Thus, the difference between the average of the variable performance of treated firms and the average of the variable performance of companies in the control group would provide a good approximation of program impact.
Over the last two decades, there has been an increased interest in development research and practice in the role of religion in shaping development outcomes. This article has sought to contribute to that literature by exploring how to incorporate a spiritual dimension into the evaluation of social programmes. We have done so by employing the concept of integral human development. We argued how Amartya Sen’s capability approach could serve to clarify and operationalise the concept, and we used a faith-based drug addiction recovery programme in Argentina as an example of how a spiritual dimension could be incorporated into impactevaluation. The proposed framework for integral impactevaluation has five distinctive characteristics. Firstly, it measures the effects of an intervention on multiple dimensions of life and examines the interconnection between dimensions. Secondly, it integrates knowledge and methods of analysis from multiple disciplines. Thirdly, it seeks to understand the diverse pathways that lead to programme experiences and outcomes. Fourthly, it argues that the spiritual dimension of life can be evaluated by considering changes in relationships with oneself, others and the territory, and by examining how people choose to live out these relations. Fifthly, it is concerned with transformations that occur at both the personal and community levels, changes that emerge through the creation of opportunities and space for dialogue.
The public authorities, which include the Catalan regional authorities and the Spanish central authorities, receive nearly a third of the total Service impact (31.66%). The Catalan authorities get 16.38% in social value, generated by saving on the use of resources - residential, for example - and social welfare benefits, such as the allowance for a non-professional carer. Both of these are included in the Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons Act (LAPAD). They also save on the use of health resources, as the people who benefit from this Service make less use of the primary care and emergency health services.
with a reduction of 2.08 FTEs for the Cart-Count process due to the selected level of GS1 application. Subsequent computation might sum personnel savings across the entire supply chain to predict the overall provider impact. As with required investments, LRIM does not translate such estimated impacts into dollar gains because details of provider operations vary widely. However, model results do provide a quantitative foundation on which to base dollar savings computations at particular sites.
ABSTRACT: Noise complaints can sterilize the use and potential expansion of important transportation infrastructure, such as airports and highways. On the other hand, if these facilities are not fully assessed and properly planned, noise emissions can create widespread and unacceptable health and environmental impacts. This paper outlines the Canadian regulatory approach to protecting transportation infrastructure from encroachments and restrictions from “new neighbors,” as well as criteria for the approval of new or expanded highways and airports. Topics canvassed include who, as between the proponent and the neighbor, has the burden of impact avoidance; the role of environmental impact assessment; land use and building design noise attenuation requirements; property noise warnings; and the availability of financial compensation for noise impacts. A limited comparison is made to U.K., U.S. and European laws and practice.
may have lower quality than the deterministic solution, by running the full clustering algorithm hundreds or thousands of times, we will hopefully es- cape from local-optima solutions and get some solutions which are actually better with a lower information loss. This will allow us to use a more com- plex evaluation of the solution scoring, more focused on the quality of the recommendations that we would get with the clustering. We will then just choose the clustering solution that damages the least our utility score.
Indeed, considering a single fixed car speed, if we increase the areas length we can see a successive increase of the permanence time length in the single area and a larger time action of the material agent (danger) on the receiver. For the risk evaluation, we use the equivalent sound pressure level L EQ,A , because this parameter let us compare, on a common time length,
Ideally, several months before program implementation is planned to begin, evaluators should meet with the funder’s project officer, government officials of the implementing country, and program managers involved in the evaluation. In these preliminary meetings, evaluators can gauge stakeholders’ knowledge and attitudes concerning evaluation, discuss potential designs, and identify key institutional barriers to rigorous evaluation—particularly issues of programmatic support and timing of the intervention and/or evaluation. When barriers are identified, evaluators can discuss with stakeholders the concerns that underlie these barriers, and take appropriate steps to mitigate potential threats to a rigorous study design. This practice is particularly salient if a pilot phase is being considered and the additional time required to introduce new concepts is available. Although conducting a full impactevaluation of the pilot phase is not realistic, typically due to limited sample size and time limitations on programs with relatively short periods of implementation, the (formative) evaluation of such a pilot would offer key stakeholders the opportunity to better understand the main components of an evaluation design, which are: (1) target population, (2) selection process of potential participants, (3) key research questions, (4) nature of the intervention, (5) key outcomes, and (6) feasibility of collecting baseline and follow-up data. To the extent possible, this evaluation of the pilot should be included in the overall evaluation budget. Thus, the evaluator will be in a better position to design an impactevaluation that is adequately customized to the needs of the funder, the program, and the implementing country.
The cycle starts with having experiences, experiencing the ‘concrete, tangible, felt qualities of the world’ (concrete experience – ‘feeling’). The second stage of the cycle involves reviewing these experiences, watching others involved in the experience and reflecting on what happens (‘reflec- tive observation’ – ‘watching’). In the next stage, new information can be gained by thinking, analysing or planning (‘abstract conceptualisation’ – ‘thinking’). Here, one tries to make sense of the information available and make conclusions or develop theories. The fourth stage involves planning and working with these new ideas (‘active experimentation’ – ‘doing’). It also signals that you’ve completed the learning cycle. And so the cycle continues. Being explicit about moving through each stage of the learning cycle has proven to be a very helpful tool in problem- solving and project management. This learning cycle can also be applied in an evaluation, see the example in Box 4.1.
While the specificity of PCR and stool culture tests is the same, PCR tests are almost twice as sensitive as stool cultures (Table 2). Thus, the type of diagnostic had a lar- ger impact on readmission of infectious children than the number of tests performed. We estimated that the likelihood of reentering school while infectious after one negative PCR test was 2 to 6%, compared with 8 to 31% for two consecutive negative stool cultures. If only one negative culture was required, the likelihood that the child returned to school infectious ranged from 28 to 56%. The number of childcare-days lost per child for the exclusion policy involving one negative culture varied from 7 to 12 days for children receiving immediate, ef- fective treatment, and from 16 to 28 days if the child re- ceived ineffective treatment. If two negative cultures were required, this interval ranged from 9 to 19 days if the child received immediate, effective treatment and from 20 to 44 days if the child received ineffective treatment.
The evaluation of WRF model PBL parameterization schemes was separated into two main research works. First, PBL heights simulated in the WRF model were validated against the lidar-EKF estimates over Barcelona. WRF model-simulated PBL heights were evaluated using eight unique PBL schemes. Test simulations with the WRF model reveal a clear favour to non-local PBL schemes, with the Assymetric Convective Model Version 2 (ACM2) scheme showing the closest correlation to lidar-EKF estimates. Surprisingly, the widely-tested local Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) scheme showed the weakest correlation coefficients. Ambiguous results are found when evaluating the model-simulated PBL heights under the most representative synoptic situations. In all cases, the local University of Washington (UW) scheme produced the lowest daytime maximum PBL height. In the least complex case of a clean free troposphere the MYJ scheme showed the closest model-simulated PBL height to the observations. With more complex cases such as regional recirculations and effects due to Saharan dust intrusions the results are varied, with no clear favourite scheme.
consideration is that the governmental entity that administers the programme could display a committee selection bias for participant selection by choosing the better firms/applicants to whom funding should be extended (OECD, 2008). These sources of selection bias should be considered in the analyses of the financial policies. According to BAKER (2000), an evaluation of the impact of public financial aid programmes involves determining whether the programme produced the desired effects for its participants and whether those effects are attributable to the programme intervention. Various authors have sought to analyse the effectiveness of public policies for SMEs in different markets. These studies have analysed i) the impact of one or more financial aid policies in a given country (e.g., HYYTINEN and TOIVANEN, 2005; CHANDLER, 2012, among others); ii) the impact of a specific aid in a particular sector of the economy of one country or one region (CANNONE and UGHETTO, 2014), and iii) the impact in a specific phase of entrepreneurship activity in a single country (e.g., WALLSTEN, 2000; ALMUS, 2001; BRADSHAW, 2002; HONJO and HARADA, 2006; RIDING et al., 2007; CRAIG et al., 2008; KOBEISSI, 2009; MOLE et al., 2009; OH et al., 2009, among others). In the particular case of Spain, we find that CALVO et al., (2004) have studied a group of firms that received subsidy and that MADRID GUIJARRO and GARCÍA PEREZ DE LEMA (2008) have analysed the impact of financial aid in one of the 17 Spanish autonomous communities (Murcia Region). RIVERA and MUÑOZ (2004) have studied the subsidies received by the industrial sector compared with other country sectors, and GARCÍA-TABUENCA and CRESPO-ESPERT (2010) have evaluated the impacts of two financial aid programmes, the subsidy credit of the ICO SME line and the impact of the Spanish guarantee system provided by an MGS. Summaries of these studies are presented in Table 1.
Secondly, the user may wish to generate some expressions which were omitted before in the evaluation. Ideally, the user schedules and performs the rewriting actions that will illustrate the evaluation. The expression fact 4 in Subsection 2.1 is a good example of schedule, where the first steps are shown in detail, but after the first recursive call only some expressions are shown. However, it is more realistic to consider that the user may need to backtrack in the middle of the evaluation to modify the set of generated expressions. The environment provides a backtracking facility to rewind the evaluation to any intermediate expression, saving him/her from restarting at the beginning. As a consequence, the visualizations following the new active one are deleted. Thirdly, the user may wish to change slightly the input data of an algorithm (i.e. the expression to evaluate), such as the value of an element in a data structure. Instead of having the user to recreate the animation from scratch, WinHIPE supports the rebuilding of such an animation in an easy and consistent way. A “rebuilding animation” facility is automatic for modifications in input data that do not alter execution behavior (i.e. the nature and number of rewriting steps remains constant). For situations where there are changes in the rewriting process, it also allows rebuilding the part they have in common.
University Service Learning is seen as a clear response to University Social Responsibility (USR). In the Physical Activity and Sport field there is an increasing number of good practic- es of USL applied in different contexts and adopting a series of perspectives, from a holistic conception of the person, related to human movement such as education, health, inclusion, socialization and recreation. Nevertheless, through a literature review of this topic, it is per- ceived that the evaluation of these practices has mainly focused on the effects on students’ learning. Therefore, the evaluation of its social impact has been certainly disregarded. The present article attempts to deepen in this sense; in consequence, its objective consists of proposing an evaluation model of the impact of the USL of the Physical Activity and Sport practices, paying special attention to the social aspect of the service. The proposal present- ed in this text is based on the Stakeholders Theory (Freeman, 1984) and it is developed bearing in mind the idiosyncrasy of USL in Physical Activity and Sport. To pin down this proposal, we provide some criteria and specific indicators to evaluate the social impact. Keywords: Service-Learning, Physical Activity, University Social Responsibility, Evaluation, Higher Education
This can occur even when gender considerations are well embedded in planning processes. In EC development cooperation in general, gender is a required element in the logframe of every project, and a basic gender analysis is theoretically guaranteed by the submission of a standard gender impact assessment form with every project financing proposal (although the latter has fallen largely out of use in the last few years). In DFID, gender issues must be addressed in the social appraisal that is part of every project memorandum. In practice, however, these mechanisms do not always ensure that gender equality is mainstreamed in project implementation. In Bangladesh, for instance, it was found that often there had been no gender analysis included in the initial ToR for project reviews, or in strategy processes. Closing the Gap has found that the successful implementation of activities designed to mainstream gender equality depend very largely on the institutional mechanisms for promoting gender equality and on the people involved at all levels. Their commitment, gender knowledge and competence, the gender mainstreaming tools at their disposal, and the resources and support they have to enable them to carry out the policy imperatives of gender mainstreaming meaningfully, are all necessary elements.
La evaluation que se aplica a los alumnos en la que se mide el desempeno de los docentes, se viene realizando desde hace ya varios ahos y tiene como objetivo conocer el desempeno de los profesores, segun la opinion de los alumnos, consta de 20 preguntas en las cuales se evalua la forma en que el docente imparte el profesor su curso, si da o no a conocer el programa, la forma de evaluar, la forma en que desenvuelve de manera general el docente.
Some impacts will only be measurable after a certain time of programme implementation and only the impacts found ex-post will allow a final judgment of a programme (EC, 2006b). However, according to the European Commission setting up the quantified targets is important because otherwise the extent to which the original objectives are being met cannot be measured. In spite of this, the European Commission also recognizes the difficulty of ex ante impact quantification concerning impact definitions, data availability and performance of explanatory models holding the quantification. In the Synthesis Report of ex ante evaluations for the programming period 2007-2013 (EC, 2008), evaluators also expressed their concern about the many difficulties, such as the lack of data or the external effects faced when having to quantify impact indicators.
Several studies have evaluated whether blocking certain signaling pathways of inhibitory receptors, principally PD-1 and CTLA-4, has a positive impact on the dysfunc- tional processes that occur in the different T-cell popula- tions during the course of Leishmania and T. cruzi chronic infections. However, most of them have been carried out in experimental infection models. In general, the report- ed results suggest that the inhibition mediated by PD-1 or CTLA-4 could be critical in the progression of the dis- ease and the maintenance of the infection in the host, since blocking these pathways markedly reduces the parasitic load. This drop in parasitemia could be closely related to the improvement of the functional capacity of the T cells, achieving a less exhausted immune response and a great- er propensity to optimal control of the infection. Some of these studies have demonstrated that the recovery of func- tionality is greater in the CD4 + T cell population than in