Abstract: Legal psychology as psychologist´s professional specialty has had an expo- nential development in recent decades, considering itself a consolidated field within applied psychology. Within legal psychology especially noted for its eminently prac- tical forensic psychology, classical specialization within the world of psychology in English-speaking countries and that in Latin America has begun to take on special relevance in recent years. This specialty set technical advisor support of judges and courts in matters where the psychological aspects are important and may even become transcendental, being criminal and civil areas where forensic psychology has shown greater tradition to date. However, not all forensic psychology is limited to criminal or civil jurisdictions, but it is becoming more and more relevant in other domains (e.g. military, canonical), and especially with regard to workplace and social jurisdic- tions and administrative litigation are those that relate to the field of labor relations. Inthe present theoretical review is intended to analyze the fundamentals of forensic psychology intheworkplace and the assumptions on which is more relevant, such as the assessment of the capacity for working or the implications of psychosocial factors (job stress, burnout, mobbing) inthe health of workers and its forensic implications.
Janet Holmes is Emeritus Professor in Linguistics at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. She is an Honorary Professor at the University of Warwick (2010-2016) and in 2010 she was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by Uppsala University, Sweden. She is Associate Director of the Wellington Language intheWorkplace project and she was also Director of the project which produced the Wellington Corpus of Spoken New Zealand English. She has published on a range of sociolinguistic and pragmatics topics, including New Zealand English, sexist language, pragmatic particles and hedges, compliments, apologies, disagreement, humour and small talk. Her publications include a textbook: An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, a book of readings: Sociolinguistics, co-edited with John Pride, New Zealand Ways of Speaking English, co-edited with Allan Bell, and several books on language and gender, including Leadership, Discourse and Ethnicity, Gendered Talk at Work, Women, Men and Politeness, and the Blackwell Handbook of Language and Gender.
some authors have argued that it might actually have created a socially-shared mentality of being expected to only do effortless things and not feeling further responsible for the effects of one´s patterns of consumption and emissions production (Crompton and Kasser, 2010). Organizations themselves, as it has been pointed out inthe theoretical review to this study, have started to consider environmental responsibility as something more than an afterthought, mostly due to regulatory pressures and increases in citizens´ demands for environmentally- friendly practices (and sanctioning of organizations that do not endorse them). Furthermore, it has been argued that besides pro-environmental behaviour as part of work tasks, the environmental performance of organizations can be considerably enhanced if workers become an active part of the process of promoting sustainable practices intheworkplace, as initiators of behaviours outside mandated tasks and actively involved in suggesting organizational changes that can be more far-reaching (Delmas & Petkovic, 2013). Besides the pragmatic considerations of organizational pro-environmental performance, the active involvement of workers in organizational change has been said to contribute to higher job satisfaction and higher commitment to commonly agreed-upon goals (Delmas and Petkovic, 2013). Supervisory efforts and costs are diminished as well, so there are tangible gains for organizations in promoting active involvement in organizational strategy-development, including environmental plans and policies. While private organizations are still slow in endorsing a culture of workplace democracy, public organizations can be adequate places for developing such cultures and become models in efforts to achieve sustainability.
The results of the confi rmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the CPPC-17, with a heterogeneous Spanish sample validate DiLiello and Houghton’s (2008) three-factor model with a sample of employees working for the United States Department of Defense. This was corroborated by the indexes that showed the goodness of fi t of the model (TLI = .923, CFI = .934, RMSEA = .066). The fi rst factor consists of six items and is called F1.-Creative Potential. This refers to one’s ability to generate innovative ideas, to the ability to solve problems creatively and to feel comfortable experimenting with new ideas. The second is called F2.- Practised Creativity and has to do with the possibility of having the opportunity to use one’s own creative capacities, of putting forward ideas for improvement and of taking full advantage of one’s creative competencies; this factor is made up of fi ve items. And the last factor is F3.-Perceived Organizational Support, made up of six items, which have to do with the degree of recognition the organization gives to its employees’ creativity, how it rewards
While the condition of decent employment retakes the political-discourse emphasis on the capacity of inclusion of the labor market, the key question seems to be whether this time it will make it under conditions and criteria of participation and citizen election. Citizen and worker seem to be the two fundamental figures of the contemporary social scenario, two figures that attain –in relation to what Naredo (2001) calls the crisis of the productive working reason – to reemerge in fragmented terms, segmented by consumption and strong social distance, never equivalent in their contribution and that moving away further from the opportunity of stability and social justice.
This research will also help us to avoid the problem of self-reporting, where managers’ perceptions of their actions might be more positive than those of other stakeholders. This is important as publicly expressed policies do not always correspond with the realities experienced by others involved in a company. The South African company, Sasol, for example, has been through an important learning process in this regard. The company is a diversified fuel, chemical and related manufacturing and marketing company with a total staff of 30,000 worldwide. Recently it has taken considerable strides to resource and co-ordinate its response to HIV/AIDS and to reduce the gap between stated policy and practice. Such efforts follow inthe wake of research that raised questions about the level of response (Dickinson 2002). This inquiry suggested that Sasol’s response had been under-resourced, unco-ordinated, and localized in nature. Implementation was uneven across business units within the company, and across different programme aspects. The report concluded that programme aspects were often implemented on the basis that they were relatively easy to undertake (for example, AIDS awareness programmes that could amount to promotion of World AIDS Day once a year) and because they enabled the business unit to report that “something was being done”. More difficult programme aspects (such as STI treatment) were less likely to be implemented for a number of reasons, including the resources involved and the need for such programmes to be supported, and therefore co-ordinated, by a number of disciplines within the company if they were to be successful. The study also noted that there was little monitoring of programmes or strategies to respond to the impact of HIV/AIDS on the business. Despite assertion that an atmosphere of openness, disclosure, and acceptance had been created in many business units this was not, in fact, found to be the case. This was illustrated by the fact that only 5–10 per cent of infected people who were eligible for the company’s HIV/AIDS disease management programme had come forward and participated in it. This finding was valuable in highlighting what UNRISD’s research colleagues in South Africa described as the “structures of discrimination” that operated below the company’s public policy. These structures of discrimination included the overlooking of suspected HIV-positive employees by supervisors for training and promotion.
Transgender people live a more complicated and dangerous situation in their daily life. The same study reveals almost 70% of the 70 people FELGBT interviewed had received insults in recent time, 31% where harassed and 42% of them suffered denial of access to work. In addition, it shows that 16% were victims of sexual assault or abuse, while 9% suffered violence with injuries and 12% violence without injuries. On the other hand, 19% admitted having suffered discrimination when accessing health services, 31% having suffered it when trying to access other types of services. This evidence is proof that Spanish society still suffers from transphobia for which it does not help at all that our current legislation continues to consider trans people as a “disease” despite the fact that the World Health Organization removed transsexuality from the list of mental disorders in 2018. There are many discriminations that transsexual people face at school, work, healthcare.
In terms of accepting and confronting events faced by both young (Gen Y and Gen Z) and old (BB and Gen X), we can see differences which are clearly linked to people’s baggage and past experience. In general, there is a greater sense of accepting and confronting private events among people from BB and Gen X, without a doubt it is this experience which has taught them that it is better to take these on and confront them rather than avoid them. Gen Y and Gen Z see themselves as having more tools for avoiding these, and they even consider avoidance as being easier and more convenient due to the opportunities provided by new technology and networks. Due to the functional ubiquity of mobile devices, these youngsters have the option to never close down a line of action; they are involved in everything without giving up on anything, which seems like a way of avoiding confrontation. They complain that they do not have enough time or opportunities to deal with events in a reflective and profound manner.
Another aspect of employment quality relevant to worker health and safety concerns a range of discriminatory practices, either within theworkplace or in accessing the labor market. Rates of unemployment and precarious involvement inthe labor market are higher among ethnic minorities, migrants, women, and youth (16,17). Black men experience higher mortality rates due to occupational accidents (22), while a higher incidence of nonfatal workplace injuries has been detected among African-American nurses compared to their white colleagues (23). Perceived racial discrimination intheworkplace has been linked to nonfatal occupational accidents in urban Brazil (16), a country often portrayed as a racial democracy. Migrant workers are more likely to hold dangerous jobs and show an increased prevalence of alcohol abuse (8). Although mortality rates due to occupational accidents are lower among women than men, women are more likely to develop work-related musculoskeletal (24) and psychological disorders (25), both recognized as causing long-term disability. Additionally, women are more likely to face the so-called double burden, taking care of household chores and childrearing while also holding a paid job, a factor that has been associated with minor psychological disorders (21).
In Spain, since the establishment of Foundation for the Training of Employees (Fundación para la Formación Continua) in 1993, a spectacular growth of training plans and training agencies has taken place. The efforts have been focused on the quantitative development of employee training systems and on the consolidation of training habits throughout working life and in organizations. But the impact of these efforts is unknown, because training evaluation has been a deficient practice (Pineda-Herrero, Moreno-Andrés & Durán-Belloch, 2014). In an context of economic crisis, there is a need for measures aimed at reducing expenditures that has driven the government and the companies to question the cost-effectiveness of the approach to training used until now, more interested inthe number of workers who have attended any training initiative or inthe number of training courses delivered, and to prioritize training impact intheworkplace (Renta-Davis, Jiménez-González, Fandos-Garrido & González-Soto, 2014). The concern for transfer of training and for its evaluation is making a dominant appearance on the stage.
In past and recent research, we have looked at how people build their compe- tence in relation to work. The following is part of our background: VET lit- erature as well as literature on transitions into employment, apprenticeship or dual systems as mechanisms to facilitate learning; coaching and mentoring and supervision as methods to support learning, experiential learning or learn- ing intheworkplace (Abietar, Marhuenda and Navas 2013; Córdoba and Martínez, 2011; Malloch, Cairns, Evans and O’Connor, 2011; Marhuenda and Navas, 2011; Evans and Waite, 2010; Stenström and Tynälä, 2009; Mill- er and Blackman, 2005; Steadman, 2005; Evans and Niemeyer, 2004; Rain- bird, Fuller and Munro, 2004; Mutch, 2002). Of all these, however, we have chosen Michael Eraut’s approach of learning trajectories. Why Eraut?
The general objective of this course is for the student to develop the values, approach and interpersonal skills necessary for management of people and communication intheworkplace. Although it draws on a number of key concepts of management theory, the focus is primarily practical. In an increasingly globalized workplace, students have an opportunity to develop personally as communicators in international business.
The previous studies have assessed psychological fl exibility intheworkplace by administering the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ; Hayes et al., 2004) or the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II; Bond et al., 2011). These instruments were designed to measure general levels of psychological fl exibility, as averaged across different contexts, in clinical and community samples. Nevertheless, the ACT model suggests that psychological fl exibility is contextually controlled and, therefore, can vary across different contexts (e.g., Bond et al., 2013). For instance, a person may show considerable psychological fl exibility inthe context of sport competitions (e.g., training as much as possible even inthe presence of physical pain or stress), but at the same time, she may show psychological infl exibility inthe work context by allowing herself to be controlled by her fears of failure instead of by her values.
Graduates of our programs report that some of their courses prepared them for the realities of the professional translation workplace but that the range of tasks they were expected to perform there often surprised them. Some of them discovered that much of their work time was spent not just translating source texts in one of their languages into target texts in another. Instead, adapting texts for different readerships, editing, post-editing, revising non-na- tive users’ writing, and proofreading seemed to have become a big part of their brief. Developments in software applications and business processes in many translation companies have kept pace with some of these changes, but relatively little research has been done intheworkplace to determine how professional translators are coping with the new demands placed upon them. Since professional translation is an economic activity, there are commercial interests and needs to consider. As Martin (2007: 60) puts it, translators must “balance risks and resources” to achieve economical “fit-for-purpose” transla- tion, with quality demands ranging from modest (e.g., for gist translations of content for company-internal use) to extremely high (e.g., for image-relevant or legally binding material). Throughout the process, translators occupy a central position as experts inthe complex system of translational action (cf. Holz-Mänttäri 1984), managing their attentional resources (cf. Campbell & Wakim 2007) and bringing various types of competence to bear in order to complete the task at hand.
In order to solve a mobbing situation, it is only necessary that an arbitrator stops the harassment sin- ce the victim will not be able to cope with the haras- sing group by him/herself and his/her balance will become more and more weak, getting to symptoms of stress and anguish. The purpose of the harasser’s techniques is to persuade us to admit the harassment of another human being. If the environment allows to be manipulated, if it does not intervene, mobbing settles. All the conflicts degenerating into harassment happen because they are tolerated, because nobody intervenes. It was already stated by Leymann when he said “they hide themselves saying that it is a personal problem and this abstention is guilty”. The behaviour of the envi- ronment will determine the settlement of harassment as well as its destructive degree. Therefore, we can sta- te that interpersonal conflicts will not degenerate into any kind of harassment in a healthy working environ- ment. For this reason, we consider the role of the organization and the business good practices to be important in order to stop violence intheworkplace. All human beings are responsible for the eradication of violent practices and it is not fair to delegate our acts to someone else.
Overall, several attempts have been made to apply the recommendations of studies on stress intheworkplace and to instruct workers in coping mechanisms and multidisci- plinary partnerships. A proper intervention should focus on solutions that involve the active participation of institution- al employers. Workers who do not exercise regularly gen- erally have higher levels of stress. Physical activity is also associated with psychosocial benefits; for example, the so- cial interaction and interpersonal communication that take place during exercise can serve as strategies for coping with stressful situations. If nothing is done to alleviate stressors, workers’ clinical conditions may emerge or worsen. Over- work may make appropriate periodic medical monitoring difficult. Many diseases may result from the effects of stress and lack of an adequate clinical follow-up. Although the worker may not realise it, the body responds to a lack of care through the emergence of chronic diseases, which could be prevented or detected earlier through medical monitoring and changes in behaviour and lifestyle.