Individual and Society

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Discourse Theory: Language, Politics, and Society

Discourse Theory: Language, Politics, and Society

Now if we take discourse analysis a level of description, critical discourse analysis promotes it to the level of interpretation and representation. And, while explaining and interpreting text, answers the question why this text should be selected out of possible linguistic options. And, over a certain occurrence, why individuals use certain expressions. Critical language and syntax discourse analysis relates these whys? Less to author. It asserts that institutions and organizations manage this collection and from text and individual is only part of it. Indeed, it holds that production and comprehension of text has to do with macro contexts like history, ideology, society, culture, and power. On the other hand, its critical view is toward the theory assumes language to be a mirror which clearly reflects concepts and thoughts. Critical discourse analysis believes that unlike the mentioned definition, language is an opaque mirror which most of the time misinterprets realities. Critical discourse analysis opines that footprints of worldview, values, and socio-cultural categories are observable all over language (Emami, 2007).
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9 Lee mas

MOBILE NETWORK SOCIETY AND CULTURE

MOBILE NETWORK SOCIETY AND CULTURE

With a little risk we can predict that an average interlocutor’s reaction to the word technology will be positive. Technology, along with modern science, which is legitimately considered to be its mother, is perceived as a major factor of economic and societal transformations we are witnessing these days. Tech- nology is regarded as a mighty and somewhat mysterious force that can help resolve human problems. This generally positive attitude is commonplace though people are usually aware of and remember well all dramatic threats and negative consequences the technology can cause. Examples of Hiroshima and Chernobyl, of thaliomid and BSE, acid rains, greenhouse effect—to mention just a few cases only, are still remembered traumas. In a sense, from today’s perspective technology has become the Stendhalian mirror carried down the middle of a road and reflecting the major problems, dilemmas and tendencies of our time. So why is our overall attitude vis-à-vis the technology in general posi- tive? Marshal McLuhan explains that technology extends and strengthens hu- man attributes and qualities, e.g. an excavator adds forces to our muscles, a microscope reinforces eyes, a bike makes locomotion easier and faster, and networked computers increase our intellectual capabilities. The latter has done it in such a broad, deep and efficient way that these days we are in the transforma- tion process from an industrial or postindustrial society to the so-called network society where conventional growth factors (capital, labor, natural resources, energy, etc.) become less critical giving way to information, knowledge and innovation. To McLuhan’s theory justifying the attractiveness of technology we add the following: Technology strengthens our individual and collective ego.
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13 Lee mas

Higher education as a common good in China: A case study for ideas and practices

Higher education as a common good in China: A case study for ideas and practices

After the field trips to the community, they had a chance to contact community organizations, talk to people in need, and conduct interviews. Students gradually realized their individual relationship with the society was minimal and their involvement in the society was limited. Some of the students began questioning their communication skill, organizational skills, social competence, and problem solving skills. On this aspect, the current SYSU service-learning programs still has room for improvement. First, we have to understand that students will be shocked and may even feel doubtful about themselves when they are initially immersed in a community. Instead of merely “releasing” students from the ivory tower of higher education, service-learning also must guide students to proactively enter the community, to understand the community, and to serve the community. Only when students are seriously serving in the community might they realize the importance of understanding the community needs from the community’s own perspective and of appreciating the community members’ own sense of how to better improve themselves. Through this kind of experience, students are able to understand the relationship between an individual and the society, as well as the individual’s responsibilities for the society. This is what we call cultivation of civic awareness as well as the future direction of improving the practice of service-learning.
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CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS AND SERVICE PROVISION

CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS AND SERVICE PROVISION

Alternatively, Rein and Wadensjo (1997) argue that there is no certainty that private delivery is more cost effective and efficient, and that focusing on cost detracts from the question of quality. They suggest that the main problem with the market approach is that it removes the redistributive element found in state provision. It creates inequality by excluding the poor and creating geographical imbalance. Again there is the question of choice—while private provision may potentially offer more choice, only certain people are able to benefit from these choices. Choice depends on the ability of people to have access to the necessary resources to benefit. Similarly, Hughes (1998) argues that the privatization of welfare provision ignores social differentiation and that individual consumer interests conflict with the public good. Perhaps of most concern for CSOs is that NPM can lead to social exclusion in that people most in need of help—the weak and marginalized members of society—do not receive adequate levels of support, and that a managerial elite is established that is increasingly distanced from both the users and the providers of services (Mackintosh, 1997). It can also lead to a fragmented service in which there is no consistent policy and the users are unclear as to who is responsible for provision. Furthermore, an NPM focus on efficiency can lead to short-term goals of improved
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33 Lee mas

Innovation, Journalism and Future

Innovation, Journalism and Future

Consensus-seeking journalism or consensus develop- ment has been considered quite typical for Finnish pub- lic discussion. Uskali and Luostarinen (2006) write that Finnish public discussion culture is actually harsh to- wards new and different openings and reject views that differ from the dominant line. New initiatives are thus very easily blocked out from the public discussion. The coverage of Esko Aho´s debate opening was an ex- ample of the possible existence of a Finnish consensus paradigm. Esko Aho of Sitra provocatively proposed in September 2005 that people who take good care of themselves should be rewarded by some kind of a bonus system, while people with unhealthy lifestyles should pay bigger payments for their health care. Aho asked who had courage to say that society cannot afford to take care of old people because lifestyle-related diseases con- sume all the resources. In public discussion Aho’s notion was deplored and even compared to health-apartheid. Aamulehti commented in its editorial page: “One may expect that as influential a person as Esko Aho would have a serious solution, if he interferes in the problems of welfare society”. (3.9.05, italics added) Aamulehti used also the “Hitler-card” and Aho’s suggestion was furtive- ly compared to 1930’s Nazi Germany. Even though one may think that Aho’s opinion is ethically untenable, it seemed that the goal of public discussion was to elimi- nate this kind of opinion as soon as possible. A debate opening about an awkward issue was not desirable and Aho was challenged to give a wrapped and ready solu- tion if he wanted to participate in public discussion. Probably journalists do not consider journalism as con- sensus-seeking at all. From their standpoint, journalism offers different opinions presented in different sections of the paper over a longer period of time. However, it is some kind of a journalistic fallacy that audience read journalistic products in the same way - as an entity. Interested readers may do active follow-up and obtain a diverse picture of the theme, but for average readers localising tensions between opinions and really challeng- ing the dominant way of thinking is difficult, if there are not enough individual stories where ambiguous elements and opposite opinions are brought together. Stories with an edge, contradictions and tensions are also challeng- ing the reader to participate in public discussion more than stories with consensus, harmony and conformity. (e.g. Kunelius, 2000) Although Aamulehti clearly tries to produce many-sided journalism about ageing, the major- ity of stories give the dominant problem-framed picture of the issue.
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92 Lee mas

Participatory Media in the Curriculum—and in Society

Participatory Media in the Curriculum—and in Society

This issue-based self-government and problem-solving exercise requires students to write free-form on their user pages in a wiki, invite comment, and then discuss and refactor for use in actual public wiki pages. First, the class suggests and discusses, then the teacher selects a topic that appears to be engaging to them. The students then go into a wiki and, on their individual user pages, write what they think about it (this can be imported or refactored content from their blogs, or their other past work, if it is relevant and useable). Students are then asked to rationally and civilly discuss and debate the pros and cons of each other’s individual work on these user pages, borrowing rules and social norms from existing wiki communities, when applicable. It is preferable that students actually choose themselves the rules that they will be governed by. The teacher encourages students to turn parts of their work into actual pages about the different facets of the subject, and to grow these pages. Each student is required to create at least two new pages from the note pages he or she has written in his or her initial work. Each student is also required to add a comment to at least two other nonuser pages, and instructed on how to refactor his or her comments and discussion into content on the page itself. All of the student wiki participants are then tasked with creating one or more joint resolution/proposals about how they think they should be governed regarding this issue. This wiki exercise could become an integral part of ongoing stu- dent involvement in all student issues (sports, fundraisers, activities, educational programs, etc.).
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22 Lee mas

CIVIL SOCIETY AND ACCOUNTABILITY

CIVIL SOCIETY AND ACCOUNTABILITY

A third version of civil society is the ‘post-modern’ version. The revival of the term civil society has been criticized by anthropologists from a relativist position. Both activist and neo-liberal versions, it is contended, are a Western discourse. Comaroff and Comaroff (1999) talk about the way civil society has become a ‘neo-modern’ myth, with its own legitimizing narrative. They talk about the ‘‘archaeology’’ of civil society ‘‘usually told, layer upon layer, as a chronological epic of ideas and authors’’ starting with an ‘‘origin story’’ in the late 1700s. Outside Western Europe and North America, it is contended, civil society, in the sense of individual rights and voluntary associations, never extended much beyond a few capital cities (Hann and Dunn, 1996; Mamdani, 1996; Koonings and Krujit, 1999). Yet there exist various traditional and neo-traditional organizations, based on kinship or religion, that remain autonomous from the state and offer alternative sites of power or autonomous spaces. In Iran, for example, ‘‘various religious and bazaar institutions and groupings, under powerful mullah patrons, and the duality of state power between the presidency and the spiritual leadership, constitute some plurality of power as compared with neighbouring states’’ (Zubaida, 2001, p. 244)
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TítuloScience, technology and society: a philosophical perspective

TítuloScience, technology and society: a philosophical perspective

Cognoscitive progress in science depends on the theoretical base; technological advance depends on the technical base and this in turn depends on those disciplines which are most directly linked to the artifacts; and changes in performance, organization, agents and as a result, theories of actions depend on the organizational base. How does the social factor manifest itself in these three elements? In the first it may play a part in the selection of prioritized lines of research. Even today different lines of research may develop within the research of pure sciences and there is no doubt that a particular field of research which forms part of (or may form part of) the theoretical base is a point in its favor when it comes to prioritizing and granting financial support. In the second element the social factor is of greater and more direct importance. Many possible technological strategies are possible in order to satisfy a need. It is clear that technology is not the answer to everything but, in most cases, there are various ways of solving a problem with benefits and harmful effects for distinct social groups. Therefore, both technical possibilities and prevailing sociopolitical and ethical values converge in this element. In the third element the social factor is the main one and that which determines progress. Everything revolves around human action (individual and collective), which means that the part played by social agents is crucial in this third element.
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Referencias 
          bibliográficas

Referencias bibliográficas

84. Alberda C, Gramlich L, Jones N, Jeejeebhoy K, Day AG, Dhaliwal R, Heyland DK. The relationship between nutritional intake and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients: Results of an international multicenter observational study. Intensive Care Med 2009;35:1728-37. 85. Liu KJ, Cho MJ, Atten MJ, Panizales E. Hypocaloric parenteral nutrition support in elderly

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Aplicación del Plasma Rico en Factores de Crecimiento autólogo en asociación con Céleulas Madre Mesenquimales derivadas de grasa en el tratamiento de heridas experimentales en el conejo / tesis doctoral presentada por Deborah Chicharro Alcántara ; dirigid

Aplicación del Plasma Rico en Factores de Crecimiento autólogo en asociación con Céleulas Madre Mesenquimales derivadas de grasa en el tratamiento de heridas experimentales en el conejo / tesis doctoral presentada por Deborah Chicharro Alcántara ; dirigida por [el] Dr Joaquín J Sopena Juncosa, [la] Dra Mónica Rubio Zaragoza, [y el] Dr José María Carrillo Poveda

se le han realizado heridas cutáneas las MSC, en un periodo inicial, se quedan atrapadas en el pulmón y a partir de día 1-3 las podemos encontrar en el lugar de la herida (Kidd et al., 2009). En un individuo sin heridas no encontramos rastros de las MSC tras 2-3 semanas post-inyección, en cambio en individuos con heridas un pequeño porcentaje de las MSC permanecen en el lugar de la herida durante un periodo de tiempo más prolongado contribuyendo al proceso de reparación cutánea mediante la secreción de varias citoquinas y la transdiferenciación de las mismas en tipos celulares específicos del tejido. Con lo que se concluye que las MSC se pueden administrar de forma intravenosa en pacientes con heridas cutáneas crónicas ya que estas son capaces de migrar desde la circulación hasta los lugares de inflamación y daño tisular, además la biodistribución y comportamiento de las MSC pueden ser controladas mediante técnicas de diagnóstico por imagen como son la resonancia magnética (Rustad and Gurtner, 2012). Dichas células presentan una potente propiedad angiogénica, por lo que sería interesante su aplicación en heridas con problemas de vascularización (Rustad et al., 2012).
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Activism and Civil Society: Broadening Political Participation

Activism and Civil Society: Broadening Political Participation

1. Object: A revolt against ‘politicians’ - the aspects of these protests that stands out is the contempt, anger and hatred expressed towards rep- resentatives or politicians (Mason, 2013). The Arab Spring had its ori- gins in deep disaffection and mistrust of local elites across North Af- rica, culminating in the overthrow of the Egyptian Prime Minister. The accusation was that elites had become corrupt and indifferent to the needs of ordinary people. This in turn led to street protests and occu- pations as the logical as well as symbolic expression of people’s out- rage. With ‘nowhere else to go’, the street and squares become the setting for the expression of these frustrations. This gesture resonated in Spain, which has similarly endured a crisis of legitimacy brought about by corruption, cronyism and clientelism exercised by the two main political parties. Events in Iceland were sparked by evidence of collusion between politicians and bankers that led to the Icelandic state going bankrupt, and with it losing the savings and pensions of many citizens. Occupy Wall Street was a response to the incompe- tence and self-serving of ‘the 1%’ or elites considered in general terms to include both bankers and politicians. In Turkey the protests were triggered by the insensitivity of local politicians to objections to an inappropriate development at Taksim Square. Around the world, politi- cians are in the firing line – as signalled not just by revolt but by the rise of populist movements dedicated to overturning ‘bureaucracy’, ‘waste’, and the corruption of elites.
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TítuloDream Society and changes in tourist activity

TítuloDream Society and changes in tourist activity

Dentro de este contexto sería importante el considerar las ideas expresadas por Rolf Jensen en su teoría de la Dream Society o Sociedad del Ensueño, presente en su obra de 1999 The Dream Society: How the Coming Shift from Information to Imagination Will Transform Your Business. En este estudio, el propio autor destaca como, desde su perspectiva, “en un siglo en que la sociedad está marcada por la ciencia y el racionalismo, por los análisis y el pragmatismo, viene el análisis simbólico a ocupar la posición más elevada de la sociedad –es aquí, precisamente, donde las emociones, las historias y las narrativas, los valores retornan al escenario–”. Para Jensen, “la sociedad del ensueño sugiere eso mismo”, por lo que “el mercado de los sueños reemplazará gradualmente al mercado basado en la realidad de la información” o, dicho de otra manera, “el mercado de sensaciones eclipsará al mercado de productos tangibles” (Jensen, 1999: 3-4).
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Las sombras del caminante de Ena Lucía Portela

Las sombras del caminante de Ena Lucía Portela

  La   recurrencia   del   suicidio   en   la   narrativa   porteliana   incita   a   una   preocupación  por  la  incidencia  de  dicho  fenómeno  en  la  isla.  En  To  Die  in   Cuba,  Louis  A.  Pérez  Jr.  señala  que  el  suicidio  es  un  fenómeno  histórico  que   se  encuentra  en  el  centro  de  las  fuentes  de  la  formación  nacional  (2005:   386);  que  constituye  una  forma  de  imponer  la  voluntad  del  individuo  sobre   las  circunstancias  como  un  acto  de  autonomía  individual  (Pérez  Jr.,  2005:   385),   y   que   se   asume   como   parte   del   repertorio   del   comportamiento   cultural  del  cubano  (2005:  388).  Por  lo  cual  su  significado  histórico  en  Cuba,   para  Pérez  Jr.,  reside  en  la  capacidad  de  revelar  la  forma  de  operación  de   los   sistemas   normativos   y   sus   construcciones   culturales;   en   insinuar   la   presencia   de   tensiones   internas   y   contradicciones   morales   asociadas   con   las  más  íntimas  experiencias  de  los  cubanos  y,  a  través  de  las  cuales,  éstos   se  involucran  en  la  vida  cotidiana  y  determinan  su  deseo  de  vivir  (Pérez  Jr.,   2005:  386).  La  muerte  de  los  protagonistas  de  La  sombra  del  caminante  se   impregna  de  una  densa  significación  en  un  contexto  social  que  les  somete   constantemente   a   términos   de   aprobación   y   desaprobación   ―asociados   con   patrones   de   significado   simbólico   reconocibles―   con   los   que   continuamente   confronta   tanto   los   hechos   privados   como   los   actos   públicos  (Pérez  Jr.,  2005:  385).  
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CIVIL SOCIETY, DEMOCRATISATION AND FOREIGN AID IN AFRICA

CIVIL SOCIETY, DEMOCRATISATION AND FOREIGN AID IN AFRICA

Several organisations received little by way of funding from foreign aid and have relied more on domestic sources, but with varying consequences for internal governance and political efficacy. FABCOS leveraged support from white corporations in the early years of its existence and gradually moved towards financial self- sufficiency through income from a private equity fund used to fund black business investments. Foreign aid was provided for specific projects and training and for office infrastructure and equipment, but it never became a dominant source of income and such support ended in 1998. Donors, domestic corporate and foreign, endorsed the objective of black economic empowerment and did not question the basic competence of the organisation. FABCOS was perceived to hold the promise of a de-racialised capitalism and a source of restraint on government, but in reality it advocated greater government intervention in favour of its members’ interests. FABCOS has neither had a significant impact on policy nor has it contributed to democratic governance by holding government to account or providing a voice to its members, who are reduced to passive consumers of services. Hence while it has managed to achieve organisational sustainability and financial independence, FABCOS did not contribute to democratisation in any meaningful manner, leading to the conclusion that ‘official donor intervention in particular lacks the strategic grasp of South African conditions to ensure that interventions aimed at democratisation are likely to achieve their stated goals’ (Hlophe at al. 2001).
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WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2015: MID, SOCIETY AND BEHAVIOR

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2015: MID, SOCIETY AND BEHAVIOR

Teachers in preschool can also play an important role by enhancing early positive investments made by parents and compensating for early deficiencies. Like parents, the ability of teachers to promote a warm and positive emotional climate in the classroom is critical for helping children develop their noncognitive skills, as well as their cognitive abilities. An analysis of teach- ers and learning outcomes in Ecuador (Araujo and others 2014) documents substantial effects of the qual- ity of preschool teachers (and of teacher practices) on both math and language outcomes, as well as on exec- utive function outcomes. Programs that help teachers define rules and build skills to discipline students and scaffold self-regulation reduce children’s stress and anxiety, thus lessening the need for teachers to impose discipline. Classroom curricula such as the Tools of the Mind (Bodrova and Leong 2007) and Montessori focus directly on enhancing self-regulation, with a strong emphasis on social pretend play, taking turns, and the child’s own planning of activities. There is some evi- dence that these approaches may be effective in improving children’s executive functions, with sus- tained effects on reading and vocabulary into the first grade (Blair and Raver 2012). Programs that supple- ment classroom curricula—such as Promoting Alterna- tive Thinking Strategies (PATHS), used in the Head Start REDI program in the United States—teach teach- ers to build children’s understanding of emotions, competencies in self-con trol, and interpersonal prob- lem solving (Bierman and others 2008).
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Activism and Civil Society: Broadening Participation and Deepening Democracy

Activism and Civil Society: Broadening Participation and Deepening Democracy

Figure 3 reports participation in demonstrations, with rather stable, but low levels of not more than 10% of the population pretending to have taken part in demonstrations in the 12 months before the interview, where Spain had overall higher levels and over 30% in 2004. that year Spain suffered the 11 march bomb attacks and aznar’s government’s information manipulation about those responsible for the attacks. During the same period, there was a change of government with psoe s’ electoral victory.

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Network rethinking of nature and society

Network rethinking of nature and society

In general, ANT advocates organize their thought about entities in a similar way to system ecologists. They consider social and natural agents in a common framework and simultaneously adopt a conceptual distinc- tion based unavoidably on the assumption that between objects and subjects or natural and social agents, there is a difference. Nevertheless, the two network theories conceive the above “difference” divergently. According to system ecologists, the distinction living-non living has the status of an ontological dualism and leads to methodological differentia- tions, although all eco-systems obey to the same set of natural principles (Patten et al. 1997). On the contrary, ANT advocates argue that every distinction generated between nature and culture is not ontological; na- ture-culture dualism does not exist a priori but it is produced ex post. The latter means that the classification of entities into the social or the natural domain results from co-constructionist processes occurring in networks, where objects or subjects act. In other words, “networks are sets of relations which give rise to the objects and dualisms that make up our world: ‘machines, people, social institutions, the nature world, the di- vine—all are effects or products’ (Law and Mol 1995: 277)” (Murdoch 1997a, p. 743). Thus, regarding again the paradigm of grazing, the natural scientist and the soil chemical materials do not preexist. They are associ- ated, mutually modified and co-constructed during scientific practices that take place in the laboratory. As Latour puts it, natural and social agents “mutually exchange and enhance their properties” (Latour 1999, p. 125).
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28 Lee mas

New Medical Technologies and Society. Reordering Life / Health, Technology and Society. A Sociological Critique

New Medical Technologies and Society. Reordering Life / Health, Technology and Society. A Sociological Critique

poración de académicos STS a las nuevas ins- tituciones reguladoras de la innovación tecno- lógica, tanto en los entornos nacionales como —de forma muy significativa— en los órganos asesores de la Comisión Europea (comisarías, comités, grupos de trabajo...). Así, resulta cre- cientemente central en la sociología de la cien- cia lo que el call for papers del próximo Con- greso conjunto (Rotterdam, 2008) de la Euro- pean Association for the Study of Science and Technology y la Society for the Social Studies of Science denomina la aproximación acting with o intervencionista. Reflexionar sobre la nueva posición en la que esta modificación del locus institucional coloca a la disciplina, y so- bre los nuevos compromisos y responsabilida- des que surgen en esta situación, es hoy una de las tareas más urgentes para los sociólogos de la ciencia.
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Anemia and transfusion of red blood cells

Anemia and transfusion of red blood cells

Most RBC transfusions (RBCT) are prescribed for patients with relatively low levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and only in controlled situations. The underlying thinking is that the transfusion will increase oxygen transport and therefore decrease deficiencies thus “relieving” tissue hypoxia. However, this hypothetical benefit of RBC transfusions has not been unequivocally demonstrated. An inadequate supply of oxygen to tissues can lead to multiple organ failure and increased morbidity and mortality. These deleterious effects appear only with very low Hb levels when compensatory mechanisms do not work properly or are insufficient; however, that level is not exactly known.
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7 Lee mas

Experiences with educational robotic

Experiences with educational robotic

[20] points out that the basic difference between commercial complexes in relation to free ones, are: number of parts (gears, motors, etc.). In this aspect of low cost kits contain a limitation on the number of its parts; Collection of alternative materials. In this aspect both kits cost as commercial or manufacturing allow the customization of parts; Technical knowledge of electronic and mechanical modelling. In this aspect kits that require low cost to learn a specific programming in accordance with the kit purchased.

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