The 4IR have been announced during the presentation of Budget 2018 and been highlighted rapidly due to tremendous movement on technology. Historically, over 25 years since Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web, the internet has become part of the daily life of not only social, but also economic and political development. The IndustrialRevolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) is now widely spoken around the world. The emergence of a new technological wave known as ‘The Fourth IndustrialRevolution’ or the IndustrialRevolution 4.0 (Industry 4.0) and the era of ‘Digital Economy’ or the Digital Economy led the government to continue to work towards the success of the Malaysian Digital Policy. History states that the first IndustrialRevolution (RP) 1760 – 1830 referred to the use of water or steam technology capable of moving machinery. The next technological development involved electrical forces that triggered the second RP around 1870 - 1914. The third RP began at the end of the 20th century through information or digital technology. Now the world is said to have entered RP 4.0 phase.
IndustrialRevolution and its consequences. The subject resulted very enriching and the study of this topic made me curious and interested in this particular time of history. Unfortunately, the syllabus of the subject was quite dense and we could not dedicate the time we would have liked, so always remained on me the curiosity about this topic. Along the different courses of the degree we also had several subjects dealing with British literature at different times, when we studied the literature produced during the IndustrialRevolution. But even though both the historical and literary aspects were profusely dealt with in the course, there still remained one aspect that made me undertake this project: how the facts exposed in a literary way, or the raw data of historical facts did not cover the cultural aspect of the representation of the history of humankind in images.
as the few territories still characterized by the prevalence of traditional economic models. This does not mean, however, that there is only one way the market economy can be implemented. The latter is merely the genus, and many species are possible, each depending on a specific cultural ma- trix. For instance, there are profound differences between the Anglo-Saxon and continental European models of the market economy. The former is founded on a clear separation between the economic and social spheres. «Business is business», Chester I. Barnard (1938, 1958), the renowned Cali- fornia business theorist, taught in the 1930s, meaning solidarity and social justice are excluded from the market domain. Philanthropic institutions are the bridges that link the two spheres. The underlying conceptual frame- work of the European market economy has been substantially different from the outset, in that the company has never been only about business: consider the European phenomena of industrial districts, mutual aid com- panies, cooperatives and public enterprises. But above all, the European model is founded on the idea that the market is capable of harboring, along with the exchange of equivalents, the principle of reciprocity.
This research investigates if studying historical content through an innovative approach may show better results than traditional methods in terms of learning history. In this case study, the researcher tried to convey the differences in learning about the IndustrialRevolution using a traditionally text- book-based methodology versus a Content and Language Integrated Learning (hereafter CLIL) approach that included drama and music. The tar- get students assessed are two Y4 ESO groups of Spanish students in a public bilingual setting who learnt the topic through English language during the first term of the course. The students were assessed using a true/false test to determine the effect ofpre and post implementation tests. All data was collected and analysed following a quantitative methodology. The researcher’s null hypothesis was that there would not be difference between the two methodologies. The results of the study reject the null hypothesis and suggest that, for some topics, teaching history using drama and music could be even more effective than a textbook-based meth- odology. This study is part of a further research already in progress in this field for a reliable statisti- cal analysis.
Attention to built Heritage - e.g. Viollet Le Duc, Ruskin, Morris, etc. - started not far after the beginning of the IndustrialRevolution; yet in spite of this (maybe exactly for this reason, at least in the Ruskin vision of the matter…), Heritage protection hardly considers technical systems as a part of a building's history (and architecture), except in Anglo-Saxon research. Therefore, Heritage Building research relegates technical systems to the background, paying less attention to technical systems in spite of the retrofit of walls, floors, roofs, plasters, vaults, etc.
Parameter β > 0 implies that children are valued, whereas γ, ρ > 0 implies tribesmen dislike work. Parameter ρ > 0 indicates that, everything else being equal, a tribesman will want to spread his workload evenly between the two seasons. The utility of consumption is strictly increasing and concave: v' >0 and v'' < 0. Function u is an instance of Becker’s (1992) Malthusian utility function, which doesn’t include the quality of children as an argument. As Becker points out, before the IndustrialRevolution there were virtually no opportunities to invest on the quality of children; medical care, education, and training were just too rudimentary. Hence, for our purposes, omitting the quality of children from the tribesman utility function is harmless.
Addressing to the definition above, it is claimed that an industrial society make profit from the technological development of itself in order to substitute the force of humans and animals, as well as the turbines provided by machines. We are talking about a vast change which transformed the paradigm that human force is only capable of working for a certain amount of time; that the wind can stop blowing; or that a turbine may stop rotating if water freezes or dries. Otherwise, a machine never stops producing since they are created for lasting so many time, but with the required maintenance. Thus, it is confirmed that a machine produces more energy than a large number of humans or animals.
Hung and Inselberg () gave several results for developable and partial results for the representation in Parallel Coordinates of ruled surfaces using the Eickemeyer flats and the intersection of the surface with an adequate plane. In this paper, we extend this representation to 3-dimensional surfaces of revolution. The method of parallel coordinates defined by Inselberg and Dimsdale () fails when representing surfaces of revolution, as proved in this article. Therefore, it is not possible to use the Eickemeyer flats as defined in (). Another class of flats that includes the other, is needed. In order to do this, we define a new parallel coordinate system and a class of flats which we named a-parallel coordinates and flats a , respectively. Our approach uses a variation that allows the representation of
unattainable goal -- the elimination of all rules -- rather than a realistic goal -- the effective socialist transformation of the social relations and of the rules by which they are "codified" -- the ultra-left in fact obstructed the attainment of the viable goal. Furthermore, by opposing the socialist transformation of the division of labor and indefinitely prolonging a struggle pursuing an illusory goal, it helped disorganize production and violate the slogan "grasp revolution, promote production," and tended to discredit the Cultural Revolution in the eyes of the masses, who were getting weary of endless discussions and confrontations and of their destructive effects on production and everyday life. The ultra-left mobilized mass dissatisfaction with bourgeois work regulations and at the same time diverted it by encouraging its petty-bourgeois rather than proletarian aspects. It did this in various ways, but principally by legitimizing "private" discontent and sanctioning the view that individuals should not work unless they feel like it. Such a notion, of course, has nothing in common with communism -- it reflects the distorted ideas of "communism" as it is construed by the bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie. Through its activities and slogans the ultra-left placed numerous obstacles in the path of victory for the revolutionary line. The masses and revolutionary cadres of the Chinese Communist Party overcame these obstacles because they were able to develop proletarian practices inspired by the revolutionary line and Mao Tse-tung's instructions. These instructions summed up the lessons to be drawn from both the creative initiatives of the masses and the destructive practices of the ultra-left; they gave concrete indications re-
F Falso. Considerando que los productos de la competencia son sustitutivos a los de Revolution, S.A., al aumentar el precio de los ordenadores de esta empresa aumentaría la demanda de los productos de la competencia. (C.Eval. Orden 23/abril/2008, Anexo VII: exponer básicamente el concepto de oferta y demanda del mercado, así como el mecanismo de fijación de precios)
Revolution Fit tiene como proveedor principal a la empresa Lafayette, esta es una de las compañías productoras y distribuidoras de insumos textiles más representativas del país, gracias a los desarrollos tecnológicos que han implementado en los últimos años. Hoy por hoy es la única empresa en Colombia en implementar la nanotecnología para la producción de fibras textiles inteligentes. Es por esto que para las marcas interesadas en la confección de prendas con tecnología, Lafayette resulta un aliado esencial al brindar insumos con altas innovaciones tecnológicas a precios no tan elevados. De igual manera, cuenta con una capacidad productiva bastante amplia, capaz de acaparar todo el mercado colombiano de telas inteligentes, con tiempos de respuesta a los pedidos bastante rápidos y plazos de pagos que van desde los 30 – 90 días.
Revolution in the Church, libro que ha producido un cierto impacto en las Iglesias adventistas de la División Norteamericana, plantea un modelo de ministerio laico tomado de la Biblia y de Elena G. de White. En su segun- da obra Discípulos modernos para Iglesias revolucionarias, el autor propone “una nueva interpretación del término discipulado” (p. 4). Desde el comien- zo se hace claro que se trata de una reacción contra la pasividad de sectores del adventismo moderno (básicamente el norteamericano blanco) que se limita a “asistir y pagar” (p. 4). Se propone una reevaluación en el estilo de evangelización. Promueve la actividad y el compromiso de los discípulos en el ministerio (p. 5). Este discipulado requiere instrucción, en especial de los nuevos creyentes. La obra está animada por un propósito triple: “1.- Esta- blecer el discipulado concienzudamente como el objetivo del proceso de evangelización. 2.- Definir bíblicamente el discipulado. 3.- Examinar el pro- ceso de evangelización” (p. 6).
Además, para reforzar tanto el área de salud ocupacional y seguridad industrial, se establecerán medidas complementarias como: Charlas sobre prevención de accidentes y la importancia de la higiene y buenos hábitos de alimentación, las cuales se deberán impartir por lo menos 1 vez al año a todo el personal.
La vigilancia ambiental y biológica comienza con un estudio de higiene industrial del medio ambiente de trabajo para identificar posibles riesgos y fuentes contaminantes y establecer la necesidad de realizar mediciones. En el caso de los agentes químicos, éstas pueden requerir la toma de muestras del aire, de superficies, de productos a granel y de materiales biológicos. En el caso de los agentes físicos, puede incluir mediciones del ruido, la tempera- tura y la radiación. Cuando está indicado realizar mediciones, el higienista industrial debe desarrollar una estrategia de muestreo que especifique los trabajadores, procesos, equipos y zonas de los que deben tomarse muestras, el número de muestras, la duración y frecuencia del muestreo y el método del mismo. Los estudios de higiene industrial varían en complejidad y enfoque dependiendo del objetivo de la investigación, el tipo y el tamaño del lugar de trabajo, y la naturaleza del problema. No existen fórmulas rígidas para realizar los estudios; sin embargo, una preparación rigurosa antes de iniciar la inspección aumenta su eficacia y eficiencia. Las investigaciones que están motivadas por quejas y enfermedades de los trabajadores tienen la finalidad adicional de descubrir la causa de los problemas de salud. Los estudios de la calidad del aire interior se centran en las fuentes contaminantes tanto inte- riores como exteriores. Con independencia del riesgo profesional, el método general para estudiar y tomar muestras en el lugar de trabajo es similar; por consiguiente, en este capítulo se utilizarán los agentes químicos como modelo para la metodología.
• The explosion of mass tourism since the end of the Second World War has had a tangible effect on crucial flows of manpower, investment and production strategy towards the leisure economy in a large part of the world, with changes that take us back to what occurred two hundred years earlier in the heat of the IndustrialRevolution. However, perhaps it is in particular areas (as was the case with the thrust of industrialisation) such as the Mediterranean basin, where this view can be identified more accurately. Both approaches are reflected in the key objectives of the work.
Nevertheless, the generational nature im- posed by the explosion of digital culture translates into a true revolution in the use and operation of virtual social platforms. The im- portance of the Internet here is its potential for disintermediation: a more plural and di- rect participation than that of conventional intermediaries. Participating in the “wealth of networks” permits the creation of gaps in the value chain, positioning them near the end consumer (Benkler, 2006). For some of the companies analysed, promotion and network management is at the core of their business model. Comunitae is a financial intermediary which, using an online platform, connects people who need credit to people willing to lend. Verkami connects artists with patrons. Conexiones Improbables obtains public fun- ding for joint projects between companies and arts and humanities professionals. In all three cases we find newly minted intermedia- ries that create supportive environments for connection and obtain their income from ma- nagement fees. In all other cases, use of the Internet and social networking is inherent to their activities: Investic coordinate and use production networks for the production of free software; Designit generate small cogni- tive networks; Funky Projects retrieve infor- mation from users and experts for disruptive interventional work; and The Hub Madrid, as its name suggests, is an interconnection spa-
“Cuando hace unos seis meses comenzamos con el proyecto MindProject y el Tourism Revolution Ecosystem teníamos claro que ni podíamos ni queríamos ser una empresa al uso. Uno de los primeros problemas que tuvimos, incluso entre nosotros mismos, fue el de definirnos: ¿una consultora?, ¿una plataforma? Nues- tra naturaleza híbrida o mestiza nos impedía encontrar los adjetivos que nos des- cribieran al 100%. Pero si había una cosa clara era que queríamos ser, sobre todo, una empresa y un proyecto abierto, en el que la pertenencia al proyecto no dependiera de la existencia de una nómina o la permanencia de 8 a 3 en unas oficinas.”
El diccionario enciclopédico Larousse nos da una definición similar pero más actual de la palabra ya que introduce aspectos claves como la palabra “industria”, “comercio” o “público”. Su definición dice así: “Signo o medio material que sirve para señalar los productos de la industria, marca de fabrica o industrial, o del comercio con el objeto de que el público los conozca y distinga” (Larousse, 1999, p. 640). Podemos comprobar que aunque sigue una línea parecida al del diccionario de la RAE, introduce aspectos muy importantes que han cambiado el significado rudimentario de “marcar”. La marca, hoy por hoy, esta más relacionada con la industria y el comercio que con la marca de animales. A pesar de esto, a esta definición todavía le falta ahondar más y aunque se acerca más a la descripción perfecta de la palabra todavía no es suficiente.
3. Nevertheless, the status of tourism in each of the countries is different. In fact, the destinations could be classified into three main groups. Firstly, and continuing with the terminology of industrial history, the first comers, the pioneers, i.e., Spain, France and Italy; these three nations dominate Mediterranean tourism, as their market share ranges from 75 per cent to 95 per cent. This leadership is, in turn, shared worldwide with the United States and China. These destinations have a long life cycle, as they have been displaying a particular development model for several decades. Secondly, the late comers, those who are new to the process, Greece, Egypt, Turkey, Tunisia, Morocco, nations which are making progress in the achievement of their tourism objectives, but which do not manage to grasp significant market shares from the leaders due to the powerful expansion of the sector as a whole, as shown by the figures provided. These five are different from others, which have also experienced a significant increase in the number of tourists over recent years, because they display a regular and constant growth path, maintained for almost fifteen years. This leads us to consider them as nations which are emerging, yet established in the tourism economy, as their paths do not respond to particular climates. A third group consists of the remaining countries, more modest in size, which have been waking up to the tourism phenomenon relatively recently. These are destinations with erratic behaviour. They are countries (Albania, Algeria, Israel, Libya, Malta, and Monaco, among others) whose tourism variables have increased at a rate considerably below the Mediterranean average, or whose figures for arrivals, overnight stays and tourism expenditure have decreased (such as Israel). There are three fundamental reasons for the unpredictable behaviour of these destinations. Firstly, political instability, combined with the emergence of violent phenomena of a political/religious nature. This is illustrated by the cases of Algeria (where there were over one hundred thousand fatalities between 1992 and 1998 due to attacks by Islamic fundamentalists) and Israel (with the start of a new intifada in September 2000). Secondly, in spite of the growth in tourism in certain countries (Albania), these do not maintain it with the same intensity or for a long period of time. Finally, there are States (Malta, Monaco) which display similar characteristics to the traditional Mediterranean nations: it has been several decades since they were significant and they have begun to show signs of decline, with growth rates of the tourism variables at lower levels than their Mediterranean rivals.
Regarding the first premise, its demise appears as crises such as shortages in resources and energy and also, as environmental crisis such as climate change and desertification. These crises will certainly become more serious. As for the second premise, when the world’s agricultural nations with the largest populations, namely, China and India, develop into industrial societies, this will entails the rise of labor force value, and stagnation of consumption. The world capitalism has critically stagnated since the 1970s. This is proved by the fact that the long-term interest rate has remained low. The world capitalism tried to survive by globalization, especially entangling China and India into the world market. But in the near future, there will be no room for further