The results presented in this paper are in line with the current body of empirical evidence and the theoretical discussion regarding the effects of aggregate fluctuations on household welfare. In a middle-income country like Argentina, even deep crises have essentially no negative effect on schooling outcomes (if anything, they have counter- cyclical effects), but can result in a decline in health status as witnessed by the increase in maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight. In terms of Ferreira and Schady’s (2009) framework, substitution effects seem to limit potential school dropout, while income effects appear to dominate for health outcomes. As in Baird et al. (2009), these results are asymmetric over the business cycle: Downturns exhibit much larger effects (in absolute value) than positive shocks. Also as in Baird et al. (2009), the estimated effects of aggregate fluctuations are partially due to the presence of a very large contraction (2001-2002) in the period under analysis.
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Burial statistics indicate high infant mortality when large families were economically necessary. Fear of infant mortality resulted in mythologies of child-stealing goddesses and family religious practices to combat them. In addition to childbearing, women managed household economies, especially clothing production and food storage and preparation. Tools connected with these ac- tivities occur in houses at Israelite sites like Tell Masos, Tell el-Far„ah, Beersheba, and Tell Halif together with ritual lamps, female figurines, and amulets women used to control supernatural forces. Ancient Near Eastern house shrines and neighborhood cult rooms where residents pre- sented offerings to personal deities provide parallels that help interpret the votive artifacts Israel- ite houses exhibit. Biblical texts mention women performing religio-magical activities in their homes. Aramaic incantations designed to protect aspects of the domestic unit affirm women‟s leadership in protective household rituals.
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As a matter of fact, it seems that this policy has been more effective to improve the performance of the more developed municipalities, rather than that one of the least developed. Meiser and Roca (2010) find that most of the peripheral municipalities are poor. This spatial distribution of poverty coincides with that one of infant mortality rates, which presents higher rates in the same municipalities. Additionally, his phenomenon is persistent over time, and that recent infant mortality rates are correlated with low development levels of the municipalities in the past. This shows that social inequities within municipalities are a limiting element to reduce health-related differences. Thus, the theoretical and promising results of decentralization could be limited and the differences between municipalities increase in the long term. In line with, Soto et al. (2012) find that fiscal decentralization has a major effect on mortality rate reduction in the municipalities with a low proportion of households with UBN, in comparison with those with high levels of households with UBN. This indicates that a favourable local context (e.g. adequate technical and administrative unities, fiscal resources, etc.) is necessary for the local governments to be able to adequately assume their delegated responsibilities and thus reach the proposed objectives regarding social development. Experiences in other countries regarding devolving responsibilities to the municipalities confirm these results. Sousa et al. (2010) find a similar situation in Brazil, where policies and interventions focused on children under five years of age and enforced in a decentralized context have had better results in rich municipalities. The authors ascribe this result to the fact that poor municipalities in Brazil have limited access to drinking water and sewage and they lack adequate local healthcare facilities and qualified staff.
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Finally, this study shows that observing the re- gional average indicator hides the differences between the current IMR and LIMR in the territory. Therefore, public policies must be addressed from different levels and under the slogan ‘health in all policies’, consider- ing social determinants expressed as marginalization, poverty, rurality, and lack of access, and crucial factors such as education and health. These determinants have shown in several studies a close relationship with IMR and LIMR, and even more in the current demographic and epidemiological context, where identifying char- acteristics of the social and physical environment is a challenge that can explain inequities such as migration, pregnancy at extreme ages, and high-risk pregnancies, which could change the infant mortality profile of the country.
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The Philippine experience suggests that failure to protect the vulnerable from the consequence of a severe adjustment regime not only produces great hardship, but may prejudice the achievement of the adjustment objectives (UNICEF, Manila: 1988). The Philippines experience contrasts with that of most of the other Asian and Pacific economies. Stabilisation and structural adjustment measures were introduced in association with considerable external pressure from the IMF and other international agencies, and in the midst of a long and particularly severe economic crisis. A serious foreign exchange crisis 1983-85 led the Philippines to enter into its eighteenth stand-by agreement with the IMF in December 1984, under which the government had to comply with stringent performance criteria affecting the monetary and fiscal sectors, as well as tax and tariff reform and controls on public investment. The immediate results of the reforms included a sharp decline in economic activity, real GNP falling by 6.8 and 3.8 per cent in 1984 and 1985. Employment contracted, open unemployment increased, and real wages declined. The consequences for the vulnerable groups were soon apparent. Infant mortality increased from an estimated 57 per thousand in 1980 to 63 per thousand in 1984. It has been suggested that in 1988 70 per cent of the population of the Philippines were living in absolute poverty, meaning that they:
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of metropolitan regions and d) The Human Development Atlas of Brazil (ADHB)-2000, elaborated by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), in partnership with the Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA) and IBGE. From ADHB were obtained indicators of life expectancy at birth (both sexes), infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births), per capita family income (in Reais - $R) and Gini’s index, all aggregated for the 16 MRB. The quality of the death-related data used to calculate adult mortality can be considered satisfactory, given that the MRBs are highly urbanized areas encompassing state capitals and neighboring municipalities. Reporting in these areas is almost total and the proportion of deaths classified as «of undetermined cause» is at acceptable levels (mean six per cent).
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Results. Hospital characteristics are relevant to explain the variation in the individual probability of dying from myocardial infarction (median odds ratio: 1.3561). The risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality in cluster 3 and especially in cluster 4 hospitals (500 beds to 1000 beds and medium-high complexity) was significantly lower than in hospitals with less than 200 beds. Cluster 5 (more than 1000 beds), which includes a diverse group of hospitals, had a higher mortality rate than clusters 3 and 4. The adjusted mortality in the groups with the best and worst outcomes was 6.74% (cluster 4) and 8.49% (cluster 1), respectively. Mortality was also lower when the cardiology unit was responsible for the discharge or when angioplasty had been performed.
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In our study, we found a similar SMR for patients recruited in CoRIS, from 2004 onwards, and those recruited in CoRIS-MD, from 1997 to 2003, after adjust- ment for gender, age, transmission category and HCV infection. That is, the difference in the subject’s charac- teristics along these years, the decrease in the represen- tation of IDUs and the percentage of HCV co-infected subjects [11,16,17] were corrected after adjustment. Others studies observed a lower mortality in recent years with the improvement in antiretroviral therapies [18-21], although when specific groups were analyzed, for example: IDUs, found that mortality risk remain elevated .
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Parameters of growth and mortality estimates: Growth parameters for O. niloti- cus, estimated using FiSAT, were biologically feasible, because the growth performance rate (Φ’=2.85) was within the range estimated for other cichlid populations (Moreau et al. 1986, De Silva et al. 1988, Amarasinghe & De Silva 1992, Amarasinghe 2002, King & Etim 2004). The growth parameters estimated for the spe- cies (L∞=33.6cm, k=0.63/year and longevity 4.7 years) indicated rapid growth. According to some authors (Lowe-McConnell 1987, Win- emiller 1989) species at a low trophic level, such as O. niloticus, tend to have rapid growth, short longevity, and early sexual maturation, that applies to the present results. When we compared the growth parameters (L∞ and k) and the mortality rates (Z, M and F) estimated for O. niloticus in our study, with those esti- mated in other studies, several differences were apparent. Various endogenous and exogenous factors influence fish growth (Helfman et al. 2007) and these may be responsible for the observed differences. The level of fishing effort is a variable that clearly affects growth and mortality rates (Sparre & Venema 1997). This factor was identified as the cause of differ- ences (in terms of growth and mortality rates) between species of Oreochromis in two Asian lakes (Amarasinghe 2002). It is likely that high fishing efforts (Maruyama et al. 2009) will affect the growth and mortality rates of O. niloticus in the Barra Bonita Reservoir.
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Abstract: Hoplias malabaricus is a viable economic alternative for artisanal fishermen who used to live on the banks of rivers that now are dammed in Brazil. In order to preserve the species’ natural stock, the main objec- tives of this study were to obtain bio-ecological information on this species reproduction, feeding dynamics and the description of the extent of its exploitation in river-reservoir transition area in Brazil. This way, from January to December 2005, different fishery catches were made with gill nets by artisanal fishermen, and a total of 426 individual H. malabaricus were obtained and sampled. From each specimen, the following biometric and biological data were analyzed: standard length, total weight, stomach contents, reproductive data such as sex, weight and gonadal maturation stage; with these data we estimated sex ratio, reproduction period and feed- ing habits. To assess growth parameters and infer on the degree of exploitation, the standard length frequency data were analysed using the FISAT (ELEFAN I) computer program. Data revealed a sex ratio of 0.8:1 (M:F), that reproduction occurs all year around, being more intense during spring and summer; it also showed that H. malabaricus is piscivorous. The growth parameters and mortality were estimated at: L ∞ =35.18cm, k=0.32
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Despite of the fact that KEY COMPETENCES 4 are not regulated in the law for Infant Education in Spain, Miguel Delibes School from Burgos is working with them and it has integrated them in the curriculum for Infant Education 5 . Teachers should keep them in mind when designing their lessons as they are included in the three areas of knowledge 6 . First of all, and as the Council of Europe says, the world where we live is changing and developing every day, and it is important to provide our students with strategies to live in this globalized world and live a complete life in the three fields: personal, social and professional. Furthermore, key competences agree with the global approach teachers have to follow in Infant Education; so working with second cycle of Infant Education, even though it may be just as an English language teacher, teachers have to work according to this approach and make students develop as many competences as possible in each lesson.
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Tódolos artigos de validación e estudo da fiabilidade tiñan o obxectivo de avaliar as propiedades psicométricas das distintas ferramentas para coñecer se eran apropiadas ou non para valorar o desenvolvemento motor en nenos. Campbell et al. analizou a Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III) xunto coa escala Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP); esta última tamén foi analizada por Ustad et al.; a BSID-III Gross Motor Subtest (GMS) foi analizada por Jackson et al.; a escala AIMS foi estudada por Boozaaijer et al., Morales et al. e Nuysink et al.; a escala Test of Infant Motor Performance Screening Items (TIMPSI) foi avaliada por Krosschell et al. e Ustad et al.; Chandler et al. levou a cabo o análise da escala Movement Assessment of Children (MAC); a ficha deseñada por Gajewska foi estudada polo propio equipo do autor; Heineman et al. avaliaron a escala Infant Motor Profile (IMP); a Premie-Neuro foi analizada por Gagnon et al.; a avaliación dos movementos xerais a través da valoración observacional General Movements Assessment (GMA) foi estudada por Manacero et al. e Oberg et al.; Dempsey et al. a Brigance Screen-II e a Child development review (CDR); e Karch et al. levaron a cabo o estudo da medición cinemática dos movementos estereotipados.
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macroscopic appearance of the mucosa of the colon, but distinct histopathological changes upon microscopic examination. Clinical symptoms are chronic non-bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and weight loss. Biopsy is diagnostic and differentiates between collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. In humans, the incidence varies from 4–15 cases/ 100,000 population, and is higher in the elderly and in women (2, 3). The development of collagenous colitis in children is rare (4, 5). It is not commonly associated with an immunocompromised state, although cases of microscopic colitis have been reported in patients with organ transplants who were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (IS) (6). There is almost no information on the occurrence of collagenous colitis in nonhuman primates. In baboons, only one case has been reported in a large cohort of 132 baboons presenting with chronic colitis (7, 8). We report four cases (two of which were confirmed histologically) which occurred in a group of six infant baboons in our animal facility. All four were receiving IS therapy and developed clinical features of colitis within the same period of four weeks.
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The system has been fully operational since the beginning of 2013; results can be visualised at http://ind1.lma.fi.upm.es/eu-health. The system is fully automated, meaning that the entire procedure of running the models and producing the visualisations is controlled by automated scripts. The results are checked every day and we can conclude that results show a high sensitivity to the dynamical meteorology and chemical components in the atmosphere. The impact of air pollution in the mortality is very important (percentages higher than 20% are very common). The system offers an effective and easy tool, helpful in health services organisation and decision-making.
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This study addresses the assessment of uniformity of the constructs and the internal consistency of the IOWA INFANT FEEDING Attitude Scale in a population of women with low social status in Bogota, Colombia. The scale is designed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding mother through the development of two constructs: attitudes and knowledge (De la Mora, A., et all. 1999). The data collection was done through a structured in order to obtain social data of the nursing couple and application of IIFAS scale, after signing the informed consent of the mother who met the inclusion criteria questionnaire: state of maximum 4 days postpartum, in physical and emotional conditions for the activity of breastfeeding and whose children are considered healthy unimpeded to breastfeed. The investigation was considered of minimal risk as it came to a study obtained data through a direct personal survey and the specifics of it through direct questioning social and clinical data. After analysis of the results an index of very low Cronbach's alpha was evident, however this improvement mothers with one child, and under 24 years.
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We used the encounter histories to estimate mortality rates (1-estimated survival rates) of adult individuals (see Scott and Johnson, 2010; Zúñiga-Vega et al., 2012a). Survival rates were calculated by means of maximum likelihood procedures implemented in the program Mark (White and Burnham, 1999). This software uses the individual encounter histories to estimate survival (φ) and recapture (p) probabilities. To estimate these parameters we used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber framework, which has the following main assumptions (Amstrup, 2005): 1) every marked animal present in the population at sampling period i has the same probability of survival until sampling period i + 1; 2) marks are neither lost nor overlooked and are recorded correctly; 3) all emigration from the sampled area is permanent, and 4) the fate of each animal with respect to capture and survival probability is independent of the fate of any other animal. In general, these assumptions were met by our data. However, we recognize that even though we selected partially isolated pools to avoid in- and-out migration, some temporary emigration might have occurred. Therefore, our survival estimates may be slightly underestimated.
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The World Bank has a human development strategy for Bhutan that aims to provide support to the Royal Government of Bhutan for evidence-based decisions on policies and programmes for more sustainable and effective delivery of social services in education and health. In the recent past, investment lending in the health sector in Bhutan has been through two multi-year projects, the Avian and Human Influenza Preparedness Project, and the HIV Prevention and Control Project, which strengthened the capacity to address HIV and STIs; both these projects concluded in 2011. The Country Partnership Strategy of the World Bank is currently making investments in a Development Policy Credit series that provides budgetary support and includes a focus on the health and nutrition sectors, among others. Additional work being undertaken in the health sector includes a human development public expenditure review to assess the effectiveness of government spending in health and education and the implications for sustainability; and a national nutrition assessment and gap analysis, supported by the multidonor South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative of the World Bank. A study on noncommunicable diseases in Bhutan has been undertaken as part of a regional study in South Asia, while a study on reproductive health and maternal mortality in Bhutan is planned as part of regional work in this area.
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function in awake, healthy neonates. Pediatr Pulmonol 1998;25:99–106. 26 Field D, Milner AD, Hopkin IE. Effects of positive end expiratory pressure during ventilation of the preterm infant. Arch Dis Child 1985;60:843–7. 27 Gregory GA, Kitterman JA, Phibbs RH, et al. Treatment of the idiopathic respiratory-distress syndrome with continuous positive airway pressure. N Engl J Med 1971;284:1333–40.
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death was the most frequent CoD in both periods in our study. Interestingly, in our cohort, AIDS-related mortality rate declined between the two periods among HCV- negative patients but remained virtually unchanged among HCV Positive patients. This finding raises again the question as whether HCV may impact negatively in the natural history of HIV infection. This is a difficult question to answer because IDU is the primary risk factor among HCV-positive patients whereas HCV-negative patients are more likely to have acquired HIV by sexual transmission; meaning that HCV seropositivity may be a marker for poorer access to care and competing problems with drug-addiction. In fact, it has been reported that IDUs begin cART at a more advanced stage of HIV disease than non-IDUs (128,129). This may explain in part differences found in studies that have addressed this issue from a clinical (51,54) or immunological perspective (50,55). However, some publications give some weight to the plausibility that HCV may negatively influence HIV infection. For example, in one prospective study, increases in the baseline HCV RNA were found to be associated with increases in the relative risk for progression to AIDS and AIDS-related mortality after controlling for CD4+ cell count and HIV-VL level (130). In another study, HIV-positive patients coinfected with HCV exhibited higher grades of immune activation (56) and had increased risk of HIV clinical progression (131).
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