Naturally, the business has evolved and so has its business model. Currently, the company has 4 employees and its value proposal is focussed, mainly, on increasing people’s skills and abilities by way of an “E-learning Platform” under the commercial name of “Edueca”. Therefore, we consider that the company has a social mission or ethos. As is stated by Roger, “we operate in a highly-competitive sector, and yet without E-learning proposal we can position ourselves on the market however we want given that, although there are many platforms like ours, none of them matches the characteristics that ours has”. We can state that the business aims to distinguish itself from the competition by offering a unique, simple, and accessible E-learning platform to everyone. Currently, many of these platforms on the market contain a series of obstacles and difficulties to being used by users who are not technology experts. The CIDET proposal seeks to attract those people, mostly adults, and to provide them with a digital learning environment without complications.
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One final important aspect to be taken into account is the fact that our students must be treated as adults and therefore we have to make them aware that they are responsible for their own learning process. As the teaching directed to children and adolescents has its own characteristics, so does teaching adults. Knowles’ (1975) Andragogy Theory tries to develop a context which is specifically aimed at adult learning. This author highlights that adults are self-directed and are expected to take responsibility for the decisions they make. Therefore, we must consider those aspects when planning our methodology. We must consider that adults need to know why they need to learn something, that they need to learn experientially, that they approach learning as problem-solving and that they learn best when topics are of immediate value. This implies that instruction for adults needs to focus less on the content being taught and more on the process. Activities centred on case studies, role-playing, simulations, and self- evaluation are probably then the most useful (Morland & Bivens, 2004). In activities of this type, according to a constructivist conception of education, the instructor adopts the role of facilitator rather than lecturer or grader, the learner becomes a constructor of meaning and technology has an influence on both roles (Sánchez Sola, 2006). The use of this kind of activities supports the problem-centred orientation required for successful adult learning and promotes task-oriented and self-directed type of strategies, which imply the application of the principles of Andragogy (Morland & Bivens, 2004).
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Some of the latest works on the development of women organizations in the Italian Giolittian era, that is the historical phase extending from the beginning of the new Century to the outbreak of the First World War, have highlighted the complexity of functions and the hard work that the Unione Femminile had to hold up to enlarge its spaces. Particularly, in the recent work Femminismo ed educazione in età giolittiana (Pironi, 2013) it is possible to observe the initial difficulties that the organization ran into in order to widen its branches and find active followers, ready to support the cause of its diffusion around Italy. But, above all, the organization had to wait for a while before giving itself a well organized framework within which to perform and carry on its specific qualities. At its starting time, the issue at stake was to abandon a generic philanthropic inspiration and to go further towards a well-formed activism, able to convert the idea of women emancipation into practical ways and useful actions for the enrichment of social values at the same time. This was to say giving a political meaning to the expansion of the movement in a wide sense, attempting to launch activities meant to improve society and to raise the quality of public life in the name of women liberation. But, it also meant to be able to realize concrete actions for a closer connection between the aims of the organization and the production of social benefits (Chianese, 1980, p. 53).
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María del Mar del Pozo Andrés é Professora Catedrática da Universidade de Alcalá; é licenciada e doutorada em Ciências da Educação pela Universidade Complutense de Madrid. A História da Educação tem sido a sua principal área de trabalho; tem desenvolvido, como linhas de investigação privilegiadas, as seguintes: história da educação urbana; receção das correntes educativas internacionais em Espanha; o papel da educação na construção da identidade nacional; estudos de género e educação; etno-história da escola e da cultura escolar. É autora ou coautora de um vasto conjunto de trabalhos no âmbito das referidas linhas de investigação; integrou as equipas de vários projetos de investigação, alguns deles sob a sua coordenação; pertence aos órgãos editoriais de várias revistas nacionais e internacionais; participou nos processos de avaliação desenvolvidos por agências internacionais, nacionais e autonómicas. Entre 2005 e 2013 pertenceu à Junta Diretiva da Sociedade Espanhola de História da Educação (SEDHE) e, entre 2006 e 2012, ao Comité Executivo da International Standing Conference for the History of Education (ISCHE). Recentemente foi Curadora da exposição «Madrid, ciudad educadora 1898-1938 - Memoria de la Escuela Pública». Centrámos esta
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The discussion of what form Higher Education should take to generate knowledge and provide professional skills remains open. UNESCO  (p. 3) points out that “education tailored to current need implies transcending academic knowledge and passing from the student’s passive learning to a conception where learning is interaction and it is built among all”. Consequently, universities try to design activities aimed at achieving higher quality in student learning, overcoming the traditional paradigm. In this scenario, Open Innovation (OI) introduces a new perspective. This paradigm means listening to all stakeholders as a source of knowledge and, consequently as a resource of innovation and competitive advantage. Therefore, OI develops positive dynamics in self-empowerment and allows the stakeholders (mainly, students, lecturers, decision-makers in universities, and entrepreneurs) to generate confidence in themselves and participate actively in building a modern and engaging image of the university. Chesbrough  introduced the concept in 2003 and, since then, it has been analysed in different contexts, but particularly the educational environment is an issue where a great deal of further development is still needed. In recent years, the benefits of embedding an openness philosophy in learning based on collaborative knowledge have been widely discussed in the literature , but not yet on the desired scale. Social innovation in education is possible due to a collaborative model . In this sense, although recent empirical reviews  suggest a positive relationship between participating in an entrepreneurial education programme and developing entrepreneurial intentions, currently there is still insufficient evidence to support or refute this statement. OI in the industrial sector has drawn more attention than in other sectors, such as services . This is particularly striking in the educational environment . Therefore, the lack of empirical evidence
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Modernity brought the almost universal conviction that humanity’s prospects depend upon continuing expansion of scientific knowledge, embodied in technological advance, leading to inevitable improvement in nutrition, health, mobility, and other kinds of material wellbeing along with general improvement in social, moral and political
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But the fact that innovation has exploded in this new Digital Era does not mean that innovation only comes in digital ways. This just proves that now more than ever innovation is a necessity for any company that wants to survive and make a profit. In the current world a company cannot rely solely on the competitive advantage it may have a point in time but the ability to evolve, to change with the market, to adapt to a sea of customers where trends are completely volatile. Innovation can come in many different ways and no one is better than the other. Take two examples: Costco and Starbucks. Costco was founded in 1976 and has come to raise as one of the most important wholesale chains in the US. As will be shown in the following chapters Costco employees generate 3 times more value for the company than Walmart or Target employees and there is no digital innovation in there, it is just a matter of selling the same products in a slightly different way. The same thing happens with Starbucks, a company that does not sell the best coffee and charges almost twice as much as its competitors still make almost ten times more revenues than any other coffee seller in the world. Is there anything digital? Of course not, it is pure experience innovation and customer attention.
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Chapter 1 is specially addressed to the assessment of the effects of drivers and enablers on the implementation of service innovations. It is there first presented a summary of factors frequently mentioned in previous literature as relevant for public innovation. From a policy perspective, policy mandates are of special relevance for generating and implementing innovation. New laws and regulations, policy turn-around, responses to crisis from authorities and elected representatives, new trends in public administration; all these are good examples of political factors that can work as an important source for public innovation. From a managerial perspective, involvement of managers is considered to be highly relevant for a successful innovation process. Thus managers are expected to not just command provide with their own ideas, but to support ideas from staff employees for their development and further implementation, and also to take part in the development process with supervision and advice. On the other side, a networked view of public administration suggests that citizens and private organizations (private firms and civil organizations) should also play a relevant role in innovation development, given that their interactions with public organizations as beneficiaries and suppliers is an important input for the development process. Public innovation studies also mention some strategies that are important to observe for helping to achieve more and better innovations. These include rewarding innovative behaviour, taking advantage of experiences and information sources outside the organization, making alliances and networks with other organizations and allowing experimentation and evaluation.
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In order to support this paper, Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) as research method it was used. According to , mapping studies (MS), use the same basic methodology as SLRs but aim to identify and classify all research related to a broad engineering topic rather than answering questions about the relative merits of competing technologies that conventional SLRs address. MS reviews a broader software engineering topic and classifies the primary research papers in that specific domain. The domains of this paper is BOK.
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In order to know the level of innovation of the company, they must be classified among the factors in favor and against the implementation of this technology. On the one hand, the possibilities for innovation and the reduction of production costs are a very important aspect to consider. But, on the other hand, being a relatively new technology, the application of inks that are suitable for production and design is not yet successful in adapting at all. In addition to taking full advantage of the performance that these machines can offer us, specific knowledge is required for their management.
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The first concept that contributes to the understanding of financial inclusion and social innovation is social entrepreneurship. This concept can be explained as all those new projects that focus on social issues or as a set of actions that seek to improve the population’s social needs (Perrini, Vurro & Constanzo, 2010). Furthermore, other authors explain social entrepreneurship as activities seeking to create social value either by creating value in society or by strengthening issues of social concern via business activities, i.e. actions that provide solutions to social problems (Dacin, Dacin & Tracy, 2011; Weerawardena & Mort, 2012; Witkamp, Raven & Royakkers, 2011). In addition, it also stands for a set of tasks that pursue social improvement through poverty reduction and the creation of opportunities for the disadvantaged (Maak & Stoetter, 2012). It is important to highlight that social entrepreneurship is regarded as a part of social innovation (Witkamp et al., 2011). The foregoing definitions are associated with philanthropic activities carried out by foundations, which are entities promoted by individuals seeking to improve society and create social change.
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refers to the obstacles and elements of direct innovation introduced or developed by the CIFO. Collaboration refers to obstacles and elements of collaboration between the CIFO and other stakeholders, for innovation. Thus, we analysed the four categories related to innovation, which resulted from the script used in the interviews, using the exclusionary (‘the elements that contribute to the social problem analysed’) and transformative (‘elements that contribute to overcome the barriers behind the problem explored’) dimensions (Pulido, Elboj, Campdepadros & Cabre, 2014, p. 892), which represent one of the unique contributions of the Communicative Methodology. First, the interviews were transcribed entirely and after that the information was regrouped in base of the four categories. Second, within each category, the information was grouped as an exclusionary or transformative dimension depending if it represented an obstacle or an element that allowed to overcome an obstacle, respectively. Third and last, the information included in the article was selected following several criteria: include the voices of as many centres as possible; relevance to the topic; richness of the information, and diversity of examples. The selection of the information was done one by one, highlighting the text of the transcripts and using numeric codes, following the postulates of the communicative methodology. Thus, the squares with numbers represent the cross between categories and dimensions, and their purpose is to classify the information when we analysed the transcriptions (Gómez, Latorre, Sanchez & Flecha, 2006, p. 102). For example, when we found an element that enhances innovation in the transcriptions, we highlighted the phrase or paragraph and put it under code “6”; thus, code “6” contains all the references to elements that enhance innovation at the CIFO.
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Game play can be competitive, co-operative or individualistic. The content and contexts embodied in games tend to reflect the interests, fantasies and aspirations of their majority user group, who are young and male. So, for example, many games involve various aspects of action adventure in which a variety of more or less humanoid opponents can be violently overcome. Others are to do with excelling in sport, completing dangerous missions to retrieve or collect things, or taking on the persona of a warrior or hero and employing a strategy to win. Games use technology to represent reality or to embody fantasy. They provide an environment in which action can be practised or rehearsed with, ultimately, little consequence. Games are played to win or to achieve a goal. It is the playing of the game that is entertaining, with the end result satisfying the majority of players only if challenges have been encountered and difficulties conquered. Table 1 identifies several features of games that can contribute to the players’ engagement with the software.
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design for emergency, design for social innovation, design thinking, entrepreneurship, education, experiential learning, failure, fashion transparency, future of design, health, people-centered design, human-centered design, language, power, prototyping, public space, radical change, social businesses, social design, social impact, social innovation, sustainability, system thinking, user-centered design, technology, transparency, water recovery.
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división internacional del trabajo. Hasta cuándo los productos “tradiciona- les” podrán competir con productos semejantes que incorporan tecnología nano es algo que dependerá de los costos relativos y de las diferencias de efi- cacia, pero la competencia puede conllevar una agudización de la desigual- dad mundial. Ciertamente, las grandes corporaciones también podrán ser tambaleadas por los nuevos patrones competitivos impulsados por el cambio tecnológico. En un análisis preparado para el Credit Suisse First Boston, ti- tulado Big Money in Thinking Small, Mauboussim y Bartholdson escriben: “Pensamos que debido al arribo de la nanotecnología nuevas compañías van a desplazar a un alto porcentaje de las líderes actuales. La mayoría de las compañías en el índice industrial Dow Jones de hoy en día difícilmente esta- rán allí de aquí a 20 años” (Center for Responsible Nanotechnology, s/f). 9
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Innovation analysis in the tourism sector can be analyzed similarly to that of the service sector. There are several classifi cations of innovations in the tourism sector (for more detailed information see among others Decelle, 2006; Hjalager, 1997; 2002; Jacob and Groizard, 2007). Innovations in tourism can be behavioral and technological or a mixture of them. Weiermair (2006) distinguishes three factors behind the innovation in tourism. These are supply or supply-related determinants (for example new technologies requiring development of new skills, services or form of organizations in tourism such as the development of e-tourism, and e-marketing in tourism), demand drivers (social and economic factors such as fl exible working time, more income and increased value of holidays) and the level and pace of competition (globalization and deregulation increased competition and lead to process innova- tion) (p. 60).
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Gaming culture infects learning globally. Massively Multiplayer Online Games bring people together to collaborate for shared wins. The pleasurable rewards from this activity infect the expectations of young people. Where once we were “cheating” by sharing our knowledge with others, we now recognize such behav- ior as the sort of desirable collaboration and networked intelligence crucial for real world action. Such interactive frames bring with them a new literacy. Icons representing various system states and dynamic read-outs of environmental con- ditions provide visual analogs of key indicators of the flux and flow of health in the virtual environment, creating a tapestry of symbolic meaning akin to what fighter pilots learn to process from their jet consoles. It should be no sur- prise then that students who thrive in these dynamic and complex environments, rewiring their brains for such mental gymnastics, suffer and languish when asked to process the stultifying static information that comes off printed text in linear language.
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In the framework of the different debate fora that took place during the I Workshop on e-learning in Economics and Business, the question of what the main challenges in the near future of higher education would be was tackled. Special attention was given to how they might affect not only distance universities but also face-to-face institutions. There was a degree of consensus on two main challenges: the first one is to consolidate the adaptation of university studies to the EHEA. The process has led to a thorough modification of curricula, which places “competencies” at the core of the educational model. Such a situation is particularly remarkable because of the close and important implication it should have, at least at three different levels: the drafting of degrees; the use of methods, activities and learning resources; and evaluation (Riesco, 2008, p. 80).
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The notion of access as a college choice broadens the scope of these studies to include the development of aspirations, as well as the search for institutions, which take place even before a person decides to enter HE. There are few studies in Colombia in this regard and, although the government has strategies to improve vocational guidance, its purpose is more focused on preventing young people from leaving their program instead of having an interest in the process of how these aspirations are developed. References from other countries studying the subject show that young people from disadvantaged social groups usually do not aspire to higher levels of education. The majority of people in Colombia, regardless of their origin, aspire to a college education; seemingly, few aspirations are not an issue (Figure 10.d). However, characteristics of the Colombian context may be generating limitations in this process, such as (1) the lack of universalization of secondary education, (2) high school students’ age by the time they graduate, and (3) the lack of information they have to make these decisions. Firstly, not all young people in Colombia finish secondary education, level required to enter HE. Secondly, according to the OECD report (2012), students in Colombia finish secondary school at 16 or 17 years old, sooner than their peers in Latin America (e.g. Argentinians, Brazilians, Chileans, and Mexicans graduate at 18), North America, and Western Europe (usually, students finish high school around 18, 19 or 20 years of age). Furthermore, Colombians have two years less of schooling, finishing high school in the 11 th grade, whereas other countries have 12th
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Romer (1994) has argued that the neoclassical growth model developed by Solow (1956) only captured the facts that (i) there are many fi rms in a market economy, (ii) discoveries differ from other inputs in the sense that many people can use them at the same time, and (iii) it is possible to replicate physical activities. For both Romer’s model (1986) and Lucas’ model (1988), they consider the fact that technological advances come from things that people do and that technology is endogenously provided. In effect, based upon their conceptual nuances, explanations for sources of sustained growth in the new growth literature can be primarily divided into two strands: technological spillovers and human capital spillovers (or normally termed knowledge spillovers). Thus, both authors were the primary developers of the new growth theory. Their work has not only had a tremendous infl uence on mainstream literature but has also been extolled by the media (Chiang Lin, 2005).
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