I hereby thank God for providing me with the opportunity of serving Khouzestan province since March 2005, which is of great importance in its natural environment due to existence of important rivers such as Karoun, Karkhe, Dez, Jarrahi, Zohre and etc… as well as Zagros range of mountains, productive plains and sensitive wetlands. Since the beginning I realized the province which contains more than half of the Iranian wetlands, has not received any part in Conservation of Iranian Wetlands Project. In 2007, after continuous follow ups and with the supports from CIWP, Shadegan wetland was selected as CIWP first replication site and afterwards -since the late 2008- it has been considered as the third pilot site of CIWP. CIWP with collaboration of DOE, UNDP and GEF has been under implementation since 2005, with the goal of elimination or sustainable mitigation of wetlands deteriorating factors/procedures and providing sustainablemanagement for these valuable ecosystems and finally will be terminated in 2012. The important approach of CIWP is as follows:
One of the strategic axes that GIZ has to achieve sustainable development is tourism, which, in conjunction with the objectives of the agency (training, generation of social networks and government-society link) in the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico, they are aimed to respond areas of opportunity where tourism products of high quality and low environmental impact can be created. Therefore, the objective of these products is to generate an alternative income for the inhabitants and an economic benefit in the region. The creation of tourism products compatible with the environment contributes to local development through the sustainable use of its resources and with the encouragement of productive, social and institutional transformation processes. Therefore, prioritizing the use of resources through the Multicriteria Assessment Methodology of Tourism Resources (MEMRT) as a basic approach, allowed the design of strategies that contribute to local development. The results of the application of the MEMRT promote collaboration with the Integrated Landscape Management (IPM) project in which the key actors of different sectors, with influence on sustainablemanagementand tourism management, implement jointly and coordinatedly measures for IPM in the study area. For this reason, the generation of any type of social and collective induction actions for the promotion of tourism, from the perspective of sustainable development, should consider the environment as an element of importance comparable to that given to tourism products.
Impacts on ecosystem services, due to human activity, are already a fact. The objectives of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the alleviation and adjustment proposals from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in their consecutive reports, as well as the proposals by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) cannot go unnoticed for general projects and for particular construction projects. The amount of waste material generated by the sector, as well as the amount of resources consumed (energy, raw materials) by the whole life cycle (construction, exploitation, maintenance and deconstruction) definitely contributes to increase the human ecological footprint. The goals and requirements for the Integrated Project Management must change. The objective is no longer the achievement of a triple goal (time, costs and quality) and the performance established by the developer. Nowadays there are new sustainability goals and requirements for construction projects. Tools and development techniques are analyzed in the construction field, in order to get a construction achievement in a more sustainable way; and a methodological framework for sustainablemanagement according to standards of Integrated Project Management is proposed.
A basin-scale (river or lake) approach is increasingly recognized as the logical and appropriate geographical/spatial scale in which to address IWRM. However, such basin-scale management generally focuses on the management of surface waters, but importantly also needs to take into account the management of groundwater, and to recognize that groundwater aquifers can be shared between adjacent basins. Better understanding of the linkages between surface and ground waters is needed if truly integrated water resource management is to be achieved.
Managing assets has become more complex and demanding than ever before due to increasing resource scarcity, degrading environment, climate change, and reliance on multi-agencies. According to Brown and Humphrey (2005), asset management is based on three main pillars: management, engineering and information, which together form a foundation for efficient and/or sustainable use. The degree of functionality of any asset is dependent on how well it is planned, designed, operated, maintained, and disposed in the context of these three core areas. As a counter to these challenging tasks, instead of managing assets through a whole-of-life cycle approach by individual agencies/organisations, there has been a shift towards a more integrated or collective approach involving multi-agencies/organisations. Such an approach allows organisations to access additional knowledge, expertise and resources to create collaborative advantage. This approach is not business as usual and necessarily requires a shift in the way in which infrastructure projects are developed, delivered and managed. Therefore, in this paper, we developed more comprehensive framework for asset management in order to fit in a multi-agency environment, new contextual considerations and contemporary approaches to managing built assets.
Water management in all its forms is complex. There is not one solution that will fit all situations but experiences show that adaptive management processes that engage stakeholders and slowly build on management achievements and successes are essential tools for achiev- ing sustainable economic, social and environmental outcomes. Processes, such as Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), incorporating river basin management, replace the tra- ditional sectoral approach to managing wetlands and water resources and en- sure that the complexities are embraced, rather than ignored or used as an ex- cuse to prioritise investment decisions away from protecting natural wetland infrastructure.
Mediterranean coastal zones that focus on maritime spatial planning andintegrated coastal zone management. Furthermore, the objectives of protection and restoration of marine biodiversity and ecosystems, sustainable coastal tourism, diversification of fishery activities, etc., constitute relevant issues for ENI CBC MED projects. Moreover, investments under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) – which is the main instrument to implement the European Territorial cooperation goal – will deal with four key areas: 1) Innovation and research; 2) Information and communications technologies (ICT); 3) Support for small and medium sized businesses (SMEs); 4) The low-carbon economy. Among the EU programmes included in the European Territorial cooperation goal, two, ETC MED 2014 -2020 (addressing transnational cooperation) and Interreg Europe (addressing interregional cooperation), are of particular importance for the present ENI CBC MED Programme because they involve a large number of EU regions and member states that are also eligible for the new Programme. The priority issues addressed in these programmes are indicated in table 8.
subsidised programmes. There has been a great deal of controversy over the role of the private sector in water management in recent years. Much of this has focused on the role of multinational companies, pri- marily in relation to the management of water supply services in major cities. The extreme positions that tend to characterise this debate have diverted attention from any sensible assessment of the role and potential of local private sector involvement in water management. The potential of this sector is great but has so far largely been untapped. However, there are successful examples of systematic govern- ment-led programmes to integrate local entrepreneurs in water and sanitation services provision (see box 23). The results of these programmes are encouraging, showing that the advantages of affordability, sustainability and demand responsiveness that characterise local entrepreneurs can be scaled up andintegrated into programmes where governments take a leading role. This type of partnership is both effective in addressing immediate needs and can play a key role in establishing new institutional modal- ities where long-standing barriers between public and private sectors are broken down and a more effec- tive balance between investors, service providers and regulators is established. This creates further potential for multiplier effects andsustainable economic growth in poor parts of the developing world. Realising the potential of small local entrepreneurs will generate significant economic growth that is locally-rooted, is beneficial to the poor and creates opportunities for many poor people to invest and prosper. It is not the only way that water management can generate economic growth. Major infrastruc- ture investments, such as large irrigation schemes and large dams, can and do play an important role in economic development. This relationship is not clear-cut:
In addition FAO has promoted and financially supported the creation of two electronic networks on helminths - one in Latin America (coordinated by INTA 6 , Castelar, Argentina) and the other in Africa (coordinated by the Veterinary Faculty, Pretoria University, South Africa). In addition to the specific functions performed by these networks, the FAO will encourage interconnection and interaction between these and other existing networks. In short, the collaboration between FAO, the WGPR, the INDUSTRY Contact Group, the FAO collaborating Centres and other international institutions and organizations aims at providing the required information and training for development of sustainable IPM and the appropriate management of resistance to parasiticides. In order to facilitate this a set of guidelines will be produced consisting of five modules, one for each of the five economically important groups of parasites, ticks, helminths, flies, mites and lice. Each module will be presented in a standardized format and it is the intention that each of the modules will serve as a guide to the diagnosis of resistance and act as a decision support system for selecting the ‘best bet’ options for integrated control andmanagement of resistance to parasiticides
16. FURTHER TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION the CBD Decision III/11 on Conservation andsustainable use of agricultural biological diversity and the multi-year Work Programme in Decision V/5; and TAKING INTO ACCOUNT the relevant sections of the 3rd Joint Work Plan 2002-2006 between the CBD and the Ramsar Convention, in particular Activity 5;
Superfluous consumption by the rich in developing countries not only causes eco- logical damage, but also constrains economic and social development by depriving those countries from needed savings and investments. Orthodox economists such as Rostow and Chenery claim that poor countries cannot have enough domestic sav- ings because they do not have enough income to raise them, and need foreign cap- ital inflows to promote their development. Their foreign debt, they say, will auto- matically be paid off assuming that borrowed capital is allocated to productive investment, thereby increasing their efficiency, development, and foreign exchange earnings through increased net exports.33 However, several authors have noticed that foreign capital inflows cause, in many cases, a rise of current consumption by the rich, rather than investment, and higher inflation, real exchange rate apprecia- tion, and lower competitiveness, thereby constraining their exports, promoting their imports and increasing foreign debt, which, in turn, stops economic development.34 Vijay Joshi and Ronald Findlay explain that domestic savings and foreign exchange shortages can be lowered or eliminated if consumption of luxury goods is reduced.35
Reaffirming the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Forest Principles and the United Nations Non-Legally Binding I nstrument on All Types of Forests, and noting that they have raised awareness of the important roles and contribution of forests in socio-economic development, ecological, sustainability, poverty eradication, climate change, and green growth which is one of the priorities to be discussed at the 19th APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting;
As previously discussed, polarization of light can be exploited in order to double the capacity of optical communications links. First reported results on polarization mul- tiplexing dates back to the beginning of the 90s . Since then, different approaches of coherent receivers with polarization diversity have been proposed and even com- mercialized . However, the inclusion of integrated polarization diversity devices, such as the polarization beam splitters (PBSs), holds a significant drawback, due to the low tolerances of these devices to fabrication deviations, that leads to very low fab- rication yields. This non-solved problem, has led the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) to establish the integration of the polarization diversity circuitry as non manda- tory , resulting in devices with polarization diversity circuitry implemented in bulk optics and difficulting the integration and miniaturization of the receiver, which ultimately increments the cost of the receiver.
Growth and yield models at different scales are useful tools for forest stakeholders. Adequate simulation of forest stand conditions after different silvicultural scenarios allows stakeholders to adopt appropriate actions to maintain forest integrity while forest products and services are obtained to benefit society as a whole. SIMANFOR is a platform to simulate sustainable forest management alternatives, integrating different modules to manage forest inventories, simulate and project stand conditions and maintain systems security and integrity. SIMANFOR output is compatible with an Office environment (Microsoft or Open), allowing users to exchange data and files between SIMANFOR and their own software. New developments are being planned under a web 2.0 environment to take advantage of user input to improve SIMANFOR in the future.
The Ramsar Convention Secretariat wishes to acknowledge the very many people who have, over several years and numerous meetings of the Conferences of the Contracting Parties, contributed their knowledge and experience in the area of wetland site managementand monitoring. Their collective efforts have allowed the Convention to develop this integratedmanagement package. Special mention should be made of the contributions by Prof Max Finlayson (now Director of the Institute for Land, Water and Society at Charles Sturt University, Australia) in the areas of ecological character, monitoring, and wetland risk assessment. The guidance relating to risk assessment was adopted by the 7th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP7, 1999), which followed an experts’ workshop held at the Ramsar Secretariat in April 1998, preceding the 7th meeting of the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP). The authors of the Wetland Risk Assessment Framework, Prof Finlayson, Dr Rick van Dam, and Dr Chris Humphrey of the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Australia (eriss), deserve special thanks. The Secretariat also extends its thanks to eriss and the National Wetlands Programme of Environment Australia for supporting the authors during their development of this guidance. The New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar Sites and other wetlands adopted by Ramsar COP8 (2002) were prepared by an STRP Working Group, and special thanks are due to Mike Alexander (Countryside Council for Wales – UK) and Dr Mike Acreman (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology – UK) for their preparation of drafts of this guidance. The guidance on wetlands and fisheries, adopted by COP9 in 2005, was derived from information in a draft report prepared by Dr Robin Welcomme for the STRP, with financial support from IUCN and WWF. Thanks are extended to all involved for their support for this work, including the STRP for the preparation of the draft COP9 Resolution on this topic. The underlying full report is presently being prepared for publication as a Ramsar Technical Report.
The environmental situation gets worse every day. Fidel Castro recalled his famous phrase expressed at the Rio Summit in 1992: "An important biological species is at risk of disappearing due to the rapid and progressive eradication of its natural living conditions: man" and added: "I did not know then however how close we were to it " .1 New alerts have been given recently in view of, the serious consequences of climate change. 2-4 It is necessary to modify human behavior in relation to the problems of nature, of the human being and of society in order to avoid an ecological catastrophe of planetary scale. 5
Remote sensing and GIS analysis results showed a dramatic decrease in the area of grassland from 1975 to 2014, accompanied by an increase in the area of croplands and settlements in the same period. Rapid population growth and their demand for diverse products and soil fertility deterioration over time forced farming families to change part of their land to other forms of land use/cover. Declining soil fertility due to soil erosion and lack of financial capacity for its restoration leave majority of the household food insecure in general, poor households in particular. Therefore, future attempts in soil fertility management in the region should not only entail application of technologies that add nutrients to the soil, but also should be complemented by measures that reduce nutrient losses through runoff and soil erosion. Due to the proximity of the study area to major market i.e. Addis Ababa city, building public-private partnerships around market- oriented barley production can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to improve soil fertility and boost agricultural productivity. The availability of too many religious holidays in the study area also contributes directly or indirectly to the current seasonal food shortages of the community. The government/local officials should intervene by discussing the issue with religious leaders and community elders to reduce the number of religious holidays in the area. In general, the results of our study provide compelling evidence that the local community in the study area is beset with a host of social, economic and institutional challenges which need to be properly addressed to come to grips with problems of food insecurity. Therefore, we recommend the involvement of interdisciplinary stakeholders and policy framework to curb these dire situations, looking from both biophysical and social perspectives. Particularly, enabling and capacity building of the local people with different agricultural technologies not only help them become food secure but also greatly contribute to environmental protection in the future.
Jorgensen et al. (2006) and Jorgensen (2008), define three different levels of integration: “correspondence” refers to cross references and internal coordination, “generic” which is the understanding of generic processes and tasks in the management cycle, and “integration”, the creation of a culture of learning, stakeholder participation and continuous improvement of the performance. Regarding MS integration, Karapetrovic and Willborn (1998) define three main elements of a standardized MS which can be integrated at different levels, namely goals, processes, and resources. Karapetrovic et al. (2006) conducted an emprirical study in order to study the extent of integration of these elements, obtaining responses from 176 Catalan organizations with multiple cross-functional certificates like ISO 9001 or ISO 14001. The authors found a high level of integration regarding the extent of the integration of the human resources, the company policy, objectives, the management system manual, and the processes of document control, record control, auditing, andmanagement review. However, the authors found that aspects such as the use of integrated records, instructions or procedures, found at tactical organizational levels, or the planning, determination of requirements, product realization and other internal business processes, seemed to be integrated to a lesser extent. In the same direction, Bernardo et al. (2009) empirically studied the integration of environmental with other MSs in Spain. To this end, an empirical study was carried out on 435 companies that were registered to multiple management system standards, including ISO 14001: 2004 and ISO 9001: 2000 at the minimum. Overall, 362 of those organizations indicated that they had integrated all or at least some of their standardized management systems. In particular, 14% of organizations did not integrate their MSs, 7% integrated only some of them, and 79% integrated all their MSs.