At the same time, there has been a growing recognition of the value that IMSs can bring to the business (Karapetrovic & Willborn, 1998; Wassenaar & Grocott, 1999; Wilkinson & Dale, 1999; Douglas & Glen, 2000; Renzi & Cappelli, 2000; Zutshi & Sohal, 2005; Salomone, 2008; Asif et al., 2009; Griffith & Bhutto, 2008; Khanna, 2010 and Asif et al., 2010). Today, many organizations are implementing MSs not just to fulfill the requirements of individual standards, but to operate in a more combined, efficient and effective way (Asif et al., 2010). And in doing so, organizations can look to achieve significant internal benefits as well as meeting any external demands (Asif et al., 2010). For instance, according to Zeng et al. (2011), the main benefits of implementing integratedmanagement systems include decreased paperwork, decreased management cost, decreased complexity of internal management, simplified certification process and facilitates continuous improvement. Several authors also suggest the benefits of IMSs regarding the integration of their audits and find that that the majority of organizations registered to multiple standards integrate their internal audits and are also externally audited in a similar manner, thus profiting from the existing synergies among standards (Karapetrovic et al., 2006; Bernardo et al., 2010).
In 2009, Fong and Wong created the prototype of an integrated building management system (see figure 5), having several objectives in mind: i) provide a friendly approach to the user; ii) provide a simple approach in the process of information presentation; and iii) allow for the communication between the different users of the system, improving the exchange of knowledge and experience in the scope of construction pathology (Fong and Wong, 2009). With this purpose, a questionnaire was used in order to investigate the opinions of construction professionals as well as the capture and re-use of their knowledge and experience. After the preliminary upload, interviews will be done to interested professionals, and the accumulated knowledge and experience will be recorded in forms free of any structure, which will be subsequently introduced to the prototype of the integratedmanagement system.
Hence, the whole components in CIWP are targeted for establishing a system for coordination, cooperation and knowledge enhancement among different stakeholders of wetlands management. Having the same approach, Khouzestan Environment Office intention is to develop and implement the Shadegan wetland integratedmanagement plan through utilization of the experiences obtained from Parishan and Urmia wetland sites and collaboration of all stakeholders such as governmental and none governmental organizations and local societies. So far several studies have been carried out on Shadegan wetland and obviously Khouzestan Environment Conservation office with cooperation of CIWP and all stakeholders will develop Shadegan management plan by using existing reports and experiences. The following report is final version of Shadegan wetland management plan. The first draft was prepared by holding a two days workshop entitled ”the initiative workshop of CIWP in Shadegan wetland” in November 2008 with the presence of different stakeholders, in which previous surveys on Shadegan wetland - in particular “ecosystem management of Shadegan wetland survey, 2002” - was utilized as baseline information and then the plan was distributed among all stakeholders for including their comments. After receiving comments from related groups, another advisory workshop was held in June 2009 and the result was again presented in September 2009 to representatives of all related groups for their comments. Ultimately it was the workshop of March 2010 in which the final version of the management plan was approved by the participants. Afterwards, the content of the management plan was ratified in planning council meeting of Khouzestan province in Dec. 2010. Consequently, the management plan was officially notified by the Khuzestan Governorship to all executive organizations at provincial level. Simultaneously preparations for managerial structures at provincial and local level were carried out.
Ecosystems are self-regulated systems that provide societies with resources. However, as the demands for these resources have increased, management decisions are replacing the self- regulation of ecosystems (DeFries and Nagendra, 2017). The importance of ecosystem management lies in the fact that it focuses on ecological systems as a whole and not only on some of their parts. The management includes the participation of the public in the process of establishing objectives, integrates conservation into economic activity and represents a change from "linear integral" management paradigm to "cyclical-incremental" or "adaptive" management (Brussard, et al., 1998). In ecology, contrary to previous technical approaches that applied simple formulas to estimate the sustainable yields of individual species, current research recognizes the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the inability to foresee all the consequences of interventions at different spatial, temporal scales and administrative. Approaches to address such issues include multisector decision- making, institutions that allow management to extend across administrative boundaries, adaptive management, markets that incorporate natural capital, and collaborative processes to engage diverse stakeholders and address inequalities. Ecosystem management must avoid two pitfalls: falsely assuming a domesticated solution and inaction in the face of overwhelming complexity. An incremental approach can help avoid these pitfalls (DeFries and Nagendra, 2017).
adaptation and mitigation (Resolution VIII.3), Principles and guidelines for wetland restoration (Resolution VIII.16), and on impact assessment (Resolution VIII.9); and NOTING that the Resolutions on The Ramsar Strategic Plan 2003-2008 (Resolution VIII.25), Incentive measures as tools for achieving the wise use of wetlands (Resolution VIII.23), Guidelines for rendering the use of groundwater compatible with the conservation of wetlands (Resolution VIII.40), and Conservation, integratedmanagement, and sustainable use of mangrove ecosystems and their resources (Resolution VIII.32) are relevant for the preparation of guidelines on agriculture, wetlands and water resource management; and
The Ramsar Convention Secretariat wishes to acknowledge the very many people who have, over several years and numerous meetings of the Conferences of the Contracting Parties, contributed their knowledge and experience in the area of wetland site management and monitoring. Their collective efforts have allowed the Convention to develop this integratedmanagement package. Special mention should be made of the contributions by Prof Max Finlayson (now Director of the Institute for Land, Water and Society at Charles Sturt University, Australia) in the areas of ecological character, monitoring, and wetland risk assessment. The guidance relating to risk assessment was adopted by the 7th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP7, 1999), which followed an experts’ workshop held at the Ramsar Secretariat in April 1998, preceding the 7th meeting of the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP). The authors of the Wetland Risk Assessment Framework, Prof Finlayson, Dr Rick van Dam, and Dr Chris Humphrey of the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Australia (eriss), deserve special thanks. The Secretariat also extends its thanks to eriss and the National Wetlands Programme of Environment Australia for supporting the authors during their development of this guidance. The New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar Sites and other wetlands adopted by Ramsar COP8 (2002) were prepared by an STRP Working Group, and special thanks are due to Mike Alexander (Countryside Council for Wales – UK) and Dr Mike Acreman (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology – UK) for their preparation of drafts of this guidance. The guidance on wetlands and fisheries, adopted by COP9 in 2005, was derived from information in a draft report prepared by Dr Robin Welcomme for the STRP, with financial support from IUCN and WWF. Thanks are extended to all involved for their support for this work, including the STRP for the preparation of the draft COP9 Resolution on this topic. The underlying full report is presently being prepared for publication as a Ramsar Technical Report.
This awareness has produced high levels of political commitment to improving water; a fact reflected in the MDGs, in the prominence given to water and sanitation in the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002, in the declaration of 2005-2015 as the decade of Water for Life. But, this political commitment is only poorly translated into concerted and sustainable actions on the ground: water hardly figures in many Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (see box 2), investments in water management in many countries are stagnant or falling and reforms to the sector happen only slowly if at all.There has been a move towards the development of national integrated water resources management (IWRM) plans in some developing countries, with this a reflection of the commitments made in the WSSD in Johannesburg. In most cases, these efforts are in their infancy, however, and their effectiveness is limited by institutional barriers, low political support and public awareness and the lack of mechanisms to bring together stakeholders in the planning process. The realization of IWRM would provide a basis for more effective poverty targeting in water management, an issue discussed in more depth below. In particular, this would be instrumental in avoiding too narrow a focus on water supply and sanitation alone. This sector is, of course, of profound importance in realizing water’s potential contribution to poverty reduction, but it is essential that the focus on water supply and sanitation does not lead to the neglect of the many other dimensions of water management that are included within an IWRM framework.
There are several deﬁnitions to measure spare management performance. According to  three obvious indicators are ready rate, ﬁll rate, and units in service. Ready rate is the probability that an item observed at a random point in time has no back orders (back order is considered as any demand that cannot be met from stock). Fill rate is deﬁned as the expected number of units demanded per time period for an item that can be immediately satisﬁed from stock at hand. Meanwhile, units in service are the expected number of units in routine resupply or repair at a random point in time. The work stated by  uses the instantaneous reliability of stock term as one of its criteria for determining an optimal stock level. Instantaneous reliability is deﬁned as the probability of a spare being available at any given moment in time. This measurement can be equivalent to ﬁll rate. In spite of these valuable deﬁnitions, the spare part reliability concept used in this paper is signiﬁcantly different. The source of this distinction is given by the critical nature of spare parts which are considered in this paper, specially its uniqueness characteristic. Usually, these kinds of critical spare parts are not available in store, thus a common concept such as ﬁll rate is not completely applicable. For the latter reason, it seems appropriate to introduce a new concept which we have called as “Condition-Based Service Level” (CBSL). CBSL is based on the stress–strength interference theory . This theory considers two main variables: a stress which is any load applied on a system and that may produce a failure (in this case, depletion on service level), and a strength which is the maximum value that system can withstand without failing. Therefore, CBSL is deﬁned as the probability that the stress does not overcome the strength. Stress–strength interference models are widely applied in component reliability analysis . Due to the model ability to be used when probability distributions are known and, also, both stress and strength could be general in meaning , it is possible to adapt a version. For purposes of this paper, stress can be represented by lead time and strength by conditional reliability.
As previously discussed, polarization of light can be exploited in order to double the capacity of optical communications links. First reported results on polarization mul- tiplexing dates back to the beginning of the 90s . Since then, different approaches of coherent receivers with polarization diversity have been proposed and even com- mercialized . However, the inclusion of integrated polarization diversity devices, such as the polarization beam splitters (PBSs), holds a significant drawback, due to the low tolerances of these devices to fabrication deviations, that leads to very low fab- rication yields. This non-solved problem, has led the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) to establish the integration of the polarization diversity circuitry as non manda- tory , resulting in devices with polarization diversity circuitry implemented in bulk optics and difficulting the integration and miniaturization of the receiver, which ultimately increments the cost of the receiver.
Cabero et al. (2005) present an integrated risk management model for a hydrothermal generation company in a time horizon of one year with monthly time periods. The main contribution of this work is to consider fuel price, electricity demand, water inflows, and electricity price as stochastic variables, obtaining electricity price and the company gener- ation on every scenario by combining the other three stochastic factors through the use of a market equilibrium model. Positions on electricity forward contracts are the main recom- mendation of the model and risk exposure is considered by imposing a limit on conditional value at risk. According to the authors the main drawbacks of this work are that a) the in- teraction between the electricity forward market and the electricity spot market is not taken into account (since generation decisions are obtained from the market equilibrium model), and b) the equilibrium scenarios are obtained assuming perfect future information of the generation companies instead of using a nonanticipativity approach. Another drawback is that the scenario tree that represents the stochastic variables lacks accuracy due to the high number of stochastic variables considered.
among the various courses implemented according the integrated pedagogical approach. The matrix coordinators are responsible for the multidisciplinary course content integration under course coordinator supervision and mediation. Each matrix has its own matrix coordinator working, typically, part time or, optionally, two thematic matrixes are conducted by a single matrix coordinator working, typically, full time.
The economy of the watershed is dependent upon the water availability, the relationship availability supply to demand for multiple uses and the water quality. Man- agement of the watershed implies in the incorporation of all components of this ecosystem population, water multiple uses, industries, food and energy production, recreation, tourism and navigation; social structures, culture are other basic components. All these compo- nents interact directly or indirectly and the scientific knowledge of these interactions is a key element of the management process .
Mediterranean coastal zones that focus on maritime spatial planning and integrated coastal zone management. Furthermore, the objectives of protection and restoration of marine biodiversity and ecosystems, sustainable coastal tourism, diversification of fishery activities, etc., constitute relevant issues for ENI CBC MED projects. Moreover, investments under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) – which is the main instrument to implement the European Territorial cooperation goal – will deal with four key areas: 1) Innovation and research; 2) Information and communications technologies (ICT); 3) Support for small and medium sized businesses (SMEs); 4) The low-carbon economy. Among the EU programmes included in the European Territorial cooperation goal, two, ETC MED 2014 -2020 (addressing transnational cooperation) and Interreg Europe (addressing interregional cooperation), are of particular importance for the present ENI CBC MED Programme because they involve a large number of EU regions and member states that are also eligible for the new Programme. The priority issues addressed in these programmes are indicated in table 8.
16 Terminology-management systems provide quality as they ensure consistency within a translation project because we can store specific terminology in termbases. Without any doubt, this speeds up the process of translation as we can search through our own files or simply we do not need to perform the same terminology search twice because some TMS have the automatic terminology lookup feature. Furthermore, besides flexible storage and fast retrieval, we have the possibility to share a termbase with our client or with other translators, whether for consulting or contributing to that termbase. Nowadays, TMS's format is no longer an impediment as there are many programs we can use for converting if the TMS we are using cannot handle the universal format known as Term Base eXchange (TBS). (Somers, 2003: 4)
The function RunSWAT() executes a given SWAT management scenario. Moreover, the function ExecutionRun() allows different types of execution and controls the creation of the modified scenario, by calling ModifyScenario (), which execute the scenario, and ReadScenarioResult(), which reads the scenario results(). R-SWAT-DS can be used to perform three types of executions: single, iterative and optimization. If the case of a single execution, the tool creates a new scenario modifying the BS management according to user preferences. In this case the new rate of fertilization and irrigation in each HRU and upgrading in each WWTP to be changed (simultaneously or not) must be specified and stored in a ASCII file. In the case of iterative execution, the new rates for modifying all HRUs with the same crop or all WWTPs can be introduced either by a file or directly in the tool. In this case the tool performs a series of individual executions. An example could be to analyse the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied in a basin. The user must specify the minimum, maximum and the step increase rate of fertilizer (related to baseline scenario), and the tool iteratively generates runs and reads the results of each of the scenarios. Finally, the tool includes the optimization execution type, in which it searches for best management practices allocation that fulfils the criteria selected by the user.
Measurement and estimation of variables that allow displaying the dynamic of pest population depending on the environment and its impact on plant health, is one of the tools of decision in which producers can support for the implementation of Integrated Pest Management programs. That is why we compared the sensitivity of three methods of quantification for detecting Phytophthora drechsleri zoospores in water samples. It was determined that it is possible to detect smaller amounts of zoospores by ELISA tests that by hemocytometer counts or the quantification of colonies in culture medium plates. With the absorbance data obtained from ELISA tests, mathematical models were designed for estimating the number of zoospores per milliliter in water samples. These models were used to monitor the amount of inoculum present in a simulated lettuce production floating hydroponic system. With the number of zoospores data, number of dead plants and solution temperature measured every 12 hrs., prediction models that allow estimating the number of dead plants and predict the amount of zoospores present in a water sample were generated. There were obtained 1295 models to estimate the number of dead plants, of which 6 had a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) greater
Benefit reports inform future decision-making, strategic asset investment planning, business case development, and Asset Management and are required as part of an agency’s senior decision maker’s Asset Management responsibilities. The Benefit Report should be provided at appropriate intervals throughout a major asset’s life- cycle and should: clearly state the extent to which value for money from the asset is being achieved compared to the predicted results, highlight any lessons learned to be later incorporated into planning for similar assets, or in business cases relating to the asset later in its life (e.g. to clarify whether an asset should be refurbished or should be subject to disposal). After disposal, senior decision makers should be advised on the total value for money and service delivery benefits gained from the investment. Financial reporting (also referred to as ‘close the books’) is the process of reconciling, consolidating and generating financial reports/statements periodically to meet regulatory requirements and the information needs of internal and external stakeholders (Australian National Audit Office, 2002; Department for Victorian Communities, 2006). According to the Australian National Audit Office (2002) financial reporting activity can include: ensuring validity and consistency in the organisation’s charts of accounts;, completing journal entries; consolidating data from outlying business units; running trial balances; correcting errors; reconciling and analysing accounts; calculating taxes; preparing and distributing reports; supervising closing tasks; and reviewing key accounts and reports.
Catastrophic risks such as earthquake risk impose a dreadful threat not only for private insurers and reinsures, but also for governments whom in turn are risk-takers for most of the uninsured and uninsurable risk. Therefore seismic risk models become powerful tools for government officials in economical and financial planning institutions. The retention and transfer of risk should be a planned and somewhat controlled process, given that the magnitude of the catastrophic problem will very likely exceed the governmental response and financial capacities, especially for third world countries. In that respect, Colombia, after a history of positive efforts towards risk management at national and local level, has recently developed an earthquake vulnerability reduction program, with the financial assistance of the World Bank. In addition, a Disaster Deficit Index has been obtained for the country with the financial support of the Inter-American Development Bank (see Cardona et al. in this publication). Two of the components of the former program focus on seismic risk estimation and subsequent risk transfer and risk retention strategies for the cities of Bogota´ and Manizale. [CEDERI, 2005; ERN 2005a,b].
Managing water requires appropriate governance arrangements. Increasingly this requires that decisions regarding wa- ter management move from the margins of government to the centre of society. on national and local scales, appropriately funded infrastructure and adequately funded robust governance mechanisms are required to protect water resources and ensure sustainable development and, alongside this, more equitable shar- ing of water-derived benefits. The socio- economic impacts of limited access to water and sanitation are substantial. For instance, estimated annual losses in GDP associated with this in India, Ghana, and cambodia are 6.4%, 5.2% and 7.2% re- spectively. There are real concerns about water resource availability on national and regional scales but often, on a local level, profound failure in water govern- ance arises from poverty, a lack of politi- cal will, inequality and power imbalances.
“INSTRUCTS the Standing Committee to revise the guidelines on Regional Initiatives in such a manner that a precise evaluation of their activities and their administrative and financial management and long-term sustainability is possible and to use these new guidelines to determine the level of support (financial or otherwise) in the coming triennium;” .