Integrated management of water

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Critical multi level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low water management in the adour garonne basin (France)

Critical multi level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low water management in the adour garonne basin (France)

This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi- level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainabil- ity of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model- based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low- water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision- making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors’ participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from indi- vidual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the per- iod of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or not at all predictable. The development and simulation of a priori policy scenarios capturing the most plausible or interesting outcomes of such collective decisions on measures for low-water management allows these difficulties to be overcome. The building of these kind of scenarios requires close collaboration between researchers and stakeholders involved in arenas of collective choice, and implies the integration of the production of model and the analysis of scenarios as one component of the polycentric political process of water management.
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12 Lee mas

LINKING POVERTY REDUCTION AND WATER MANAGEMENT

LINKING POVERTY REDUCTION AND WATER MANAGEMENT

This awareness has produced high levels of political commitment to improving water; a fact reflected in the MDGs, in the prominence given to water and sanitation in the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002, in the declaration of 2005-2015 as the decade of Water for Life. But, this political commitment is only poorly translated into concerted and sustainable actions on the ground: water hardly figures in many Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (see box 2), investments in water management in many countries are stagnant or falling and reforms to the sector happen only slowly if at all.There has been a move towards the development of national integrated water resources management (IWRM) plans in some developing countries, with this a reflection of the commitments made in the WSSD in Johannesburg. In most cases, these efforts are in their infancy, however, and their effectiveness is limited by institutional barriers, low political support and public awareness and the lack of mechanisms to bring together stakeholders in the planning process. The realization of IWRM would provide a basis for more effective poverty targeting in water management, an issue discussed in more depth below. In particular, this would be instrumental in avoiding too narrow a focus on water supply and sanitation alone. This sector is, of course, of profound importance in realizing water’s potential contribution to poverty reduction, but it is essential that the focus on water supply and sanitation does not lead to the neglect of the many other dimensions of water management that are included within an IWRM framework.
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82 Lee mas

ECONOMIC ELEMENTS TO SUPPORT THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (IWRM) IN CHILE: CASE STUDY OF THE VILLARRICA LAKE WATERSHOD

ECONOMIC ELEMENTS TO SUPPORT THE ESTABLISHMENT OF INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (IWRM) IN CHILE: CASE STUDY OF THE VILLARRICA LAKE WATERSHOD

49 (Bauer, 1998). They believed that market mechanisms could help motivate users to save water, sell their surplus, and trade their rights to other sectors with higher value uses (Mentor, 2001). This means more specifically that from 1981 onwards, water use corresponds to every inhabitant, yet the right to extract water is only granted to private people. Thus, in Chile the right to use water becomes an excludable commodity with the same jurisdictional protection as any other commodity (Matus et al, 2004). To put it that way: there are neither charges for the use of water, nor taxes specifically linked to water, as well as no payments for wastewater discharges. Dourojeanni and Jouravlev (2000) state that generally, one can say that there is a gratuity in the maintenance and possession of the resource, in its use, as well as in the generation of negative external effects. In that legal context and with the promotion of private initiatives to invest and take care of the functions of water, one can note that the state takes a back seat with only some subsidiary and secondary roles of regulation, development and promotion (Matus et al, 2004). Madaleno and Gurovich (2007:440) also note that “political power gave away a common and previously public commodity without minimum ecological capacity definition for streams and groundwater sources”.
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138 Lee mas

Umbral de daño de Phytophthora drechsleri en producción hidropónica de lechuga.

Umbral de daño de Phytophthora drechsleri en producción hidropónica de lechuga.

Measurement and estimation of variables that allow displaying the dynamic of pest population depending on the environment and its impact on plant health, is one of the tools of decision in which producers can support for the implementation of Integrated Pest Management programs. That is why we compared the sensitivity of three methods of quantification for detecting Phytophthora drechsleri zoospores in water samples. It was determined that it is possible to detect smaller amounts of zoospores by ELISA tests that by hemocytometer counts or the quantification of colonies in culture medium plates. With the absorbance data obtained from ELISA tests, mathematical models were designed for estimating the number of zoospores per milliliter in water samples. These models were used to monitor the amount of inoculum present in a simulated lettuce production floating hydroponic system. With the number of zoospores data, number of dead plants and solution temperature measured every 12 hrs., prediction models that allow estimating the number of dead plants and predict the amount of zoospores present in a water sample were generated. There were obtained 1295 models to estimate the number of dead plants, of which 6 had a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) greater
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112 Lee mas

Editorial: Economics at a River Basin Scale

Editorial: Economics at a River Basin Scale

Rasche et al., apply their model to the Magdalena-Cauca river basin in Colombia and use it to compare the outcome of coordinated and uncoordinated actions across three different climate change (and rainfall and runoff) scenarios. Integrated river management includes allocations of water use rights through licenses and prices on one side, and investments in infrastructure across political jurisdictions on the other. The results show that gains from centralized planning may be higher than the costs of building climate change adaptation infrastructure. Yet, coordinated responses require a central planner with immediate and unrestricted access to information, while uncoordinated responses require continuous updates of information and adaptive changes in investment decisions. The institutional changes required to enhance coordination are out of the scope of their paper, but integrated models such as the one offered by Rasche et al. illustrate the significant welfare gains that may result from improving policy cooperation and better integration of water management instruments in the face of climate change.
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7 Lee mas

Expert consensuspdf, 307kb

Expert consensuspdf, 307kb

A future challenge will be to better coordinate the efforts of professionals from the variety of sectors involved in human and animal health to anticipate emerging pathogens and reduce water-related transmission via effective control measures. It will be necessary to determine if current management strategies are protective of human and animal health or whether new approaches need to be developed and implemented. In the pursuit of the best use of limited resources for public health benefit, regulators, engineers, and other stakeholders require risk-based targets. The hazard analysis and critical control point/water safety plan concept should be applied to the prevention and control of waterborne zoonoses at all water cycle stages as well as to food products that may be exposed to waterborne zoonotic pathogens. For maximum beneficial impact on public health, management of waterborne zoonoses should be integrated into control of zoonoses through all routes, including food, contact, and water, and control of waterborne disease from diverse sources, as specified in the Stockholm framework (Bartram et al. 2001).
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16 Lee mas

Water management in Spain: an example of changing paradigms

Water management in Spain: an example of changing paradigms

The following case studies are proposed to provide a complementary view of the major trends discussed above. In the first case, focusing on the increasin role of economic instruments, we wish to illustrate how distant were water allocation and management in Spain from any sense of economic rationality. In this we integrate notions like scarcity values, cost recovery rates, externalities and non-market values, together with rents and profit accruable from productive uses. We wish to show with this example that little progress was made since 1989 in the economic area until the 1999 WL reform and the WFD of 2000 recognised that water policy could not progress without the support of economic instruments. With the second case study, looking at succession of attempts to tackle the most pressing problems related to groundwater use, we wish to illustrate how statutes, however clear and sound, fail in the absence of economic compensations, and water rights redefnition. The last case sudy, looking at the economic rationale of integrated water management, is proposed against the devolution process in the area of water management among the Autonomous communities. It shows that cooperative behavior along entire watersheds is the most cost-effective means to achieve the objectives of the DMA, and provides rationale to maintain the basin perspective that Spain has had since 1926 and the DMA extents even to internationally shared river basins.
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26 Lee mas

Water allocation and management

Water allocation and management

the Contracting Parties (COP7, COP8, COP9 and COP10) held, respectively, in San José, Costa Rica, in May 1999, Valencia, Spain, in November 2002, Kampala, Uganda, in November 2005, and Changwon, Republic of Korea, October-November 2008. The guidelines on various matters adopted by the Parties at those and earlier COPs have been prepared as a series of handbooks to assist those with an interest in, or directly involved with, implementation of the Convention at the international, regional, national, subnational or local levels. Each handbook brings together, subject by subject, the various relevant guidances adopted by Parties, supplemented by additional material from COP information papers, case studies and other relevant publications so as to illustrate key aspects of the guidelines. The handbooks are available in the three working languages of the Convention (English, French, and Spanish). The table on the inside back cover lists the full scope of the subjects covered by this handbook series at present. Additional handbooks will be prepared to include any further guidance adopted by future meetings of the Conference of the Contracting Parties. The Ramsar Convention promotes an integrated package of actions to ensure the conservation and wise use of wetlands. In recognition of these integrated approaches, the reader will find that within each handbook there are numerous cross-references to others in the series.
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64 Lee mas

WetlanDS taKe CaRe OF WateR

WetlanDS taKe CaRe OF WateR

Water management in all its forms is complex. There is not one solution that will fit all situations but experiences show that adaptive management processes that engage stakeholders and slowly build on management achievements and successes are essential tools for achiev- ing sustainable economic, social and environmental outcomes. Processes, such as Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), incorporating river basin management, replace the tra- ditional sectoral approach to managing wetlands and water resources and en- sure that the complexities are embraced, rather than ignored or used as an ex- cuse to prioritise investment decisions away from protecting natural wetland infrastructure.
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16 Lee mas

INTEGRATED CITARUM WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INVESTMENT PROGRAM

INTEGRATED CITARUM WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INVESTMENT PROGRAM

Stakeholders: Central Government (National Planning Body, Min. of Forestry, Min. of Agriculture, Min. of Public Works, Min. of Health, Min. of Environment); Local Government (Province [r]

30 Lee mas

Gestión hídrica en el sistema familiar lácteo de la subcuenca Amecameca en el Estado de México.

Gestión hídrica en el sistema familiar lácteo de la subcuenca Amecameca en el Estado de México.

The objective of this study was to analyze water management in the Amecameca Sub-Basin family dairy system, in the State of México. The theoretic approach was derived from IWRM (Integrated Water Resources Management). The field work took place from September to December, 2012. The sample of producers was 22 production units. In terms of the social actors, six key informants were selected from various offices in the federal, state and municipal levels. The analysis was carried out through descriptive statistics. Results show that the average annual cost per water payment was $2920.00 Mexican pesos (including the municipal tap and tank trucks). The water comes from six wells and four ice-melt systems (streams). With regard to milk production, 6.6 l of water are required (including for consumption and cleaning services), in average, to produce one liter of milk. Therefore, the system is partially inefficient in terms of drinking water consumption (5.6 l of water per liter of milk), when compared to other results reported. In spite of this, the system generates a minimal hydric pressure (2.2 %) on the volume of water allotted in the area. The information obtained allows concluding that there is not a problem of scarcity in the volume of water assigned, but rather a social problem of distribution of the resoruce.
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15 Lee mas

Policy Paper circulated during the World Summit on Sustainable Development by The Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), the Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

Policy Paper circulated during the World Summit on Sustainable Development by The Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), the Bureau of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

A basin-scale (river or lake) approach is increasingly recognized as the logical and appropriate geographical/spatial scale in which to address IWRM. However, such basin-scale management generally focuses on the management of surface waters, but importantly also needs to take into account the management of groundwater, and to recognize that groundwater aquifers can be shared between adjacent basins. Better understanding of the linkages between surface and ground waters is needed if truly integrated water resource management is to be achieved.
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12 Lee mas

Shadegan Wetland integrated management plan

Shadegan Wetland integrated management plan

The quality and quantity of water supply to the wetland is probably the most important factor affecting the sustainability of its ecological and economical functioning. However both factors are subject to increasing impacts due to human activities including constructing dams and developing irrigation and agricultural projects in the upstream catchment. Increasing use of water and agro-chemicals are obvious consequences of such developments that reduce the quantity and quality of water supply to the wetland. Increasing inflows to the wetland from untreated drainage resources containing residues of harmful substances would be another crucial concern that implies careful management of water resources at catchment level if the wetland is to remain healthy. Industrial developments around the wetland also have the potential to release additional harmful wastewater into the wetland.
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41 Lee mas

About this series of handbooks

About this series of handbooks

The Ramsar Convention Secretariat wishes to acknowledge the very many people who have, over several years and numerous meetings of the Conferences of the Contracting Parties, contributed their knowledge and experience in the area of wetland site management and monitoring. Their collective efforts have allowed the Convention to develop this integrated management package. Special mention should be made of the contributions by Prof Max Finlayson (now Director of the Institute for Land, Water and Society at Charles Sturt University, Australia) in the areas of ecological character, monitoring, and wetland risk assessment. The guidance relating to risk assessment was adopted by the 7th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP7, 1999), which followed an experts’ workshop held at the Ramsar Secretariat in April 1998, preceding the 7th meeting of the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP). The authors of the Wetland Risk Assessment Framework, Prof Finlayson, Dr Rick van Dam, and Dr Chris Humphrey of the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Australia (eriss), deserve special thanks. The Secretariat also extends its thanks to eriss and the National Wetlands Programme of Environment Australia for supporting the authors during their development of this guidance. The New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar Sites and other wetlands adopted by Ramsar COP8 (2002) were prepared by an STRP Working Group, and special thanks are due to Mike Alexander (Countryside Council for Wales – UK) and Dr Mike Acreman (Centre for Ecology and Hydrology – UK) for their preparation of drafts of this guidance. The guidance on wetlands and fisheries, adopted by COP9 in 2005, was derived from information in a draft report prepared by Dr Robin Welcomme for the STRP, with financial support from IUCN and WWF. Thanks are extended to all involved for their support for this work, including the STRP for the preparation of the draft COP9 Resolution on this topic. The underlying full report is presently being prepared for publication as a Ramsar Technical Report.
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100 Lee mas

New perspectives in the watershed approach for water management

New perspectives in the watershed approach for water management

The integrated water resources management based on the wa- tershed concept and approach as a unit is an advanced tool for the future of water management. Surface and underground waters are used for human consumptions, industrial applica- tion and processes and generation of hydropower as well as tourism and recreation, food supply or irrigation. Plants, animals and ecosystems consume water. Applied to surface and under- ground sources of water, the basic demands for quality of life in- clude: i) protection from floods and droughts; ii) protection from water based and water borne diseases; iii) water of good quality; iv) production of food from lakes, rivers and reservoirs.
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12 Lee mas

The privatisation of urban water services: theory and empirical evidence in the case of Spain

The privatisation of urban water services: theory and empirical evidence in the case of Spain

Several features of the legal framework regulating the privatisation of water ser- vices in Spain are worth highlighting. First, local policymakers are empowered to choose between managing urban water services directly or outsourcing management. Furthermore, only the management of the services can be outsourced; the infrastruc- ture always remains public property. Secondly, the legal form usually chosen for the transfer of water services to a private company is concession, rather than other less common methods set out in the regulations, such as lease or an agreement with an individual or legal entity. Thirdly, water services management is transferred to a private company for a certain period of time, via a public tendering process. There is a limit of 50 years for contracts involving infrastructure construction as well as operating the service, and 25 years for transfer of service operation only. The type of auction is a best offer, sealed bid. Lastly, Spanish legislation accounts for a possible partial privatisation of urban water services management. In this management model, private companies usually acquire a 49%-stake in the municipal company supplying the service and assume responsibility for daily management, while the local govern- ment maintains direct control over the company’s medium- and long-term decisions. Today, Spain is one of the developed countries with the greatest number of pri- vate companies involved in the management of urban water services (Pérard, 2009); according to González-Gómez et al. (2014), 23% of Spanish municipalities have private capital invested in the management of these services, a percentage that rises to 55% when expressed in terms of the population served 3 . The Spanish water industry
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20 Lee mas

Triad of the Articulation Model of  Integrated Management Systems [TMA-HSEQ]

Triad of the Articulation Model of Integrated Management Systems [TMA-HSEQ]

Also, Zeng, Shi, and Lu (2007) revealed that different factors exist that make it difficult for companies to accomplish quality certification on safety, occupational health, and environment, partially losing the resources invested for said purpose; a situation that affects the organization in economic, social, and competitive manner. Internal factors include: (1) human resources, (2) organizational structure, (3) company culture, and (4) comprehension and perception. External factors consist of: (1) technical guidance, (2) certification organizations, (3) interested parties and clients, and (4) the institutional environment. Jorgensen, Remmen, and Mellado (2006) indicate that to minimize the factors that keep the organization from certification, the theme should be addressed from the increase of compatibility of the systems elements to the coordination of the generic processes of an integrated management system within a culture of learning and continuous improvement.
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8 Lee mas

New directions in water resources management: The role of water pricing policies

New directions in water resources management: The role of water pricing policies

Finally, an empirical application illustrates that mod- el results convey specific and detailed information about the impact on water use, environmental indicators, crop alloca- tion de[r]

11 Lee mas

Aplicaciones web para móvil: Estudio y desarrollo de una plataforma web orientada a la telemedicina

Aplicaciones web para móvil: Estudio y desarrollo de una plataforma web orientada a la telemedicina

 Qualitative  and  quantitative   evaluation  of  EHR-­‐integrated  mobile  patient  questionnaires  regarding  usability  and  cost-­‐ efficiency..  Database  Management  [r]

125 Lee mas

Importance of the study of environmental aspects in the exploitation of unconventional reservoirs for risk assessment of the activity in Argentina

Importance of the study of environmental aspects in the exploitation of unconventional reservoirs for risk assessment of the activity in Argentina

There is an expectation that the exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbons (UH) reservoirs will contribute to satisfy the growing demand of energy, since conventional reservoirs are on a declining stage. However, environmental consequences of the fluids used on unconventional formations are an aspect that has not been analyzed in depth in the region. Approximately 10-40% of the volume injected of fracturing fluids returns to the surface during the hydraulic fracturing process. The flowback not only includes the chemicals added, but may also contain various substances suspended from the formation. This situation demands the development of appropriate technologies for flowback treatment and the need to consider the existing legal context and the ecologic and environmental conditions. The impacts associated with UH activities that need to be analyzed in order to accomplish control and standardization, include those related to consumption of surface water or groundwater, potential contamination of regional water resources, treatment and final disposal of flowback. It is possible to achieve the sustainability of the activity, based on an environmental analysis.
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15 Lee mas

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