In the last decades of the XX century the watershed was adopt- ed as a management unit. This was conceptually developed al- ready in many countries, eg. France, Germany, but the adoption of the watershed for water resources management was devel- oped worldwide and described in official documents of interna- tional organizations and seminars . The concept is consistent: the watershed is a biogeophysical unit with natural boundaries where water flows throughout the hydrographic network of riv- ers, creeks, natural channels, wetlands . The components of the watersheds in the space of its boundaries are distributed accordingly to geomorphological features, altitude, river origins, water flux. These components all interact among themselves. Furthermore, the human activities such as soil uses for agricul- ture, reservoirs for irrigation and energy production, industries, urban areas, interact with the natural systems. This is a system- ic and articulated view of the watershed. Its natural and artifi- cial-human made components and interactions is essential for an integratedwaterresourcemanagement initiative .
Watermanagement in all its forms is complex. There is not one solution that will fit all situations but experiences show that adaptive management processes that engage stakeholders and slowly build on management achievements and successes are essential tools for achiev- ing sustainable economic, social and environmental outcomes. Processes, such as IntegratedWaterResourceManagement (IWRM), incorporating river basin management, replace the tra- ditional sectoral approach to managing wetlands and water resources and en- sure that the complexities are embraced, rather than ignored or used as an ex- cuse to prioritise investment decisions away from protecting natural wetland infrastructure.
A basin-scale (river or lake) approach is increasingly recognized as the logical and appropriate geographical/spatial scale in which to address IWRM. However, such basin-scale management generally focuses on the management of surface waters, but importantly also needs to take into account the management of groundwater, and to recognize that groundwater aquifers can be shared between adjacent basins. Better understanding of the linkages between surface and ground waters is needed if truly integratedwaterresourcemanagement is to be achieved.
Figure 4.3.2 gives a summary of the costs and investments made for each of the different model runs as shown in Figure 4.3.1. As seen in Figure 4.3.2a during the planning runs for the scenario described in Table 4.3.1, the “Integrated Plan" provides a plan which is about 0.6% (2.1 billion EUR) more expensive than that of the “Non-integrated Plan" run. This is because it considers the different water-energy interdependent constraints via the programmed links. The “Integrated" run, taking water constraints into consideration, invests in the more ex- pensive and energy in-efficient but water-efficient dry cooling nuclear and gas cogeneration energy technologies as seen in Figure 4.3.2d. This choice of energy technologies allows the system more flexibility and thus ultimately lowers total costs during the performance runs in which the “Integrated Perf" run has total costs about 5% less (19.1 billion EUR in this case study) than that of the “Non-integrated Perf" run. In Figure 4.3.2b, we note that during the performance phase the “Integrated" mode is able to serve the final energy using the planned investments, with imports and operation costs remaining similar to those as planned. How- ever, for the “Non-Integrated" performance mode, the new capacity investment decisions prove insufficient after water-energy nexus interdependencies are included and additional costs are incurred in the form of increased imports and operation costs. In Figure 4.3.2b and c, “Installed Cap" costs in the performance runs refer to the planned investment costs and are not calculated during the performance runs but added on from the planning phase calculations. Figures 4.3.2e shows that both modes invest in mainly desalination technologies with the non-integrated plan investing in more desalination to supply water for its planned investments in tower-cooled nuclear power plants.
approaches for integrated environmental modelling, and recently Jagers (2010) complemented it with an updated overview of some frameworks and systems such as Kepler (Ludäscher et al., 2006) and Taverna (Oinn et al., 2006). Although these frameworks share the same principles of modularity and decomposition, they also differ in their technological basis, which thereby impedes integrated modelling across different framework implementations (Rizzoli et al., 2008). One of the most relevant initiatives for coupling components in IEM is the Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI) standard. OpenMI was designed to overcome interoperability issues among component-based platforms. It enables integrated modelling between third-party components and models that are implemented as local, OpenMI-compliant components (Gregersen et al., 2007). In short, OpenMI-based modelling consists of two phases. First, third-party models are converted into OpenMI-compliant components by inheriting from OpenMI base interfaces. Then, these OpenMI-compliant components are configured and combined to form integrated models by using the OpenMI Configurator Editor. This front-end application allows workflow modellers to construct IEM in a similar manner as Taverna and Kepler graphical tools do for scientific workflows. OpenMI has been successfully applied to various underlying models and component-based frameworks (Knapen et al., 2009). The authors report some examples of how components within ESMF and CCA frameworks have been coupled with OpenMI in hydrological applications. Castronova and Goodall (2010) proposed a semi-automated process for creating OpenMI-compliant components for modelling hydrologic processes. However, migrating local models and components to OpenMI interfaces remains a time consuming task because the technological skills and knowledge required is still a burden for many scientists.
be tempting to seek fault in the operationalization of this variable, as this is the one measure whose mean was the closest to the mid-range of the scale (3.99 out of seven), and the one that showed the smallest standard deviation (.95). Nevertheless, other scales exhibited similarly small standard deviations (HR Innovation Climate in particular, with a .97 s.d.), yet received highly significant regression coefficients, in support of the corresponding hypotheses. Besides, this scale (IS Resource Availability for HRT) has been a significant predictor in other contexts (Klein, Conn & Sorra, 2001) and its reliability coefficient for this study was quite acceptable ( α = .81). Accordingly, if the measure shows acceptable properties, it must be the relationship between the constructs that is problematic. Perhaps the need to use HRITs is so strong –and prices much less significant than they were in the past—that resource availability has lost its importance as a predictor of HRTI. In addition, most of the firms in this investigation can be classified as large (see the Organizational Demographics section on page 64); maybe these constructs are related when the firms are small or medium sized and costs associated with HRITs are proportionally greater than for companies in this investigation.
Measurement and estimation of variables that allow displaying the dynamic of pest population depending on the environment and its impact on plant health, is one of the tools of decision in which producers can support for the implementation of Integrated Pest Management programs. That is why we compared the sensitivity of three methods of quantification for detecting Phytophthora drechsleri zoospores in water samples. It was determined that it is possible to detect smaller amounts of zoospores by ELISA tests that by hemocytometer counts or the quantification of colonies in culture medium plates. With the absorbance data obtained from ELISA tests, mathematical models were designed for estimating the number of zoospores per milliliter in water samples. These models were used to monitor the amount of inoculum present in a simulated lettuce production floating hydroponic system. With the number of zoospores data, number of dead plants and solution temperature measured every 12 hrs., prediction models that allow estimating the number of dead plants and predict the amount of zoospores present in a water sample were generated. There were obtained 1295 models to estimate the number of dead plants, of which 6 had a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) greater
Moreover, pollution is another stressor that may affect fish populations and human health and should also be taken into consideration to develop management plans. For this reason, a sampling that was carried out in October 2014 and in which 1 pool of 6 individuals per genera (jack, snapper and catfish), and per site (Barú, Caño del Oro, Ararca) and 1 sample from sediments per site were analyzed for the following metals: Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Lead, Mercury, Nickel, Tin and Zinc. In this previous sampling, relatively high levels of Chromium, Lead, Mercury and Nickel were obtained in fish muscles and/or in sediments. Therefore these metals were selected for further analyses.
difficult choices. One problem that arises is that the question of which stakeholders gain and which lose from a particular watermanagement scheme is not a criterion taken into account in efficiency assessment. Such distributional effects may be very important, since although a particular scheme may show a substantial net benefit and would be deemed highly desirable in efficiency terms, the principal beneficiaries may not necessarily be the ones who bear the burden of the costs or suffer any adverse impacts which arise. For example, the Kariba dam, built in 1959, was the first of the major dams in Africa and brought a great benefit to Zambia through its supply of power for copper mining. However, since no plans for rural electrification were made, the 50,000 Batongans displaced by the reservoir bore the burden of the costs, but saw none of the benefit 29 .
For a given pathogen, the waterborne route of transmission may be of either limited or overwhelming importance. Thus, for example, where drinking-water is routinely disinfected, salmonellae are unlikely to be significantly distributed by this route; thus, salmonellosis is largely a foodborne infection in well managed water supplies, although waterborne transmission may occur where safeguards break down. It is inappropriate to extrapolate this conclusion to the areas where drinking-water safety is unsure. Local factors must be taken into account in determining whether a pathogen is likely to contribute a minimum of, for example, 5% of total disease transmission from waterborne routes; outbreaks and sporadic cases may need to be considered separately.
The quality and quantity of water supply to the wetland is probably the most important factor affecting the sustainability of its ecological and economical functioning. However both factors are subject to increasing impacts due to human activities including constructing dams and developing irrigation and agricultural projects in the upstream catchment. Increasing use of water and agro-chemicals are obvious consequences of such developments that reduce the quantity and quality of water supply to the wetland. Increasing inflows to the wetland from untreated drainage resources containing residues of harmful substances would be another crucial concern that implies careful management of water resources at catchment level if the wetland is to remain healthy. Industrial developments around the wetland also have the potential to release additional harmful wastewater into the wetland.
• The last possibility corresponds to extend the current GC system with new knowledge about GC com- ponents instead of additional elements (Condition 7). For example, the association of an existent resource or AD with an existent VO (predicate SharedInto and relation participate cf. Def. 4.3.2). It is worth to remark that it is possible (necessary) that other sets have additional elements. For example, if there is an additional user then an additional user task, log and user proxy are necessary to satisfy the required grid axioms. In each resulting GC system, all remaining preconditions, axioms and rules can be satisfied with the initial elements and some additional elements in sets, which do not affect the system size. Now, We illustrate the construction of a GC system extension (minimal) on the following example. Example 4.3.3. Consider the GC system depicted in Figure 4.5. There, we assume the same conventions of Figure 2.2. More precisely, we denote AD as ovals, resources as computers and disks, and tasks as notes. Additionally, the membership or association to a VO is represented as the element background. The static description G’ associated to this GC system is as follows:
An ‘audit’ is defined in ISO 19011: 2011 and ISO 9000: 2005 vocabulary standard as a ‘systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled’ (ISO, 2005, 2011). According to the same standards, an ‘internal’ or ‘first party’ audit is ‘conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization itself for management review and other internal purposes, and may form the basis for an organization’s declaration of conformity’ (ISO, 2005, 2011). ‘External’ audits encompass the so-called ‘second-party’ (‘conducted by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by other persons on their behalf’) and ‘third-party’ (‘conducted by external, independent auditing organizations, such as those providing certification/registration of conformity’) audits (ISO, 2005, 2011). It is also important to explain what an integrated audit means. Several authors coincide that “full audit integration necessitates the establishment of a single audit system across all functions and hence a complete amalgamation of all cross-functional goals, processes and resources” (Karapetrovic and Willborn, 1998c; Karapetrovic, 2002 and 2003). This means that the audits need to involve the sharing of all the components among cross-functional audits, namely they need to share the time when the audit is conducted, the audit team, the plan and the report. However, practically, the integration of quality, environmental, safety and other kinds of audits can be reduced to involve the sharing of only a selected number of these components among cross-functional audits.
It is consensually believed that Exascale performance will only be achieved by adopting specialized hard- ware, what inevitably will turn systems into heteroge- neous facilities. Dealing with heterogeneous hardware not only involves a tougher management of the cluster, but also a rise in the complexity of the applications which wanted to use all the resources available.
– There are commercially available treatment options that can be used in the home or private premises that will reduce radioactive contamination of drinking-water. These are: water filter systems for softening water that use a carbon filter with some ion exchange material (jug filters), and small reverse osmosis units. These products should be certified by an appropriate standards organization. Household water treatment options will generate waste products that will contain the radionuclides removed from the water (see Question 3.3). These types of units are more likely to be practical for small communities or where only a small water-supply is affected, as they will not be accessible on a large scale and their use will need to be carefully controlled to ensure they are effective and waste filters are handled appropriately. Information Box 2.6 and Information Box 2.7 discuss remedial activities undertaken in response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011.
ACWUA (Arab Countries Water Utilities Association). 2016. The Regional Initiative for Establishing a Regional Mechanism for Improved Monitoring and Reporting on Access to Water Supply and Sanitation Services in the Arab Region, Second report (MDG+ Initiative).