Taking into account the existence of different types of motivation, it is important to state that developing intrinsic motivation in students when learning a second language is more important than extrinsic motivation. As we already know, talking about motivation can be considered as a subjective field difficult to deal with. However, the role the teacher plays during the teaching time can show dramatic changes in the students’ response. Reeve (2012) explains through examples and real experiments that classroom conditions and the teaching style applied by the teacher can enhance and support students’ intrinsic motivational processes or undermine and thwart them. Therefore, the teacher performance during the class can support but also neglect and frustrate students’ motivation, engagement, and positive classroom functioning.
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The findings of this study should be applied with caution, given the limitations. In data collection, only self-report measures were used and the adolescent was the single in- formant. Future studies may include multiple informants (e.g. parents and/or teachers) and can also assess additional teenagers' features, such as school performance, school failure, symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and social support network. Institutional characteristics, such as infrastructure, available teaching resources, school climate, fulltime or part-time shifts, etc. can be considered as well. Additionally, this researches may apply more advanced te- chniques of data analysis, such as multiple linear regression. The sample of this study came from the same State of Brazil and reflects the particularities of this context, which can make it difficult to generalize results. Besides that, the correlation between the evaluated variables may have been found due to the sample size. Future studies with larger, more diverse, and wide age samples may be conducted to deepen knowledge about self-efficacy and motivation to learn. It is necessary to invest in strategies to enhance students' self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, considering the primary role of education for the future of children and adolescents. The current overview of elementary and high education in Brazil reveals the existence of an educational pattern, an evaluation system focused on external rewards (i.e. grades) and unaware of individual differences and interests. In this scenario, low levels of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation can gain space, making students' de- velopment and learning more difficult.
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Abstract:Taking into consideration that work motivation can be enhanced not only by increasing the levels of responsibility, me- aningfulness and feedback that are built into job (intrinsic motivation), but also by improving the workers relationships, the wor- king conditions, and the incentives (extrinsic motivation), four groups of concrete motivators have been introduced in our mo- tivational model. For these groups of concrete motivators, a number of core dimensions have been derived, measured and evaluated given us the oppor tunity to establish the relationship, in terms of indicators, between the installed technology and the motivation it inspires. There have been carried out two applications of the proposed model: one in the conditions of a univer- sity in Cuba and the other in several Mexican institutions. The results obtained show the validity of the model for determining the motivational quality of working environments.
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• Greater levéis of intrinsic motivation. In general, they valué more the opportunity to grow with challenging activities, they feel the principal responsible for their learning process and their academic results and they appreciate the sense of accomplishment obtained by studying their degree. As it was expected, the main differences are related to the áreas deeply tackled in the training provided to the students such as proactive attitudes, achievement motivation, learning responsibility, intrinsic motivators, etc. These differences can be considered clearly favorable, but there are other differences that could be seen by teachers and academic institutions as unfavorable. The participating students also develop higher sensitive and critical sense with their environment. But, in opinión of the authors, the demanding and exigent students can also help to improve the engineering teaching.
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The differences in percentages of variance in academic performance explained by the motivational variables that we examined in boys and girls indicate the need to encourage research into gender differences in academic emotions and motivations in general and in mathematics in particular. Whereas negative feelings, anxiety, and perceived competence together explain almost 20% of the variance in boys’ performance in mathematics, the explanatory power of negative feelings, competence, and intrinsic motivation in girls is practically half of that. Producing a body of knowledge that would let us characterize differential motivational profiles, in contexts of achievement, would allow better adjustment of affective- motivational interventions. The gender gap in cognitive abilities could be reduced in the long term with the promotion of specific educational experiences in these first stages of formal education (Ganley and Lubienski, 2016).
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The effects of external interventions on intrinsic motivation have been attributed to two psychological processes: (a) Impaired self-determination. When individuals perceive an external intervention as reducing their self- determination, intrinsic motivation is substituted by extrinsic control. Following Rotter (1966), the locus of control shifts from inside to outside of the person affected. Individuals, who are forced to behave in a specific way by outside intervention, feel over justified if they maintain their intrinsic motivation. (b) Impaired self-esteem. When outside intervention carries the notion that the actor's motivation is not acknowledged, his or her intrinsic motivation is effectively rejected. The person affected feels that his or her involvement and competence is not appreciated, which debases its value. An intrinsically motivated person is deprived of the chance of displaying his or her own interest and involvement in an activity when someone else offers a reward, or orders them to do it. As a result of impaired self-esteem, individuals reduce effort.
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Considering the axis of this study, the action of leading authentic materials, specifically in the form of films to students, had a significant impact on two main aspects: 1) their motivation to EFL learning, and 2) to Applied Linguistics in the field of school teaching. First, only by means of observation (for further reference see Appendix VI) students were positively moved by performing the characters of the selected films even when they were not told yet of a corresponding mark for it. These reactions at the same time confirmed that, according to the literature (for further reference see the section of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Orientations in pp. 32, 33), they showed signs of intrinsic motivation for the EFL given to their immediate motivation to the experience of working with films rather than the external orientation of the mark. Second, it can be stated here that this investigation showed that by considering students’ comfort zones, interests, and encouraging materials the AL field of school teaching is highly benefited. More specifically, the use of films promoted feasible language learning in students, for instance, when they were asked to be engaged with the language learning tasks and they completed phrases (for further reference see Appendix VI) using the vocabulary seen in the sections of pre-viewing and viewing of the intervention.
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Expectancy-value theories are based on the idea that humans are naturally curious learners driven to understand their context and experience challenges, so what directs and shapes motivation is the focus of these theories. The first is the attribution theory, in which people try to comprehend what causes their past successes and failures and the different types of creating attributions that affect behavior differently (Weiner, 1992). The second is the self-efficacy theory where people judge their abilities to perform certain tasks, and depending on their sense of efficacy, they will decide the activities, aspirations, effort, and persistence (Bandura, 1993). Bandura (1993) states that it is determined by four factors: “previous performance, vicarious learning, verbal encouragement by others, and one’s physiological reactions”. The third theory is Covington’s (1992) self-worth theory where people are extremely motivated to preserve a basic sense of personal value and worth, especially when they compete, fail, or receive negative feedback.
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determined by four perceptions, including the extent to which one believes: (a) his/her actions will lead to results, (b) his/her results will lead to positive evaluations, (c) his/her evaluations will lead to positive outcomes, and (d) his/her outcomes will satisfy his/her needs. The MAS is designed to capture P-A Theory by assessing these four perceptions, and this dissertation examined tenets of P-A Theory by investigating the measurement properties of the MAS via confirmatory factor analysis. Findings showed that the model set forth by P-A Theory had the best fit compared to the other competing models when analyzing MAS data, suggesting the MAS is an appropriate measure of P-A Theory. This research should help to bridge the gap between motivation theory and practice by providing initial evidence of support for a practical measure that captures the full spectrum of employee motivation as set forth in P-A Theory.
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This teaching experience will be presented from a multidisciplinary perspective by using an artistic approach to both architecture and civil engineering works. Among other aspects, the results show that, if study topics are in a direct relationship with the students’ interest centers, motivation increases. Keywords: Geometry, Innovation, Art, Proportion.
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maintained and protected while the particular action lasts. This motivational dimension has been referred to as executive motivation or volition, and is particularly relevant to classroom settings, where students are exposed to a great number of distracting influences, such as off-task thoughts, irrelevant distractions, from others, anxiety about the tasks or physical conditions that make it difficult to complete the task. For this second phase, the materials and how they are used must reflect the level of the learners. The teacher, therefore, needs to be very careful not to damage the initial motivation by asking the students to do something either too far beyond their
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The questions were accordingly chosen in terms of their attitude towards the classes, the way of teaching and the attractiveness of the materials and sources used. Furthermore, they were also asked about their opinion about the learning acquired during this period. Some teachers might think that motivating students could be convenient in reference to enhancing a positive perspective towards the language, but results can be slightly worse. Thus, the decision of asking for learners’ views in relation to both aspects was born from the need of refuting this myth. This is the reason why I also wanted to ask about language proficiency instead of limiting my findings to the fostering of motivation. As such, I included questions regarding their feelings about the activities, materials and teaching methodology, but also about their views towards their academic usefulness. This fact can be appreciated in the following sample graphics, elaborated taking into consideration the most relevant questions.
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The achievement of this work motivation corresponds on the one hand to the managers, to the leader who directs the work team and also corresponds to the human capital itself, to the worker himself. This context implies the leadership style exercised by these leaders, which is directly related to the amount of emotional competences they possess, as well as the learning capacity of people to learn the described competences (Daniel Goleman, 1995 / 2001).
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We build upon work by PS08 to obtain the dust extinction and the distribution of the intrinsic shapes of elliptical and spiral galaxies in the SDSS DR8. The new model is an im- proved version of the one presented in PS08 since (i) we now apply the method by SSG10, of modelling the γ = C/A and ǫ = 1 − B/A distributions as sums of many Gaussian dis- tributions with fixed dispersions and means, with different weights , (ii) we add the data from the Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott et al. 2011) as a second parameter to define spiral and elliptical galaxy samples in addition to the f racDeV parameter, and (iii) we measure the dust extinction affect- ing each galaxy sample by studying the face- and edge-on luminosity functions (only for spiral galaxies).
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Learners are more interested in activities that involves having background knowledge, so they can talk about their own experiences, Hamed, Reza and Sina (2012). It probably explains why students show resistance to participate in activities in which they do not have anything to relate or say about them. Li, Xuesong and Yang (2012) claim that willingness to communicate is related to communication form, communication task and conversational objects. It is also related to some factors like motivation and self-confidence among others. Therefore, teachers should guide students to obtain best results and success, to have
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Aussi, à manière de réponse à ce que la motivation a fait, nous pouvons être sûrs que ces écoliers qui ont trouvé une motivation pour aller à la classe ont développé des meilleurs outils pour communiquer en FLE, et nous pouvons conclure à partir, aussi, des journaux de bord qui montrent des évidences importantes pour le goût d’un nombre important du cours, pour la classe de français comme par exemple : « La classe a été amusante car la plupart a ri en différents moments, et à la fin, de manière polie, certains écoliers se sont approchés pour dire « au revoir », « on se voit prof, Óscar », même un « bye, teacher », entre autres » (voir annexe 3 : journal de bord) ce qui nous permet de dire que les enfants voulaient avouer une certaine reconnaissance par rapport au travail fait, sachant que le stagiaire avait ainsi fini son stage.; « Sept écoliers m’ont dit qu’elle était « amusant » cette activité parce qu’ils aimaient parler de leurs familles et des leurs goûts » (voir annexe 10).
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Raffini (1993) argues that, one aspect worth mentioning about the motivation in learning is to recognize that students sometimes develop habits that go against their own performance. The student knows what to do and acknowledges that his attitude is not going according to the degree of responsibility that is expected of him, and still persists in attitudes that contradict quality standards. Many of these factors can be attributed to traits of young adult students: tardiness, listlessness, lack of interest in the study in general (not only for languages), poor choice of appropriate places for study, etc.
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Williamson, 2004). The participants in the pilot study were not considered for the actual study. Additionally, the participants of the pilot study were required to maintain confidentiality of the interview questions. A validated survey was obtained from Spector’s (1994) job satisfaction survey. NVivo 8 was used to analyze qualitative data obtained from interviews with participants. The statistical tools that will be used in this study are PASW Statistics GradPack Base 17.0 and Excel. Excel was used to format data after the statistical analysis for ease of customization. However, a more sophisticated statistical tool was used for statistical analysis, PASW Statistics. The interviewees were granted confidentiality at their requests and were coded as faculty participants (FP1 through FP25) and manager participants (MP1 through MP5). The thematic analysis of the faculty participants provided an outlook into the causality of faculty motivation and the factors that faculty found positive or negative. The analysis of manager respondents provided the perspective of management into their faculty motivation to validate the responses of faculty participants.
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Some studies have indicated that what takes place in the classroom can influence students’ attitudes and motivation. For example, Gardner, Masgoret, Tennant, & Mihic (2004) found that over the course of the year, university students’ level of motivational intensity, desire to learn French, attitudes toward learning French, integrative orientation, French course evaluation, and French class anxiety decreased significantly. Of particular relevance, however, was that for three of these measures, desire to learn French, attitudes toward learning French, and French course evaluation, the magnitude of the decreases were greater for students who obtained low grades in the class. Similar results were obtained by Gardner and Bernaus (2004) with high school students in Spain learning English as a foreign language. In that study, scores on integrativeness, motivation, language anxiety, instrumental orientation, and parental encouragement decreased significantly from the beginning to the end of the year. Again, of greater relevance, there was also a significant interaction between the level of achievement attained in the class and changes over time in attitudes toward the learning situation. The top one-third of the students in terms of final grades showed an increase in attitudes toward the learning situation; the middle third showed little change, and the bottom third demonstrated decreases in attitudes toward the learning situation. Thus, both studies suggest that students’ attitudes, motivation, and language anxiety change over the course of study, and that often this change is moderated by students ´final achievement in the class.
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In this article we have identified experimental conditions where classical intrinsic death stimuli engage the mitochondrial apoptosis machinery in the absence of BAX, BAK and CypD. BAX and BAK are fundamental components of the core apoptosis pathway upon which multiple death signals converge through activation/upregulation of specific BH3-only proteins to trigger cytochrome c release [2,3,53,54]. Bax and bak double deficiency in mice is embryonic lethal due to failure of developmental programs that depend on apoptosis . Howev- er, a small percentage of bax and bak DKO mice (,10%) are viable , indicating that proper development can occur in the absence of these pro-apoptotic proteins. Whether developmental cell death in the absence of BAX and BAK is dependent on the CypD and mitochondrial PTP is unknown. We speculate that this may not be the case since most stimuli that trigger CypD- induced cell death rely on mitochondrial calcium uptake and production of reactive oxygen species, conditions more prompt to undergo necrotic cell death due to a rapid drop in ATP production. In fact, genetic ablation of cypD does not generate evident developmental defects, and does not alter the suscep- tibility to apoptosis of cells to a large number of known intrinsic death stimuli, but it modulated cell death after exposure to H 2 O 2 (oxidative stress) in vitro and protected mice against brain
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