Ciancimino  plantea que “los niveles de colaboración se representan mediante la consideración de tres arquetipos de cadena de suministro: i) Cadena Tradicional, en el que cada integrante dispone de información local sobre los niveles de inventario y ventas, el minorista pronostica la demanda del mercado a partir del análisis de series temporales y los restantes miembros de la cadena se reabastecen considerando exclusivamente los pedidos procedentes de los niveles inferiores; ii) la Cadena EPOS (Exchange Point of Sales), en la que todos los integrantes basan su política de reabastecimiento en los niveles locales de inventario y de trabajo en proceso, en los pedidos recibidos de los niveles inferiores y en la demanda del mercado y iii) la Cadena Sincronizada, que desarrolla su política de reabastecimiento a partir de bases de datos que integran información en tiempo real acerca de los inventarios y el trabajo en procesos propios y de los miembros de nivel inferior, de los pedidos recibidos y de la demanda del mercado”.
The conventional inventory models in the literature suggest that the presence of a large stock leads a …rm to produce less (e.g., El Ouardighi et al., 2008; Chen, 2013). In contrast, our result indicates that production rates increase with higher inventory levels. This is due to the role played by the inventory, which also determines the market potential and then the sales development. Furthermore, the dynamic inventory policy is set according to a VMI policy rather than by using a make-to-stock approach, as in Jørgensen (1986), Kogan and Tapiero (2007) and Erikson (2012). M expands his business when producing high quantities. Interestingly, M solves the trade-o¤ between increasing holding cost versus increasing demand by favoring sales growth. Thus, under a VMI policy, the production rate becomes a marketing device to boost sales rather than e¢ ciently reducing the inventory cost. Because large inventory expands the market potential, R can charge a higher price while ensuring that demand will not su¤er from it. This result also depends on larger advertising e¤orts induced by higher accumulated inventory. Overall, the pricing and advertising strategies complement each other to guarantee optimized salesand pro…ts. Intuitively, the presence of large stock leads R to advertise more, with the …nal target to reduce the inventoryand increase sales. This …nding depends on the structure of the VMI policy, according to which M manages R’s inventory. So, M seeks to increase the inventory as much as possible. Finally, having a wider reference-display obtained by keeping high stocks of inventory translates into larger pro…ts for M . Consequently, there is a need to investigate the conditions as well as the most relevant parameters to assess a VMI policy. Finally, R’s pro…ts increase with the stock of inventory. Although the larger advertising e¤orts required to sell o¤ the inventory in stock harm R’s pro…ts, M ’s contribution to pay the holding cost makes large values of Y pro…table for R as well.
The basic assumption in this model is that retailers may increase their profit if they decide to cooperate. The basic cooperation rules that could appear in this setting are: switch excess inventory to anyone who has excess demand so that the latter can save in lost sales cost, or give a joint order and use this quantity to satisfy the total demand they are facing so that they can save in ordering cost.
One of the properties of metadata is that it can be organized in layers, that is, metadata can refer to raw data, (e.g. coming from an instrument or being available in a database), refer to information about the process of obtaining the raw data, or refer to derived data products. This allows distinguishing different layers (or chains) of metadata: primary, secondary, tertiary, etc. As an example, let us consider an application in the satellite imaging domain, such as the one described in . Raw data coming from satellites (e.g., images taken by instruments in the satellite) are sent to the ground stations so that they can be stored and processed. A wide range of metadata can be associated with these data, such as the times when they were obtained and transferred, the instrument used for capturing them, the time period when the image was taken, the position to which it refers, etc. This is considered as the primary metadata of the images received. Later on, this metadata can be used to check whether all the images that were supposed to be obtained from an instrument in a period of time have been actually obtained or whether there are any gaps, and new metadata can be generated regarding the grouping of pieces of metadata for an instrument, the quality of the results obtained for that time period, statistical summaries, etc. This is considered as secondary metadata, since it does not refer to the raw data being described, but to the metadata that refer to the analysis, summaries, and observations about the raw data, so that it forms a set of layers or a chain of metadata descriptions. Another common example of this organization of metadata into layers is that of provenance, which is described in the next section.
Transaction error occurs typically at the inbound and outbound sides of the facility. At the inbound side, ship- ments that arrive from the suppliers have to be registered into the store information system. There may be a discrep- ancy between the shipment record and the actual shipment, and if it goes unnoticed by the receiving clerk, the inventory record will not reﬂect the actual stock accurately. On the outbound side, the checkout registers are not exempt from contributing to the inventory record errors. Typically, the cashiers are rewarded based on the speed of checkouts, and when a shopper brings similar products with an identical price, they may choose to scan only one of the products and process them as identical SKUs. The result is that the in- ventory record of the scanned product decreases more than it should, whereas that of other products is left unchanged. Inaccessible inventory refers to products that are some- where in the facility but are not available because they can- not be found. This can happen when a consumer takes a product from the shelf and places it at another location. It can also happen in the back room or any other storage area in the store. The inaccessible inventory will eventually be found and made ready for sale. However, a long time may pass until this happens, and until then, the inaccessi- ble products are no different from being nonexistent as far as revenue is concerned.
What implications would it have to displace our operations, based on unconsolidated matter that in its looseness asks for eventual anchors of interdependence? How could we transmute the notion of situatedness, to understand the semiotic-material conditionings of 3D rende- red bodies that affect us socially and culturally through multiple managerial worldlings? The body in this item is neither static nor fa- lling: it is floating. Here we find a thing on the “situatedness” of Haraway that does not match when we try to manage the potential vocabula- ries for the complex forms of worldmaking and its embodiments in the virtual. What can we learn from the conditions of floating brought to us by the virtual transduction of modern perspective, in order to draft an account-giving apparatus of present presences? How can that account-giving be intersectional with regards to the agencies implied, respectful of the dimensionality of time and ageing, and respon- sible with a political history of groundness? Floating is the endurance of falling. It seems that in a computed environment falling is always in some way a floating. There is no ground to fall towards that limits the time of falling, nor is the trajectory of the fall directed by gravity. The trajectory of a floating or persis- tently falling body is always already unknown. In the dynamic imagination of the animation, the ground does not exist before the movement is generated; it only appears as an afterthought. Everything seems upside down: the foundation of the figure is deduced from, not pre-existing its movement. Does this mean that there is actually no foundation, or just that it appears in every other loop of movement? Without the ground, the represented body could be understood as becoming smaller, and that would open the
The ancient Rhetoric (Aristotle 350 B.C.) is the first work that exposes a method, a technique to persuade and obtain adhesion on the part of the public. This rhetoric way was to be pursued in five steps: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria and actio. In order to argue for something or against something, or about the utility or inconvenience of a certain thing, it was necessary to find what to say (the appropriate arguments), and how to say those ideas. The aspect of rhetoric concerned with the figures of speech used to persuade (how to say) is called elocutio. For a long time the analysis of tropes (figures) was extended and generalized to explain the aesthetic (creative) uses of language, its poetic function. The deviations that appear in creative texts with regard to the ordinary use of the code correspond to a plentiful repertoire of rhetorical figures that the studies on poetics were coining along the centuries.
The course is organized in three blocks (Units) around the sales function. First Unit explains the Sales function and the role of the Commercial Director, deepening in the development of its functions, the environment in which it works and daily problems. Secondly, the management of Channels and Clients, focusing the study on channel segmentation tools, as well as the realization of business plans in B2B environments based on win-win strategies. The third block deals with Management of the Commercial Team -based on positive management- with its particularities over other groups within the company.
Precautions: Monitor BP every 2–3 min while administering procainamide. If QRS width increases by 50% or more, or if BP decreases to 90 systolic, stop drug. Reduce total dose to 12 mg/kg and maintenance infusion to 1–2 mg/min if cardiac or renal dysfunction is present. Use cautiously in myasthenia gravis and in hepatic or renal disease and with drugs that prolong QT interval (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol).
An ethnic minority is a subculture defined by its own language, religion, values, beliefs, norms, and customs. Like any subculture, it is part of the larger culture—its members work in the majority, or host, economy, send their children through the host educational system, and are subject to the laws of the land. Ethnic minorities are also separate from the larger culture. The separation may continue because the ethnic minority wishes to maintain its cultural and national origins or because the majority erects barriers that prevent the ethnic group from blending in with the larger culture. (…)
the Contracting Parties (COP7, COP8, COP9 and COP10) held, respectively, in San José, Costa Rica, in May 1999, Valencia, Spain, in November 2002, Kampala, Uganda, in November 2005, and Changwon, Republic of Korea, October-November 2008. The guidelines on various matters adopted by the Parties at those and earlier COPs have been prepared as a series of handbooks to assist those with an interest in, or directly involved with, implementation of the Convention at the international, regional, national, subnational or local levels. Each handbook brings together, subject by subject, the various relevant guidances adopted by Parties, supplemented by additional material from COP information papers, case studies and other relevant publications so as to illustrate key aspects of the guidelines. The handbooks are available in the three working languages of the Convention (English, French, and Spanish). The table on the inside back cover lists the full scope of the subjects covered by this handbook series at present. Additional handbooks will be prepared to include any further guidance adopted by future meetings of the Conference of the Contracting Parties. The Ramsar Convention promotes an integrated package of actions to ensure the conservation and wise use of wetlands. In recognition of these integrated approaches, the reader will find that within each handbook there are numerous cross-references to others in the series.
With respect to the blockchain, two different Ethereum testnets (i.e., test networks that are isolated from the public Ethereum blockchain ) were used: Rinkeby  and Ropsten . Rinkeby is a Proof-of-Authority (PoA) testnet created by the Ethereum team that makes use of the Clique PoA consensus protocol, where authorized signers are responsible for minting the blocks. In such a network blocks are created on average every 15 s and Ether cannot be mined (it is requested through a faucet ). In contrast, Ropsten is a Proof-of-Work (PoW) Ethereum testnet where Ether can be either mined or requested from a faucet . Ropsten’s blocks are usually minted in less than 30 s and, although the testnet reproduces with more fidelity than Rinkeby Ethereum’s mainnet production environment, it is prone to Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks (e.g., by increasing the block gas limit remarkably while sending large transactions through the network), which makes synchronization slow and makes clients consume a lot of disk space. Rinkeby and Ropsten testnets allow for executing smart contracts (compiled and deployed through Truffle ), which store in a string the JSON file with the inventory data and its hash, so the blockchain acts both as a immutable log and as a timestamping server.
To complete the output of the last years, was thrown recently in the internet the ONTOWEB® (www.ontoweb.com.br) that is an information analysis system that enables a research contextualised in the sources accessed. The kernel of this technology is focused in the new era of the internet, in the which semantic and ontologies work together to increase the prominent information search trial in documents of the web. The utilization of ontologies permits to the ONTOWEB® activate a systematic completely innovative one in the location of documents by considering the context of the matter that is being researched. The ontologies build a pre existing net of concepts inter-related that expand the concept used, driven the system to the setting that it fits. It lets the ONTOWEB ® locate, automatically, which records in their base have more resemblance with the text digitated.
After euthyroidism is achieved, two different regimens can be employed. In the first regimen, termed “block-replace,” the dose of thionamide is kept constant (for example, carbimazole 40 mg daily), thus blocking thyroid hormone production, and levothyroxine is then added in a suitable dose to maintain euthyroidism (for example, 100 µg daily for women, 125 µg daily for men). In the second regimen, termed “titrated,” the thionamide dose is progressively lowered at regular intervals to allow endogenous synthesis of thyroid hormone to continue in a regulated fashion. Table 2⇓ lists the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods. In both regimens the remission rate is approximately 50% if treatment is continued for between six and 18 months and then stopped. 19 The most
Hay que mantener una concentración dentro de la célula igual a la de fuera para que no haya entrada ni salida de agua, que provoquen los fenómenos osmóticos peligrosos. Las sales minerales participan en este equilibrio. Hay que tener en cuenta que en las células la concentración interna está determinada, no sólo por las sales, sino también por las macromoléculas orgánicas en disolución.
There is evidence of poor communication within Open Views. Joseph seems to make decisions based on insufficient information. Communication is “top-down” and most information is handled on the telephone. The business is also quite fragmented with four offices and the Warm Breezes complex; each with a separate management structure. Information and computer technologies would include mobile telephones and laptop computers, pagers, the internet, teleconferencing, wireless and satellite systems and Local Area and Wide Area networks LANs, WANs). The firm might set up its own website, including a webcam of the resort.
Climate change has been identiﬁ ed as one of the biggest challenges that nations, governments, industries and citizens will face in the coming decades. Climate change has implications both for human beings and for the natural systems and may cause changes in the use of resources, production and the economic activity. In response to this, international, regional, national and local initiatives are being developed and implemented in order to limit the concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the earth’s atmosphere. These initiatives on GHG are based on the quantiﬁ cation, monitoring, reporting and veriﬁ cation of GHG emissions and/or removal.