Knowledge of the Field

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Entrepreneurship as a legitimate field of knowledge

Entrepreneurship as a legitimate field of knowledge

The proliferation of terms such as enterprise, entrepreneurialism, and entrepreneur means that we must make explicit what is understood by entrepreneurship in this article, the result of the understanding that the author has constructed from an extensive literature review (e.g., Busenitz, West, Shepherd, Nelson, Chandler, & Zacharakis, 2003; Verin, 1982). The term «entrepreneurship» is taken from the French term entrepreneur. When seeking the fi rst semantic traces of the concept it is important to take another look at the work of Verin (1982), who locates the historical origin of the term at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th. There were two initial uses of the term: a) the person who takes on a civil construction, whose design and payment is previously agreed upon, and b) the warrior who sets out on a conquest, typical of the spirit of the crusades in the Middle Ages. A similar concept can be found in Spanish in the Dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy of Language. Entrepreneur: «person who embarks on a considerable and arduous operation and is determined carry it out with resolve and determination» (p. 359).
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6 Lee mas

Working Through Asymmetries of Knowledge and Expertise in a «Giving Back to the Field» Session

Working Through Asymmetries of Knowledge and Expertise in a «Giving Back to the Field» Session

The extract is illuminating in terms of how the teachers begin to define the specificities of the problem that the participants have come together to solve. As we can see, the main difficulties identified are not pedagogical, but rather organisational ones. Lucila, the English teacher who was very vocal during the ethnography in voicing her dissatisfaction with Science, is explicit in her claim in turn 2 that the real problem of Science has to do with the high number of faculty involved in teaching the course and the lack of time to come together to share and to plan. This revelation is interesting in terms of the construction of expertise; it seems paradoxical that careful organisation, over a period of three weeks, had gone into arranging a time and a place for a meeting with the external «experts» to discuss the Science subject, while such meetings between teaching peers, according to Lucila, do not take place.
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20 Lee mas

El reconocimiento de la producción subjetiva del cuidado

El reconocimiento de la producción subjetiva del cuidado

Broadly speaking, cartography is a method, but at the same time it is an anti-method because its purpose is not to uncover the truth; it does not hold itself up as an example to be followed, and for this very reason it upholds the idea that there is a method for each object, that is: cartography is an "ad hoc" method. The base assumption is that it is extremely complex for an assessment of health services to reveal the processes of the production of subjectivities, making use of the observation of the agencies of desire, the affectivation factors, and the collective mechanisms of social production, on the grounds that there exists a subjective production of social reality. In that way, subjectivation produces new existentialist territories and allows for the invention of new worlds in a simultaneous process of invention of oneself (5). It is interpreted that the cartographical instruments are sensitive enough to grasp the reality of care production in the form closest to what is real, nearest to chaos, in the encounters in which the flows of intensities, the production of affects, the technologies that expose the organized side of knowledge applied to care production are produced. In synthesis, cartography makes it possible to enter into the complex, singular and yet multiple world of health care. But, on the other hand, social reality may manifest itself in the reproduction instead of in the production, in processes of subjective capturing of the subjects, in which the ethics of care is restricted by the norms of life and work, by the repetition of meanings, the distortion of signs, therefore provoking a blurring in the field of vision of the "vibrant eye." This is what cartography must analyze, not only in the plane of intensities of life production, but also in the plane of holistic capturing of existence.
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12 Lee mas

Sworn translators and interpreters in the legal field, mutually exclusive?

Sworn translators and interpreters in the legal field, mutually exclusive?

Interpreters only exist because of that language barrier, and they must obviously have sufficient linguistic knowledge if they are to translate correctly. But the barriers to communication, and there the role of the interpreter, are more than that. […]

13 Lee mas

Epidemiology and natural history of non alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD)

Epidemiology and natural history of non alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD)

The authors summarize and update the most recent knowledge in the field of prevalence, natural history and incidence of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). These novel diseases, firstly recognized at the begin- ning of the second millennium, arose suddenly to the at- tention of the clinicians, because they are the hepatic expression of the "so-called" metabolic syndrome. Due to the epidemic burden of obesity, diabetes, and meta- bolic diseases, NAFLD and NASH will become soon probably the most common hepatic disease worldwide, and they surely will keep busy our future young hepa- tologists.
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5 Lee mas

The integral field view of the orion nebula

The integral field view of the orion nebula

5.1. Consequences and Origin. The AD problem is far from negligible in the analysis of Galactic and extragalactic H II regions. A particular sensitive case is the O/H ratio, which is the most widely used proxy of the global metallicity Z. Observational studies have found that O abundances calcu- lated from the O II 4630–4670 ˚ A multiplet RLs are between 20% and 70% higher than those derived from the [O III] 4363, 4959, and 5007 ˚ A CELs (e.g., [70–75]). Such discrepancies have direct effects on our current knowledge of the chemical composition and chemical evolution in the Universe, affect- ing (1) the calibration of the strong line methods as the 𝑅 23 – O/H Pagel’s relation [76, 77], (2) the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relations [78], (3) the basic ingredients of chemical evolution models and predicted stellar yields [79], (4) the possible metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation [80], (5) the metallicity depen- dence of the number ratios of the different types of W-R stars [81], and (6) the determination of the primordial helium [82]. What is the reason of this discrepancy? And which are the emission lines that we should trust? These are the two fundamental questions that after decades of intensive researching remain open and without a satisfactory answer. Traditionally, the AD has been associated with the pres- ence of temperature fluctuations (of still unknown cause) as proposed by Peimbert more than 40 years ago [83– 85]. According to this scenario, RLs should provide the correct abundances because their emissivities have a weaker temperature dependence than CELs—more affected by the presence of such fluctuations. From the proposal of Tsamis and P´equignot [86], Stasi´nska and collaborators explored the hypothesis of inhomogeneous abundances in the ISM (see [87]). They concluded that if this is the real scenario, then the chemical abundances derived from RLs and CELs should be upper and lower limits, respectively, to the true ones, though those from CELs should be more reliable. Very recently, [88] have proposed the possibility that electrons may depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution, especially affecting the CEL emission. It is necessary to emphasize that the underlying assumptions of this theory are in contradiction with what has been established for half a century for the conditions in gaseous nebulae. Until the origin of this discrepancy is well understood, chemical abundances based on the standard CEL-method, which is used in the vast majority of cases, especially at extragalactic scales, should be regarded with caution.
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15 Lee mas

The development of the psychologist's professional knowledge: a study of graduated in the UNLP, their insert in the educational field

The development of the psychologist's professional knowledge: a study of graduated in the UNLP, their insert in the educational field

The configuration of the psychology like discipline and profession in the UNLP Under this consideration we return to Vezzetti (1996) who outlines that the history of the psychologists in Argentina begins at the end of the fiftieth decade, with the creation of the university careers of Psychology and the rising professional organization, influenced by the tension of the psychology field with others, particularly Medicine and Psychoanalysis. Until that moment a psychology history was preceded as long as was incorporated as a discipline to the university teaching and also a psychological speech that arises like means to interpret the social reality and as knowledge that when being applied it can solve public order problems.
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11 Lee mas

The emergence of operative knowledge

The emergence of operative knowledge

In this article we describe our approach towards Interactive Filmmaking. Our aim is to present an authoring model to structure interactive films that considers audience participation as a pivotal component of the narrative act, along with the interface model required to provide a seamless way of navigation through the “steerable” plots of these audiovisual experiences. We begin by presenting related work in the field, and then analyze the connection between aesthetics, cinema, and interactiv- ity throughout history. We then discuss the narrative model that allows us to create authorial content that, while still allowing authors to have narrative control, allows spectators to have an effect over the unfolding of the plot. We also present the concept of coconstruction, which enables us to conceive the story as an act of cocreation between filmmaker and viewer. We explain how coconstruction enables the building of different stories, based on the viewer’s ability to read and reinterpret scenes in different ways, according to interactively changeable contexts to those scenes, and explain why this is not only an aesthetic need but also a technological and economical issue. Results of a narrative experiment conducted with high school students are presented, to provide an empirical understanding of cocon- struction. We then discuss our interface and presentation model, where hyperlink between one video and the next is available during a specified time window, and the interaction occurs visually in the form of dragging and dropping elements into or out of the film. We then conclude with the experimen- tal interactive film The Crime or Revenge of Fernando Moreno, where our narrative model, the concept of co-construction and our ideas regarding interface have been implemented. A survey that measured the system’s usability, the audience’s reception of the film, and the assessment of co-construction as a relevant part of the storytelling was conducted, and the results, along with an analysis, are also presented in the final section of this paper.
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108 Lee mas

An Unfinished Critical Ethnographic Journey: Collaborative Reframing and Repositioning of Relationships in the Field

An Unfinished Critical Ethnographic Journey: Collaborative Reframing and Repositioning of Relationships in the Field

Abstract: This paper explores my on-going collaborative research journey that began in 2009 with a critical ethnographic investigation into the ways one early years school in Bristol was working to advance a pedagogy of respect that drew on the multilingual and multiliterate out of school practices of children and their parents in order to open possibilities for in-school learning. The project was framed within a critical ethnographic approach that is underpinned by a philosophy of democratic and collaborative ways of working within the field; acknowledging identities, positionalities and relations of power as constructed within and across institutional settings. In this paper, I present the collaborative learning trajectories and relationships between myself, as researcher, and Lara, the Head Teacher, a key participant within this project. I situate this within a critical reading of researcher identities, collaboration and research-community partnerships within a scholarship that draws on arguments for the democratizing of knowledge production, the re-evaluation and transformation of field relationships through reflexive practice (Byrd-Clark & Dervin, 2014; Facer & Enright, 2016; Giampapa, 2011) and the intellectual and emotional commitment involved in shaping them. What evolved through this unfinished critical ethnographic journey is an understanding of the underlying «practical, personal and symbolic» reasons (Facer & Enright, 2016, p. 59) for field relationships as a starting point in order to build deeper forms of engagement. These deeper forms of engagement generate different ways of knowing that are co-created, ethically grounded, socially responsible and action oriented (Campbell & Lassiter, 2010). I stress the transformative power of these field conversations that were able to evolve and shape new ways of understanding as a result of the longevity of being in the field and working beyond it.
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18 Lee mas

Retrieval of the Lidar overlap function using Raman signals

Retrieval of the Lidar overlap function using Raman signals

A  proper  knowledge  of  the  geometrical  form  factor  is  important  to  correct  the  incomplete  overlap  that  exists  for  short  distances  between  the laser beam and the receiver field of view in a  lidar  system.  A  simple  technique  based  on  an  iterative  approach  is  presented  in  this  work.  A  stable  overlap  function  has  been  obtained  from  overlap  functions  retrieved  for  cases  that  showed  clean  conditions.  The  complete  overlap  was found above 1900 m (a.s.l.). This correction  has  been  extensively  tested  and  successfully  applied  to  experimental  data  obtained  in  our  station.  The  application  has  enabled  to  improve  the  capabilities  of  the  Raman  lidar  system  operated  routinely  in  the  Granada  station,  allowing  for  investigating  the  aerosol  optical  properties in the lower most planetary boundary  layer. 
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5 Lee mas

TítuloNetwork of specialists in the archival field and the impact on knowledge organization: the case of Brazil

TítuloNetwork of specialists in the archival field and the impact on knowledge organization: the case of Brazil

Our analyses indicate the design of a wide network of scholars in the archival field which falls within the distribution of related positions between archives employees, custo- dial institutions of archival collections, associations of professionals of the archival area, educational institutions in the area, archival knowledge producers, archival end users and organizations served by archival functions, immersed in different universes of representa- tion, beyond mechanisms of archival scientific institutionalization by government agencies which promote Science and Technology, but that need to establish harmonic parameters for an effective Knowledge Organization. Furthermore, it is urgent to strengthen academic-epis- temological ties with countries which have more tradition in this area, like Spain, in order to establish a representational universe that truly represents Archival Studies in Brazil.
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19 Lee mas

Entrepreneur's Knowledge Perception Model and Their Product or Services Probability to Have Precense in the Market.-Edición Única

Entrepreneur's Knowledge Perception Model and Their Product or Services Probability to Have Precense in the Market.-Edición Única

entrepreneurs in new technology­based firms; each was interviewed during the period from 2006 to 2007. Evidence suggests that entrepreneurs should build market knowledge to be more competitive and successful in their Innovation projects. The conceptual model has both empirical and theoretical backing, but the empirical backing is limited to 169 cases. Practitioners can focus on how to build market knowledge, while the model helps to increase awareness of the holistic view of entrepreneurial knowledge and which dimensions can contribute to it. Policy makers should encourage entrepreneurs to build market knowledge, and support systems could require a plan for this activity before entrepreneurs get access to public funds. Based on this analysis, four main contributions are revealed: model generation, development of terminology, and further development of the field of entrepreneurial research. Discipline Negocios y Economía / Business & Economics
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261 Lee mas

Effective management of disaster situations

Effective management of disaster situations

preved helpful in he¡• work, instead of it resting idle on he¡, bookshelf she putl:i it r.o work by lending i t to others, photocopyin� key sections (subject to copyright limitations) or buying more copies to give away. In effect to regard knowledge as flowing through he.ir to others rather than sticking or ending·in her

120 Lee mas

Free induction decay of single spins in diamond

Free induction decay of single spins in diamond

decoherence is dominated by the dipolar interaction with the nuclear-spin bath [31]. In this framework, strongly coupled nuclear spins only contribute to coherent oscillations of the FID signal but do not change its envelope. Therefore, we exclude from our simulations the lattice sites associated with nuclei that strongly interact with the central spin such as the well-known 130-MHz-splitting linked to the nearest-neighbor sites of the vacancy [48] and those with a contact interaction larger than a few MHz. The neglected lattice positions correspond to about 100 lattice points, i.e. on average one nuclear spin for a natural abundance of 13 C.
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18 Lee mas

Clinical and electrophysiological correlation in patient with optic neuritis

Clinical and electrophysiological correlation in patient with optic neuritis

Visual acuity is the ability to accurately discriminate the details of objects in the visual field. The increase in latency in inverse relation to the decrease in visual acuity could be explained by the involvement of the optic nerve. Since greater myelin damage is involved with the genesis of the disease, latency and duration are usually more affected; what is related to the pathophysiology of these diseases, where the myelin sheaths are frequently more affected than the number of functional fibers or axons, which coincides with the data reported by Abouzeid, Bhatti and other researchers. (3-5)
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8 Lee mas

Management of advertising in the field of mass

Management of advertising in the field of mass

advertising activity is a one-way activity (without any exchange) on the dissemination of “information” about goods, the image of commodity producers and the “mission of the firm” (Jeffkins, 2008). advertising is the most important tool of marketing strategy of me- dia holdings, which provides a solution to its operational and tactical tasks and depends on the quality of strategic decision making and planning of higher levels of other elements of marketing. This allowed us to identify pro- blems in advertising activities relating to am- biguity and incorrectness in the use of terms such as “advertising”, “advertising activities,” and “advertising effectiveness.” Therefore, the need for a more detailed study of the term and content of advertising activities from the po- sition of state regulation is justified.
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8 Lee mas

Ambidexterity, Alliances and Environmental Management System Adoption in Spanish Hotels

Ambidexterity, Alliances and Environmental Management System Adoption in Spanish Hotels

Following recommendations in the literature about survey research design and data gathering [79,80], data was collected through a survey completed by the owner, manager, or CEO of tourism firms in Spain from the reference universe provided by the National Statistics Institute’s Central Directory of Spanish Companies. The survey instrument was pretested (eight managers, five academics) before the final version was applied. It includes reversed items and some similar questions in different sections to control for response reliability, as well as mixed questions from different constructs. Between December 2009 and March 2010, 1,019 usable responses were obtained from the tourism sector universe, which reflects a statistical margin of error of ±3.1 percent (confidence interval of 95.5 percent). Since our arguments in the hypothesis development section are based on the improvements and learning involved in EMS, our data are relevant to draw conclusions about the relationships proposed given the fact that constant enhancement is still the idea behind EMS. Non-response bias was checked by comparing early and late responses [81] and no problems were detected. This sample is composed of different sub-sectors (e.g., hotels, restaurants, or travel agencies). As this research is focused on hotel firms, the final sample for the present study includes 306 firms.
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16 Lee mas

Transferencia del conocimiento en el contexto de las redes de empresas multinacionales

Transferencia del conocimiento en el contexto de las redes de empresas multinacionales

According to the information that they provide, the firm has 315 stores in 27 countries and around 70,000 employees. They receive more than 715 million visitors per year to the stores and another 1,46 billion visitors to the IKEA webpage. Their main marketing channel is the catalogue which is distributed world-wide with 217 million copies in 30 languages. IKEA´s product range consists of 9,500 articles, each of them is designed and developed by IKEA of Sweden which provides products with its particular Scandinavian style and unique name. Once the design is made, a wide network of about 1,220 suppliers manufactures the furniture and the rest of the products. This manufacturer network has presence in 55 countries and IKEA has 31 trading service offices distributed over these countries so they can properly monitor production, test new ideas at the same that they keep an eye on social and working conditions of the employees. IKEA owns Swedwood, a manufacturer of wood-based products, however in line with their flexibility and limiting investment in producing capacity policy, the main body of their products is manufactured by third party suppliers.
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92 Lee mas

Profesor responsable de la asignatura

Profesor responsable de la asignatura

# System Simulation and Optimization: This proposal brings students the possibility of completing their Master thesis on the collaborative development of new simulation-optimization algorithms (e.g. simheuristics) which implement practical solutions to different combinatorial optimization problems in the service and manufacturing industries (e.g. logistics, transportation, health systems, etc.). These solutions will be implemented using Java, C#, or C/C++. More info: Dr. Angel A. Juan (ajuanp[at]uoc.edu). # Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: This proposal brings students the possibility of completing their Master thesis on
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6 Lee mas

Magnetic field determination of chromospheric spicules using the Weak Field Approximation

Magnetic field determination of chromospheric spicules using the Weak Field Approximation

Trujillo Bueno et al. (2005) ([42]) used a theoretical modelling of the Hanle and Zeeman effects together with spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 10830 line to infer the magnetic field vector in a field of quiet-sun spicules. They used observations carried out in 2001 with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) mounted on the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Ob- servatorio del Teide. The height above the solar limb of their observations was of 2000 km, similar to the heights of the analysis conducted in this study. Their data consist of several slit images, the equivalent of drawing a “straight line” over the data presented here at each time frame at a particular height above the visible limb. Furthermore, a temporal sum was applied to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), resulting in an effective cadence of almost 5 min. Their inference provided the full magnetic vector, resulting in magnetic field strength values of the order of 10 G. They did not discard, however, the possibility of the presence of much stronger magnetic fields in future observations, as is reported here.
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43 Lee mas

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