The proliferation of terms such as enterprise, entrepreneurialism, and entrepreneur means that we must make explicit what is understood by entrepreneurship in this article, the result ofthe understanding that the author has constructed from an extensive literature review (e.g., Busenitz, West, Shepherd, Nelson, Chandler, & Zacharakis, 2003; Verin, 1982). The term «entrepreneurship» is taken from the French term entrepreneur. When seeking the fi rst semantic traces ofthe concept it is important to take another look at the work of Verin (1982), who locates the historical origin ofthe term at the end ofthe 17th century and the beginning ofthe 18th. There were two initial uses ofthe term: a) the person who takes on a civil construction, whose design and payment is previously agreed upon, and b) the warrior who sets out on a conquest, typical ofthe spirit ofthe crusades in the Middle Ages. A similar concept can be found in Spanish in the Dictionary ofthe Spanish Royal Academy of Language. Entrepreneur: «person who embarks on a considerable and arduous operation and is determined carry it out with resolve and determination» (p. 359).
The extract is illuminating in terms of how the teachers begin to define the specificities ofthe problem that the participants have come together to solve. As we can see, the main difficulties identified are not pedagogical, but rather organisational ones. Lucila, the English teacher who was very vocal during the ethnography in voicing her dissatisfaction with Science, is explicit in her claim in turn 2 that the real problem of Science has to do with the high number of faculty involved in teaching the course and the lack of time to come together to share and to plan. This revelation is interesting in terms ofthe construction of expertise; it seems paradoxical that careful organisation, over a period of three weeks, had gone into arranging a time and a place for a meeting with the external «experts» to discuss the Science subject, while such meetings between teaching peers, according to Lucila, do not take place.
Broadly speaking, cartography is a method, but at the same time it is an anti-method because its purpose is not to uncover the truth; it does not hold itself up as an example to be followed, and for this very reason it upholds the idea that there is a method for each object, that is: cartography is an "ad hoc" method. The base assumption is that it is extremely complex for an assessment of health services to reveal the processes ofthe production of subjectivities, making use ofthe observation ofthe agencies of desire, the affectivation factors, and the collective mechanisms of social production, on the grounds that there exists a subjective production of social reality. In that way, subjectivation produces new existentialist territories and allows for the invention of new worlds in a simultaneous process of invention of oneself (5). It is interpreted that the cartographical instruments are sensitive enough to grasp the reality of care production in the form closest to what is real, nearest to chaos, in the encounters in which the flows of intensities, the production of affects, the technologies that expose the organized side ofknowledge applied to care production are produced. In synthesis, cartography makes it possible to enter into the complex, singular and yet multiple world of health care. But, on the other hand, social reality may manifest itself in the reproduction instead of in the production, in processes of subjective capturing ofthe subjects, in which the ethics of care is restricted by the norms of life and work, by the repetition of meanings, the distortion of signs, therefore provoking a blurring in thefieldof vision ofthe "vibrant eye." This is what cartography must analyze, not only in the plane of intensities of life production, but also in the plane of holistic capturing of existence.
Interpreters only exist because of that language barrier, and they must obviously have sufficient linguistic knowledge if they are to translate correctly. But the barriers to communication, and there the role ofthe interpreter, are more than that. […]
The authors summarize and update the most recent knowledge in thefieldof prevalence, natural history and incidence of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). These novel diseases, firstly recognized at the begin- ning ofthe second millennium, arose suddenly to the at- tention ofthe clinicians, because they are the hepatic expression ofthe "so-called" metabolic syndrome. Due to the epidemic burden of obesity, diabetes, and meta- bolic diseases, NAFLD and NASH will become soon probably the most common hepatic disease worldwide, and they surely will keep busy our future young hepa- tologists.
5.1. Consequences and Origin. The AD problem is far from negligible in the analysis of Galactic and extragalactic H II regions. A particular sensitive case is the O/H ratio, which is the most widely used proxy ofthe global metallicity Z. Observational studies have found that O abundances calcu- lated from the O II 4630–4670 ˚ A multiplet RLs are between 20% and 70% higher than those derived from the [O III] 4363, 4959, and 5007 ˚ A CELs (e.g., [70–75]). Such discrepancies have direct effects on our current knowledgeofthe chemical composition and chemical evolution in the Universe, affect- ing (1) the calibration ofthe strong line methods as the 𝑅 23 – O/H Pagel’s relation [76, 77], (2) the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relations , (3) the basic ingredients of chemical evolution models and predicted stellar yields , (4) the possible metallicity dependence ofthe Cepheid period-luminosity relation , (5) the metallicity depen- dence ofthe number ratios ofthe different types of W-R stars , and (6) the determination ofthe primordial helium . What is the reason of this discrepancy? And which are the emission lines that we should trust? These are the two fundamental questions that after decades of intensive researching remain open and without a satisfactory answer. Traditionally, the AD has been associated with the pres- ence of temperature fluctuations (of still unknown cause) as proposed by Peimbert more than 40 years ago [83– 85]. According to this scenario, RLs should provide the correct abundances because their emissivities have a weaker temperature dependence than CELs—more affected by the presence of such fluctuations. From the proposal of Tsamis and P´equignot , Stasi´nska and collaborators explored the hypothesis of inhomogeneous abundances in the ISM (see ). They concluded that if this is the real scenario, then the chemical abundances derived from RLs and CELs should be upper and lower limits, respectively, to the true ones, though those from CELs should be more reliable. Very recently,  have proposed the possibility that electrons may depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution, especially affecting the CEL emission. It is necessary to emphasize that the underlying assumptions of this theory are in contradiction with what has been established for half a century for the conditions in gaseous nebulae. Until the origin of this discrepancy is well understood, chemical abundances based on the standard CEL-method, which is used in the vast majority of cases, especially at extragalactic scales, should be regarded with caution.
The configuration ofthe psychology like discipline and profession in the UNLP Under this consideration we return to Vezzetti (1996) who outlines that the history ofthe psychologists in Argentina begins at the end ofthe fiftieth decade, with the creation ofthe university careers of Psychology and the rising professional organization, influenced by the tension ofthe psychology field with others, particularly Medicine and Psychoanalysis. Until that moment a psychology history was preceded as long as was incorporated as a discipline to the university teaching and also a psychological speech that arises like means to interpret the social reality and as knowledge that when being applied it can solve public order problems.
In this article we describe our approach towards Interactive Filmmaking. Our aim is to present an authoring model to structure interactive films that considers audience participation as a pivotal component ofthe narrative act, along with the interface model required to provide a seamless way of navigation through the “steerable” plots of these audiovisual experiences. We begin by presenting related work in thefield, and then analyze the connection between aesthetics, cinema, and interactiv- ity throughout history. We then discuss the narrative model that allows us to create authorial content that, while still allowing authors to have narrative control, allows spectators to have an effect over the unfolding ofthe plot. We also present the concept of coconstruction, which enables us to conceive the story as an act of cocreation between filmmaker and viewer. We explain how coconstruction enables the building of different stories, based on the viewer’s ability to read and reinterpret scenes in different ways, according to interactively changeable contexts to those scenes, and explain why this is not only an aesthetic need but also a technological and economical issue. Results of a narrative experiment conducted with high school students are presented, to provide an empirical understanding of cocon- struction. We then discuss our interface and presentation model, where hyperlink between one video and the next is available during a specified time window, and the interaction occurs visually in the form of dragging and dropping elements into or out ofthe film. We then conclude with the experimen- tal interactive film The Crime or Revenge of Fernando Moreno, where our narrative model, the concept of co-construction and our ideas regarding interface have been implemented. A survey that measured the system’s usability, the audience’s reception ofthe film, and the assessment of co-construction as a relevant part ofthe storytelling was conducted, and the results, along with an analysis, are also presented in the final section of this paper.
Abstract: This paper explores my on-going collaborative research journey that began in 2009 with a critical ethnographic investigation into the ways one early years school in Bristol was working to advance a pedagogy of respect that drew on the multilingual and multiliterate out of school practices of children and their parents in order to open possibilities for in-school learning. The project was framed within a critical ethnographic approach that is underpinned by a philosophy of democratic and collaborative ways of working within thefield; acknowledging identities, positionalities and relations of power as constructed within and across institutional settings. In this paper, I present the collaborative learning trajectories and relationships between myself, as researcher, and Lara, the Head Teacher, a key participant within this project. I situate this within a critical reading of researcher identities, collaboration and research-community partnerships within a scholarship that draws on arguments for the democratizing ofknowledge production, the re-evaluation and transformation offield relationships through reflexive practice (Byrd-Clark & Dervin, 2014; Facer & Enright, 2016; Giampapa, 2011) and the intellectual and emotional commitment involved in shaping them. What evolved through this unfinished critical ethnographic journey is an understanding ofthe underlying «practical, personal and symbolic» reasons (Facer & Enright, 2016, p. 59) for field relationships as a starting point in order to build deeper forms of engagement. These deeper forms of engagement generate different ways of knowing that are co-created, ethically grounded, socially responsible and action oriented (Campbell & Lassiter, 2010). I stress the transformative power of these field conversations that were able to evolve and shape new ways of understanding as a result ofthe longevity of being in thefield and working beyond it.
A proper knowledgeofthe geometrical form factor is important to correct the incomplete overlap that exists for short distances between the laser beam and the receiver fieldof view in a lidar system. A simple technique based on an iterative approach is presented in this work. A stable overlap function has been obtained from overlap functions retrieved for cases that showed clean conditions. The complete overlap was found above 1900 m (a.s.l.). This correction has been extensively tested and successfully applied to experimental data obtained in our station. The application has enabled to improve the capabilities ofthe Raman lidar system operated routinely in the Granada station, allowing for investigating the aerosol optical properties in the lower most planetary boundary layer.
Our analyses indicate the design of a wide network of scholars in the archival field which falls within the distribution of related positions between archives employees, custo- dial institutions of archival collections, associations of professionals ofthe archival area, educational institutions in the area, archival knowledge producers, archival end users and organizations served by archival functions, immersed in different universes of representa- tion, beyond mechanisms of archival scientific institutionalization by government agencies which promote Science and Technology, but that need to establish harmonic parameters for an effective Knowledge Organization. Furthermore, it is urgent to strengthen academic-epis- temological ties with countries which have more tradition in this area, like Spain, in order to establish a representational universe that truly represents Archival Studies in Brazil.
entrepreneurs in new technologybased firms; each was interviewed during the period from 2006 to 2007. Evidence suggests that entrepreneurs should build market knowledge to be more competitive and successful in their Innovation projects. The conceptual model has both empirical and theoretical backing, but the empirical backing is limited to 169 cases. Practitioners can focus on how to build market knowledge, while the model helps to increase awareness ofthe holistic view of entrepreneurial knowledge and which dimensions can contribute to it. Policy makers should encourage entrepreneurs to build market knowledge, and support systems could require a plan for this activity before entrepreneurs get access to public funds. Based on this analysis, four main contributions are revealed: model generation, development of terminology, and further development ofthefieldof entrepreneurial research. Discipline Negocios y Economía / Business & Economics
preved helpful in he¡• work, instead of it resting idle on he¡, bookshelf she putl:i it r.o work by lending i t to others, photocopyin� key sections (subject to copyright limitations) or buying more copies to give away. In effect to regard knowledge as flowing through he.ir to others rather than sticking or ending·in her
decoherence is dominated by the dipolar interaction with the nuclear-spin bath . In this framework, strongly coupled nuclear spins only contribute to coherent oscillations ofthe FID signal but do not change its envelope. Therefore, we exclude from our simulations the lattice sites associated with nuclei that strongly interact with the central spin such as the well-known 130-MHz-splitting linked to the nearest-neighbor sites ofthe vacancy  and those with a contact interaction larger than a few MHz. The neglected lattice positions correspond to about 100 lattice points, i.e. on average one nuclear spin for a natural abundance of 13 C.
Visual acuity is the ability to accurately discriminate the details of objects in the visual field. The increase in latency in inverse relation to the decrease in visual acuity could be explained by the involvement ofthe optic nerve. Since greater myelin damage is involved with the genesis ofthe disease, latency and duration are usually more affected; what is related to the pathophysiology of these diseases, where the myelin sheaths are frequently more affected than the number of functional fibers or axons, which coincides with the data reported by Abouzeid, Bhatti and other researchers. (3-5)
advertising activity is a one-way activity (without any exchange) on the dissemination of “information” about goods, the image of commodity producers and the “mission ofthe firm” (Jeffkins, 2008). advertising is the most important tool of marketing strategy of me- dia holdings, which provides a solution to its operational and tactical tasks and depends on the quality of strategic decision making and planning of higher levels of other elements of marketing. This allowed us to identify pro- blems in advertising activities relating to am- biguity and incorrectness in the use of terms such as “advertising”, “advertising activities,” and “advertising effectiveness.” Therefore, the need for a more detailed study ofthe term and content of advertising activities from the po- sition of state regulation is justified.
Following recommendations in the literature about survey research design and data gathering [79,80], data was collected through a survey completed by the owner, manager, or CEO of tourism firms in Spain from the reference universe provided by the National Statistics Institute’s Central Directory of Spanish Companies. The survey instrument was pretested (eight managers, five academics) before the final version was applied. It includes reversed items and some similar questions in different sections to control for response reliability, as well as mixed questions from different constructs. Between December 2009 and March 2010, 1,019 usable responses were obtained from the tourism sector universe, which reflects a statistical margin of error of ±3.1 percent (confidence interval of 95.5 percent). Since our arguments in the hypothesis development section are based on the improvements and learning involved in EMS, our data are relevant to draw conclusions about the relationships proposed given the fact that constant enhancement is still the idea behind EMS. Non-response bias was checked by comparing early and late responses  and no problems were detected. This sample is composed of different sub-sectors (e.g., hotels, restaurants, or travel agencies). As this research is focused on hotel firms, the final sample for the present study includes 306 firms.
According to the information that they provide, the firm has 315 stores in 27 countries and around 70,000 employees. They receive more than 715 million visitors per year to the stores and another 1,46 billion visitors to the IKEA webpage. Their main marketing channel is the catalogue which is distributed world-wide with 217 million copies in 30 languages. IKEA´s product range consists of 9,500 articles, each of them is designed and developed by IKEA of Sweden which provides products with its particular Scandinavian style and unique name. Once the design is made, a wide network of about 1,220 suppliers manufactures the furniture and the rest ofthe products. This manufacturer network has presence in 55 countries and IKEA has 31 trading service offices distributed over these countries so they can properly monitor production, test new ideas at the same that they keep an eye on social and working conditions ofthe employees. IKEA owns Swedwood, a manufacturer of wood-based products, however in line with their flexibility and limiting investment in producing capacity policy, the main body of their products is manufactured by third party suppliers.
# System Simulation and Optimization: This proposal brings students the possibility of completing their Master thesis on the collaborative development of new simulation-optimization algorithms (e.g. simheuristics) which implement practical solutions to different combinatorial optimization problems in the service and manufacturing industries (e.g. logistics, transportation, health systems, etc.). These solutions will be implemented using Java, C#, or C/C++. More info: Dr. Angel A. Juan (ajuanp[at]uoc.edu). # Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: This proposal brings students the possibility of completing their Master thesis on
Trujillo Bueno et al. (2005) () used a theoretical modelling ofthe Hanle and Zeeman effects together with spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 10830 line to infer the magnetic field vector in a fieldof quiet-sun spicules. They used observations carried out in 2001 with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) mounted on the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Ob- servatorio del Teide. The height above the solar limb of their observations was of 2000 km, similar to the heights ofthe analysis conducted in this study. Their data consist of several slit images, the equivalent of drawing a “straight line” over the data presented here at each time frame at a particular height above the visible limb. Furthermore, a temporal sum was applied to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), resulting in an effective cadence of almost 5 min. Their inference provided the full magnetic vector, resulting in magnetic field strength values ofthe order of 10 G. They did not discard, however, the possibility ofthe presence of much stronger magnetic fields in future observations, as is reported here.