Many decisions are complex and involve multiple aspects. In some cases decision- makers lack time and skill to gather, process, and summarize relevant information on which to base decisions. They may rely on information provided by specialized experts who are hired for the speci…c goal of o¤ering input on given decisions. In this article, the particular way in which information is produced is determinative of its value. In particular, as Arrow pointed out (1969, p.30), “Knowledge arises from deliberate seeking, but it also arises from observations incidental on other activities”. The goal of this article is to examine an economic framework in which an unin- formed principal must elicit information from unbiased experts who must, in turn, decide whether or not to collect costly information (this is what Arrow terms "delib- erate seeking"). If agents collect information, each gains access to a noisy signal about the true state ofthe world. Agents may communicate with each other about the sig- nals that they have obtained, and in doing so, each will get more precise information than initially acquired (this for us is Arrow’s remark about "Knowledge...also arises from observations incidental on other activities"). Our simple framework incorporates an opportunistic consideration of communication: I assume that communication opens the possibility of collusion among agents against the main interest ofthe principal.
‘KnowledgeOrganization’ (483.000 results in Google in June 2011 – alternative denomi- nations not included) is a widely used term in information science and is the key term in the naming ofthe ISKO society. Often it is confounded with ‘Knowledge Management’ (21.900.000 results), a term that grew up also rather recently and rapidly, but from another application area. Papers on congresses often seem to mix these two terms as well as the term ‘Knowledge Engineering’ (1.430.000 results) which is somewhat older and has been confused already with more traditional work within theknowledge task, like ‘classifica- tion’, or ‘thesauri’. As ‘organization’, ‘management’, and even ‘engineering’ are rather broad concepts and can be used in everyday language in very different meanings it is not sufficient to explain the linguistic meaning of these before mentioned terms. Instead of this one has to look at the history of these terms and their typical application areas. And even more the concept ‘knowledge’ is very broad but seems to have a more precise meaning in these special fields which are described by the terms discussed here. Thus we will go back to history, to the typical applications, and try to shape the difference. Nevertheless we must ask for links between them as in eScience and other newer areas knowledge is handled in a more open way than in traditional science.
Therefore, the most prominent feature of intangible resources, and specifi - cally ofknowledge, in comparison to physical or tangible resources, is that they arise from human interaction. Knowledge is created by people in their interactions with others and with the environment (Nonaka, 1994; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). Human beings gain new knowledge from subjective confor- mation and integration of experience (Aristoteles, 2007). Thus, knowledge, which resides in an individual, is amplified in organizational knowledge through an interactive process, defined by fundamental elements such as the relationship that its members have with their immediate bosses or with their own partners (Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel & Lee, 2001), and it is through the collec - ting, donating or sharing ofknowledge that the employees ofknowledge take care of potentiating it or diminishing its advantages within theorganization (Lin, 2007; De Vries et al., 2006; Dysvik, Buch & Kuvass, 2013).
This article presents a methodology, denominated Aud-InfoCon, in order to audit information and knowledge. It was elaborated taking into account the main links between these two processes, as well as the analysis ofthe causes that motivate its implementation and the objectives pursued. Methodologies and models used to carry out these processes were analyzed and also, the cognitive and methodological basis, which facilitate the design of a comprehensive audit methodology in both disciplines. As a result, it was constructed "a unique instrument," which not only allows its implementation within information institutions, but also in any organization that is embroiled in initiating information and knowledge management projects.
In the “polyphonic” interaction of external and internal factors determining the manifestation and development of students' creative potential, a special place is occupied by the student-teacher relationship system. In the conditions ofthe creative type of education, the technology of “free space” is used, in which the student realizes himself as a subject ofknowledge and creativity. A unique opportunity is created for students to self- identify based on their own needs, their own working “rhythm”, willingness to take responsibility, influence what is happening and get the maximum benefit for their own personal and professional development. All this happens due to the fact that the mechanisms oforganization, i.e. structuring and control, to a certain extent, are replaced by self-organization and independence of students.
The use of correct information is one ofthe best ways to manage natural resources in a sustainable way, and is an important instrument in the decision-making processes. In a globalised world characterised by the excess of digital documents, information technology is rapidly evolving and is providing applications for many knowledge domains. In Brazil, although there are many scientific studies and some financing mechanisms, there is no structure able to provide reliable information and integrate the many agents that take part in the biofuel chain. Biofuels have differentiated productive chains and very specific characteristics. In the chain of biodiesel, for example, we must take into consideration factors related to agriculture, storage, characterization and quality control, co-production and, finally, commercialization and distribution themselves. Another example, is the natural gas chain, that goes through the stages of exploration, exploitation, production, processing, transportation, storage and distribution.
This article tries to more fully understand the archival field, which has been consolidating its position in Brazil for the past 0 years, since it aims to understand the important role that Archival Studies play in shaping the representational configuration of memory and heritage as vectors of identity. Its specific aim is to identify the Hispanic-Brazilian network of researchers in this field ofknowledge. This discipline has been established through interdisciplinary relationships arising from the network of academic actors who try to understand the archival phenomenon. The methodological approach adopted here in order to identify this network of academic actors was to conduct an extensive survey on the most comprehensive database on scientific researchers in the field of Science and Technology in Brazil: the LATTES, CNPq database. The analyses point to the conception of a wide network of scholars in the archival field, encompassing people working in clerical positions, custodial institutions of archival collections, associations of archive professionals, educational institutions, archival knowledge producers, users of archives and organizations served by archival functions, all working in different universes of representation, that need to establish balanced parameters for an effective KnowledgeOrganization.
Within literary theory there has been a tendency to view genre ontologically, follow- ing Husserl’s notion of horizons of expectations, but this paper argues that even within the discourse of literary theory there has been a shift from the idea that genre is based entirely on literary warrant, a viewpoint that underpinned many early approaches to genre theory, to a viewpoint that sees the interaction between the work and the interpreting reader as the basis for meaning-making. This interpretative model allows us to consider the author of genre as always already the reader of genre, so that the act of creating a work is at some level also the act of interpreting work(s) and genres. Analysing and organising literary genre is complicated. Genre is historically contingent and open to diachronic transformation as new contributions replicate, modify, or possibly challenge existing generic conventions. Two models of diachronic transformation in literary genre are described in this paper. Genre also appears to operate at an ontological level as encultured readers identify codes and conven- tions ofthe literary genres circulating within contemporary logonomic parameters. This interesting tension offers some opportunity for the development of novel fiction retrieval systems in the age ofthe social web, indeed in the age ofthe social semantic web.
Abstract. In the last few years, several studies have emphasized the use of ontologies as an alternative to organizationofthe information. The notion of ontology has become popular in fields such as intelligent information integration, information retrieval on the Internet, and knowledge management. Different groups use different approaches to develop and verify de effectiveness of ontologies   . This diversity can be a factor that makes the formularization difficult of formal methodologies of evaluation. This paper intends to provide a way to identify the effectiveness ofknowledge representation based on ontology that was developed through Knowledge Based System tools. The reason is that all processing and storage of gathered information and knowledge base organization is performed using this structure. Our evaluation is based on case studies ofthe KMAI system , involving real world ontology for the money laundry domain. Our results indicate that modification of ontology structure can effectively reveal faults, as long as they adversely affect the program state.
Abstract: Organization Engineering, more commonly referred to as Industrial Engineering in the English-speaking world, is a wi- despread discipline that covers fields from Economic Analysis to Production Management or Operational Research. Our objecti- ve with this paper is to describe the historical evolution of this discipline, star ting from the strive ofthe Industrial Revolution for efficiently planning and managing the new production means. We discuss the main cornerstones in this evolution, star ting with the works of F.W. Taylor, analyze the influence of World War II, which boosted the demand for increasingly complex models, algorithms and applications, and describe the current scenario for Organization Engineering and its main challenges for the future. The paper then turns to the Spanish context, where the academic development ofthe discipline is also analyzed, including mention ofthe different Engineering Schools where the corresponding fields were incorporated to their curriculum, and ending with the current scenario brought along at the European level by the Bologna agreement. The third and final par t ofthe paper explores the rela- tion between Organization Engineering and Business Organization in Spain. These two areas ofknowledge, the first one related to engineering and industrial concepts while the second one is more focused on economics and usually based on Economics Fa- culties, are often perceived as identical due to their similarities, but we comment on their differences, which are also representa- tive ofthe differences between Industrial Engineering and Economics, in terms of contents, methodologies and scope.
however, its data model reflects some KOS construction principles. The design of its vocabulary has also been especially influenced by standard thesaurus guidelines, as these are among the most mature proposals in the KOS field. In particular, there are many common points between SKOS and ISO 2788/5964. The following table summarizes the parallels and highlights ways in which the design of SKOS varies from ISO recommendations. It is hoped that this will help future efforts to port thesauri that follow the ISO guidelines into SKOS. The reader should be aware that this comparison must not by any means be interpreted as a limitation ofthe scope of SKOS to standard thesauri. As already said in this document, SKOS can be used—possibly with appropriate extensions—for other types of KOS, or thesauri that do not follow the ISO guidelines.
Those participating in preparing a concordance agree that they worked on the most extensive and most difficult project of its kind ever. It was a new feature ofthe working method that, without unanimous sources, the two editions were compared, based on a textual analysis ofthe relevant notations. This could easily be automated, nevertheless the enormous set remaining after filtering out clear correspondences needs a huge amount of person-months’ work. It is a task for the future to compile a source material suited for computerized systems in order to carry as much as possible from the re-notation work automatically. Initially systematic shelf arrangement relied on UDC. Today, however, because of this system's “petrification” (justified by various reasons), a major difference has evolved between the two systems used. It was time to adjust systematic shelf arrangement to changes in UDC. A working group consisting ofthe representatives of various library types has been set up to deal with this task. (Fejős, 2008).
The Nature of Knowledge in Sport Pedadogy A Reply to Schempp THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE IN SPORT PEDAGOGY 125 The Nature of Knowledge in Sport Pedagogy A Reply to Schempp Deborah A Wuest Ithaca College A[.]
large increase in demand for the Spanish lan- guage Fundamentals course (OTS-2). When it was primarily a UCR course, OTS-2 had aver- age enrollments of 10 to 15. However, when the course was opened to other Latin American stu- dents, enrollments increased to the OTS limit of 22 students and the number of applicants increased exponentially. A table in the OTS Education Program 5-Year Plan of 1997 shows an increase in applicants from 76 in 1991 to 155 in 1997. This Plan states that “the course is rec- ognized throughout Latin America as a premier opportunity to learn field ecology and received high praise from the 290 course alumni, many of whom have gone on to get masters degrees or Ph.D.’s and are now professionally active in conservation, biological field research and/or university education in their respective coun- tries” (OTS Annual Meeting Book 1998). The OTS Education Committee and Education per- sonnel went in 1996 to the Peruvian Amazon at the invitation ofthe U.S. based ecotourism com- pany, International Expeditions (IE) to consider using their facilities for a course. These facili- ties (a lodge, camp, and biological station) offered access to flooded forests, terra firme rainforests, and river habitats not found in Costa Rica and a major asset that OTS lacked, an extensive (400 meter) canopy walkway system at the Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research (ACEER), a biological station deep in the Peruvian Amazon (OTS Liana winter 1997). ACEER, built in 1991 by IE, had become an independent scientific center and wanted to encourage academic use. Funding (from USAID) to develop a second Spanish Fundamentals course was more readily available in Perú than in other locations; the A.W. Mellon Foundation was also willing to provide funding. A Peruvian university, the Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana (UNAP) in Iquitos was eager to collaborate with OTS; they became a member of OTS in 2000, agreeing to “provide in-kind services and facili- ties to OTS in lieu of paying dues” (OTS An- nual Meeting Book 2000). A final factor lea- ding to the development of an OTS course in Perú was that veteran OTS coordinators from
2 S CRIPTING FOR COLLABORATIVE SEARCHING The complexity of developing multiuser search models that promote collaboration among the members of a team is possibly one ofthe reasons that explain the lack of computational tools that help to carry out this task. In order to better understand the challenge, the problem can be divided into two levels: the user’s experience when faced with the task of searching (abstract model) and the sequence of steps or stages that a collaborative search activity follows (script). Scripting can be conceived on two levels: on one hand, we have the general structure ofthe activities (Macro-Script), and on the other we have the concrete steps that must be followed during a collabora- tive search activity within the classroom (Micro-Script). A Micro-Script is an instruction manual for the teacher and the student that adapts the Macro-Script to the specific subject and context in which the activity is being carried out (Dillenbourg & Tchounikine, 2007). In order to illus- trate the difference between both scripts, we can picture a game of chess. The Macro-Script contains the rules ofthe game that determine the existence of two players that face each other, the goal for each player, the distribution ofthe pieces on the board, the movements allowed for each piece, the structure of turn-taking in the game, etc. Then a Micro-Script determines the implementation ofthe Mac- ro-Script. This Micro-Script changes according to the type of implementation; for example, the game can be played with a physical board and pieces, by letter, through a computer simulator, etc. While the Micro-Script can change depending on the support tools that are used and the context ofthe game, the Macro-Script remains con- stant because each Micro-Script is an implementation of a game of chess. This allows us to see the logic ofthe activi- ties and their specific implementations, separately.
A strategy is a set of consistently made business decisions . Business strategies aligned with sustainability reflect the nature and extension of sustainable development opportunities regarding value creation for companies . Sustainable business development considers sustainable practices as the cornerstone ofthe company’s survival; thus, the implementation of sustainable actions within the firm’s business strategy can become a source of competitive advantage . A company’s competitiveness reflects its long-term relationships both within the industry and with its competitors. A competitive business is constantly informed about the conditions required to add value through a strategy that enables the fulfillment of organizational goals through social responsibility . Thus, corporate social responsibility (CSR) defines companies that integrate social and environmental concerns in both their business operations and their interactions with stakeholders . The construction industry has also incorporated sustainability in its corporate strategies through sustainable construction that targets the responsible and healthy creation and management ofthe built environment . Sustainable construction is an integral process that seeks to maintain harmony between nature and the built environment by creating human settlements . Its purpose is to achieve a balance among the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability .
and offered the economists the opportunity to develop new regulatory tools to support policy makers. First, European regulators were very concerned about incumbent inefficiencies. While the US regulator controlled the incumbent prices to prevent the incumbent company from earning excessive profits due to its privileged position, the European counterpart aimed to regulate prices to achieve efficiency gains. Second, the European incumbents kept the right to compete with entrants in the provision of local services. To avoid regulating a vertical integrated company, the US telecommunications regulator (the Federal Communications Commission, FCC) separated local from long-distance services. Therefore, AT&T could not compete with regional companies in the supply of regional calls. Third, European regulators allowed competition for regional services provision. This decision was an implicit consequence of allowing the incumbent to compete with entrants in the regional markets. In the US, regional calls were provided by local monopolies while interregional calls were supplied by AT&T. In 1996, the FCC adopted a different approach by allowing local and long distance competition between AT&T and regional companies. In summary, the US vertical separation approach aimed to prevent the regulation of dominant market positions by separating markets and controlling prices to avoid monopolistic profits, while the European vertical regulated integration approach aimed to control prices to promote competitive markets where otherwise the rise of monopolistic companies would be the market outcome. Interestingly, the vertical separation approach has largely been adopted in Europe to regulate other utilities except telecommunication companies.
The Grid computing vision is to enable coordinated resource sharing through the creation of application-independent middleware and protocols. In Japan and Europe there are, mainly, two Grid systems deployed: Globus , predominantly deployed in cluster based computing projects, and Unicore , typically used to allow access to heterogeneous high performance computing (HPC) architectures. The initial impetus for the development of a Grid Resource Ontology was the need to develop a resource broker that could use either the MDS structure adopted by Globus or the information in Unicore’s Incarnation DataBase (IDB). On closer examination the critical translations that needed to be established were between the Grid Uniform Laboratory Environment  used to provide a uniform resource description for Grid projects based on Globus and the syntax used by Unicore for the entries in the IDB . The solution to this problem was ultimately to develop along with other projects standard languages for common Grid patterns of actions such as job submission .
Flow-based routing is the routing technique where packets are routed from source to destination, based on selecting the path that satisfies some requirements such as QoS, load balance, security, etc. This mechanism is based on the same principles used for normal routing in networks, but it is applied to more specific data flows. Kohler et al. proposed the flexible and configurable Click modular router, which is made of simple packet processing modules which are combined in a service chain in order to build complex and efficient network services that can be used in this case to do flow based routing . There are several cooperative honeypot systems using Click framework to facilitate the data control. For example, the Potemkin gateway router and the GQ  gateway are based on the Click modular router. In addition, with the rapid growth of software-defined networking (SDN), OpenFlow was designed to allow users to programmatically control real switches (from companies like Cisco, HP, etc.) by means of applications running on SDN controller frameworks. The SDN controller can facilitate a fine-grained dynamic control of traffic by means ofthe flow table entries configured on each OpenFlow based switches. In the near future, the programmable SDN based network architectures will increasingly take the role ofthe data control for honeypot systems .