Knowledge organization

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TítuloInternational Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO): identificaçâo de redes sociais a partir dos anais de seus eventos (1991 2010)

TítuloInternational Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO): identificaçâo de redes sociais a partir dos anais de seus eventos (1991 2010)

Nesse contexto, insere-se a International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), enquanto primeira sociedade acadêmica internacional dedicada à teoria e à prática da OC. McIlwaine e Mitchell (2008) sinalizam que apesar de a maioria dos membros da ISKO advirem da área de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação, a OC não se limita a esse campo e destacam as contribuições interdisciplinares e a confusão sobre o significado de organização do conhecimento e sua relação com outros campos como gestão do conhe- cimento, por exemplo.

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TítuloNetwork of specialists in the archival field and the impact on knowledge organization: the case of Brazil

TítuloNetwork of specialists in the archival field and the impact on knowledge organization: the case of Brazil

This article tries to more fully understand the archival field, which has been consolidating its position in Brazil for the past 0 years, since it aims to understand the important role that Archival Studies play in shaping the representational configuration of memory and heritage as vectors of identity. Its specific aim is to identify the Hispanic-Brazilian network of researchers in this field of knowledge. This discipline has been established through interdisciplinary relationships arising from the network of academic actors who try to understand the archival phenomenon. The methodological approach adopted here in order to identify this network of academic actors was to conduct an extensive survey on the most comprehensive database on scientific researchers in the field of Science and Technology in Brazil: the LATTES, CNPq database. The analyses point to the conception of a wide network of scholars in the archival field, encompassing people working in clerical positions, custodial institutions of archival collections, associations of archive professionals, educational institutions, archival knowledge producers, users of archives and organizations served by archival functions, all working in different universes of representation, that need to establish balanced parameters for an effective Knowledge Organization.
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TítuloInternational co operation between Poland and Spain, within the International Society for Knowledge Organization: present situation and prospects

TítuloInternational co operation between Poland and Spain, within the International Society for Knowledge Organization: present situation and prospects

Collaboration between Polish and Spanish ISKO members is possible on the grounds of the research field of scientific information, and of knowledge organization in particular, as well as specific areas of research, and ISKO members' participation in joint international research projects. Teaching and mobility can provide other dimensions of co-operation between researchers, taking part in post-graduate studies and lecturing, expanded by internships for the students of scientific information and library science under international programmes, including those supported by the European Union.
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TítuloEpsitemology, literary genre and knowledge organization systems

TítuloEpsitemology, literary genre and knowledge organization systems

become institutionalised in the UK, there were letters in the letter pages of the Library Association journal about whether libraries should be encouraging the reading of novels and the consumption of fiction for pleasure alone, or whether libraries should be con- cerned with the intellectual “improvement” of its patrons, by encouraging the reading of serious knowledge based literature (Barr; Sturges, 1992). This concern about reading for pleasure leaves its trace in Saarti’s reference to the common library approach to shelf classification of separating serious (literary) and entertaining (popular) fiction. Secondly, there underpins Saarti’s review a notion of genre that is relatively ontological. There is an assumption that there are some well-known genres. What is less clear, however, is whether acknowledgement of these “well-known genres” is shared across fiction KOS. “Detective novels” is a generic category cited in Saarti, though, interestingly, it does not figure in OCLC’s WorldCat genres listings, where detective fiction is subsumed under the category “mystery fiction”.
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TítuloOrganization, Management and Engineering of Knowledge: Rivals or Complements?

TítuloOrganization, Management and Engineering of Knowledge: Rivals or Complements?

In comparison with Knowledge Management and Knowledge Engineering it becomes clear that Knowledge Organization is more oriented toward the structuring of semantics for library contents with the aim to facilitate the common access to codified knowledge (cf. Umstätter, 2001; see Table 1). Knowledge Management on the other hand is more interested in exclusively usage and exploitation of information which is important for the market success of an enterprise. And Knowledge Engineering has the main focus on effectively storing, computation, and retrieving of data with a meaningful reference to its applica- tion. But Knowledge Organization needs to clarify its focus and values (see: Knowledge Management) and has to apply sophisticated techniques (see: Knowledge Engineering) in order to cope with the different information sources, user groups, and systems for Knowledge Organization. In the same way Knowledge Management needs technical sup- port (see: Knowledge Engineering) as well as semantically stable features (see: Knowledge Organization). And Knowledge Engineering cannot process data without meaning and has to consider the semantics and structure – in most general form as ontologies - of its data (see: Knowledge Organization) as well has to apply mechanisms to reassure and update its data bases and give application oriented answers (see: Knowledge Management). Especially with the growth of different data sources and the need to be usable for multiple purposes at least these three knowledge disciplines have overlapping areas that will be solved more fruit-full if there is an understanding and cooperation between these. A postmodern society is influenced by information techniques but also - as reference frame for the information systems - causes new integrated thinking and information processes (Ohly, 2001, 2008). International and interdisciplinary endeavors like Semantic Web, Enhanced Science, or Electronic Government (which comprise all multiple data qualities, enhanced decision sup- port, and big mass of data) will only be successful if all concerned knowledge disciplines are engaged and are meaningfully connected. Yet in the notion of ‘wisdom’ none of the discussed techniques will be able to substitute qualitative, ethic decisions of mankind. Thus they all must be scrutinized for their normative prejudices (van der Waldt, 2008).
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TítuloCorrentes teóricas do tratamento temático da informaçâo: uma análise de domínio da presença da catalogaçâo de assunto e da indexaçâo nos congressos de ISKO España

TítuloCorrentes teóricas do tratamento temático da informaçâo: uma análise de domínio da presença da catalogaçâo de assunto e da indexaçâo nos congressos de ISKO España

information use by means of set of special activities like subject analysis, description and representation in order to promote information retrieval. Such branch of studies presents can be presented by means of different theoretical approaches. In this sense, the anglo-saxon approaches – subject cataloguing and indexing – are more devoted to the development of indexing languages and catalogues while the French-oriented approach - analyse documentaire - denotes a bigger concern on the procedures involved. Considering that the Spanish chapter of ISKO has been acting as an important scientific in knowledge organization matters (including subject information organization) specially in the Ibero-American countries, it carries out an analysis of the presence of the mentioned Anglo-saxon approaches - subject cataloguing and indexing – in the papers presented at the ISKO-Spain congresses already occurred in order to identify the scientific articulation degree among their theoretical referents as a subsidy to the epistemological studies in knowledge organization in Spain.
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The Role of Knowledge Modeling Techniques in Software Development: A General Approach Based on a Knowledge Management Tool

The Role of Knowledge Modeling Techniques in Software Development: A General Approach Based on a Knowledge Management Tool

These principles need to be combined adequately in order to formulate a knowledge based application. A reasonable approach to be followed in the design process is to start from the collection of top-level tasks that describe the set of goals to be achieved by the application to support an adequate conversation model between the user and the system. These top-level tasks may be the basic types of answers required in such a conversation model. For each top- level task, a hierarchical structure of task-method-domain may be used to show the way the final task supports an answer type (Figure 1). Each hierarchy represents how each task is carried out by a specific method, decomposing the task into simpler subtasks. Usually, the hierarchy will present only one method associated to a task. However, in the near future, when reusable libraries of problem-solving methods will be available, it could be more usual to associate more than one method to a task, developing a more complex architecture (this architecture could be named the problem solving medium). This means that the same task will be able to be solved in different ways depending of certain dynamic characteristics (such as the type of dialogue with the user, the context, etc.). At the bottom level of the hierarchy of task-method-subtasks there is a collection of primary methods associated to primary tasks. What is considered as a primary method is a design decision established by the developer. Typically, primary methods correspond to methods that can be directly implemented at symbolic level by simple problem-solving techniques (such as knowledge based techniques like backward or forward chaining in rule-based representations, network-based representations, constraint satisfaction methods, and also specific algorithmic solutions that do not require a explicit representation of declarative knowledge).
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Estudiante y profesor nuevos roles en la universidad

Estudiante y profesor nuevos roles en la universidad

The main consequence of the convergence of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), or also known as "Bologna Process", derives in shaping a new university, which is necessary to meet the new needs of students, attending to their personal, professional and social (Romero, Gijon and Crisol, 2010). European convergence process has been a deep shift in the approach to teaching that is being developed in universities. There is a sort of speech of a new university-based on continuing education of the subject throughout its life. Now it is generating a new university student profile, which it is characterized by: having a close knowledge of technologies, use of new communication habits, and interest in new forms of education and self-learning, developing new skills, and so on. We are talking about a modern university system, quality, focusing on training of the student, where the university professor has to do more than teach, must promote creative learning by the student to think for himself. Now the priority is no longer teaching and university is the protagonist.
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Lacan and Organization

Lacan and Organization

Already in the 1960s and 1970s – if not earlier – Cornelius Castoriadis had observed that whenever the rules are strictly observed in an organization – this is the case of working to rule and grève du zèle – what ensues is not better order but total chaos (Castoriadis, 2000: 75). Indeed, such practices of over-identification ‘can have a devastating impact on the smooth functioning of the work process’ (Fleming and Spicer, 2003: 172). Paradoxically then, ‘production can only take place to the extent that workers transgress the rules and develop the initiative, creativity, and inventiveness production requires’ (Castoriadis, 2000: 75). Hence a whole informal, unofficial quasi-organization is formed (2000: 77). On the one hand, Castoriadis discerns here the possibility of future transformation in the direction of autonomy. Such parallel organization, formed on the basis of a certain cultivation of creativity, can enhance struggles for autonomy and self-direction (ibid.). On the other hand, activities of this sort are crucial in sustaining the system – the system could not be reproduced without such innovation and creativity, which also introduces gradual alterations: ‘Thus, the life and the activities of innumerable human beings continually introduce infinitesimal alterations in the ways of doing things as well as in the manner of effectively living, or “interpreting” (re-creating for themselves), the instituted social imaginary significations. As a result, a slow – and, of course, nonconscious – self-alteration is always in process in actual social life’ (Castoriadis, 2005: 179). Likewise, to retain its grip, every hegemonic ideology needs to take into account in advance its own failure, its own limits, and to condition its own (partial) transgression. Here, we see the lacking Other, an incomplete power structure, indirectly acknowledging this lack, allowing a certain degree of dis-identification, providing a breathing space for its subjects, on the condition, of course, that this remains under control: ‘Ideology is effective precisely by constructing a space of false disidentification’ (!i"ek in Fleming and Spicer, 2003: 167).
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Endosymbiosis and self-organization

Endosymbiosis and self-organization

Our work has thus been that of a “clearing operation” and the episte- mological analysis of the model (II c) has allowed the outline of the relation between unit of selection and self-organization in the case of intracellular symbiosis. To consider the interactions only at the genomic level is a form of reductionism. Nevertheless, results obtained by biolo- gists authorize us to see in the host-symbiont system a unit of evolution where real co-adaptation occurs (attenuation and balancing of diverse antagonisms, control by the host over the symbiont, transfer of symbiont genes to the host) in line with natural selection. In that context, the symbiotic population can be considered as a favorable variant. The bio- logical data illustrating the co-adaptation of the genomes correspond well to the explanatory paradigm of self-organization. But the biologist and the epistemologist must face one other problem: the nature of interac- tions—let us repeat this—remains largely unknown. This forces us to clearly separate biological functionality and the process employed in its simulation. From the biological angle, one comes up against the question of reorganization of the genomes after the onset of symbiosis. Two scien- tific facts constitute a paradox in co-evolution: the control of genetic mutations of the symbiont by the host and the necessary alteration of the symbiotic genome to form the new unit of evolution. These two facts plead in favor of a search for a model of self-organization specific to endosymbiosis.
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Entrepreneur's Knowledge Perception Model and Their Product or Services Probability to Have Precense in the Market.-Edición Única

Entrepreneur's Knowledge Perception Model and Their Product or Services Probability to Have Precense in the Market.-Edición Única

communication, a customized form of marketing, which is uncomplicated and follows a common­sense approach to business development. This is how market information is gathered. It derives from the ability to identify and respond to market signals (McGowan and Rocks, 1994). The signals can be in the form of customer requests, supplier suggestions, ideas from work colleagues or threats from competition. Hill iv and McGowan (2002) develop a three­ level framework of networking competencies in the smaller firm. Level 1 competencies are experience, knowledge, communication, judgment and intuition. Level 2
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ICT and the Virtual Organization

ICT and the Virtual Organization

activity. First, we try to find a scientific explanation for the existence of this kind of system in the theories coming from the strategic management field. From the agency theory up to the evolution of the resourced based view, there are many different theories where the value systems can be scientifically explained. Af- ter that, we try to find a proper definition for a virtual system in the context we analyse it. Some elements such as the need for firm’s cooperation, the massive use of information and communication technologies, and the advantages of being more flexible are, from our view, key elements in the concept for virtual systems. Last, we show a basic model trying to group the dif- ferent theoretical debates around virtual systems and the creation of value. We promote the approach of the influence of the virtual systems on the creation and sustainability of a competitive advantage. The design of models for managing knowledge can be a very in- teresting trend when trying to find a proper explanation to the development, storing, transfer, and exploitation of shared intangible assets.
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The organization ontology

The organization ontology

However, in general it is advantageous to have an explicit representation of the organizational role that the person fulfils (e.g. for publication of responsibilities associated with the role). This is supported by the org:Role class. The situation of an Agent fulfilling that role within an organization is then expressed through instances of the org:Membership n-ary relationship. This also makes it possible to annotate the relationship with qualifying information such as duration, salary, reference to the employment contract and so forth.

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The use of computers for graduate education in Project Management. Improving the integration to the industry.

The use of computers for graduate education in Project Management. Improving the integration to the industry.

In order to address all the features identified in previous section, regarding the course organization, strong IT skills are required from all the team members, as they are kindly requested to not only perform the technical work but also to update the managerial status of the work, as well as to discuss technical issues of the work being done with other involved team members located in other universities. It is also required that as much activity as possible become available for analyses, in order to provide feed-back to the student about how to improve or how to do better.
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AUDITORÍA DE INFORMACIÓN Y EL CONOCIMIENTO EN LA ORGANIZACIÓN / INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE AUDIT IN THE ORGANIZATION

AUDITORÍA DE INFORMACIÓN Y EL CONOCIMIENTO EN LA ORGANIZACIÓN / INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE AUDIT IN THE ORGANIZATION

This article presents a methodology, denominated Aud-InfoCon, in order to audit information and knowledge. It was elaborated taking into account the main links between these two processes, as well as the analysis of the causes that motivate its implementation and the objectives pursued. Methodologies and models used to carry out these processes were analyzed and also, the cognitive and methodological basis, which facilitate the design of a comprehensive audit methodology in both disciplines. As a result, it was constructed "a unique instrument," which not only allows its implementation within information institutions, but also in any organization that is embroiled in initiating information and knowledge management projects.
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A study on information technology alternatives that aid organizational cultures and subcultures towards a maximization of flow and creation of knowledge Edición Única

A study on information technology alternatives that aid organizational cultures and subcultures towards a maximization of flow and creation of knowledge Edición Única

The fourth and perhaps most important and harder to achieve characteristic of this process is that a very real and positive vision of knowledge sharing in the organization should be present in order for true knowledge transfer and creation to take place. Our field research showed us that in the workplace a disposition of knowledge sharing is deemed important and positive by employees, yet some of them hold certain reserves and for these we can never be sure of to which degree knowledge transference will be embraced by those who posses it. As the previously mentioned characteristics this one is hard to control, but it can be somehow influenced trough organizational culture change efforts inside companies. Companies have been conducting cultural reforms in their organizations for quite a while, and the development of competencies in their human capital trough training is common practice. It is trough influencing the underlying general organizational culture that managers can determine the basic traits of all subcultures in their organizations and providing a positive, relationship healthy environment for work could help in pushing the idea that knowledge sharing profits all who practice it. Awards and high management recognition of such traits also encourages this disposition in employees.
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Visualización de esquemas de representación de conocimiento para el acceso a recursos en repositorios digitales

Visualización de esquemas de representación de conocimiento para el acceso a recursos en repositorios digitales

With the rapid growth of digital resources collections in recent years, many institutions have developed a variety of strategies and policies to facilitate and encourage their use (Liew & Foo, 1999; Prabha, 2007, S. Zhang, Shen, & Ghenniwa, 2004). In the case of the educational sector, this growth has become an essential part of the learning environment (Armstrong et al., 2001; Hayati & Jowkar, 2008, Nicholas, Huntington, & Jamali, 2007; Pancheshnikov, 2007). However, there is a widespread view that this type of education-oriented resources is not used to its full potential from the point of view of improving teaching and research processes (Edward A Fox & Logan, 2005; Jain & Babbar, 2006; Shuling, 2007). This inefficacy of repositories is attributed to a number of factors associated with the lack of: i) competence, ii) training, and iii) time devoted to their use (Roberts, 1995; Shuler, 2007; Rehman & Ramzy, 2004). Moreover, big efforts and suggestions have been made for the further development of strategies for classifying and organizing digital resources based on knowledge representation schemes (thesauri and ontologies). The implementation of these strategies has been of great benefit to experts that work on activities related to the management and administration of digital repositories (creators and administrators). However, these efforts do not sufficiently focus on the final user's needs to locate and access digital resources (students, teachers).
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Registered Organization Vocabulary

Registered Organization Vocabulary

registration authority that confers legal status and therefore always has particular significance. RegORG uses the ADMS class of Identifier (based on the UN/CEFACT class of the same name) to allow statements to be made about the identifier in a way not possible in ORG. Given data about a Registered Organization, it is possible to derive an org:identifier but the

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Collaborative learning to improve speaking

Collaborative learning to improve speaking

Knowledge of the linguistic components such as vocabulary and grammatical structures is necessary but not sufficient. What makes speaking different from other skills is that speaker needs to have a quick access to all the relevant knowledge required to produce the appropriate language in the short time, whereas in other skills the learner have enough time to either match the input with the existing knowledge. For a number of reasons, authors assert that practice is most beneficial when carried out in collaboration with small groups of peers, rather than with the teacher or in a whole-class setting. (Shabani, 2013)
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levels of organization

levels of organization

Living matter is very complex. This is one of the characteristics which most differenciates it from inert or inanimate matter. We can discover several levels of complexity which are known as Levels of organization. Each level of organization gives the matter which makes it up certain properties which cannot be found in lower levels.

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