Collaboration between Polish and Spanish ISKO members is possible on the grounds of the research field of scientific information, and of knowledgeorganization in particular, as well as specific areas of research, and ISKO members' participation in joint international research projects. Teaching and mobility can provide other dimensions of co-operation between researchers, taking part in post-graduate studies and lecturing, expanded by internships for the students of scientific information and library science under international programmes, including those supported by the European Union.
This work will focus, within the network of researchers in the archival field, on evidence of the fragility of the scientific mechanisms of institutionalization of this field in Brazil, specifically the reflection in its representation as an area of knowledge, and also possible repercussions for knowledgeorganization. It will also show articulation with international research, especially with Spanish researchers, drawing attention to some still not fully occupied spaces, may be due to the way of representing knowledge. This work will initially present a historical survey of both the landmarks in the area and of the actors who are active today in the archival field, as well as their academic production. This first approach will demonstrate the plurality of areas for educating people in Archival Studies, even though the field has been established for over 40 years.
Abstact: The second part of ISO 25964 on interoperability of thesauri with other knowledge organiza- tion systems is presented in the context of the Internet and semantic web. A review is offered of the main mapping models, the main semantic relation mappings, and the intricacies of mapping thesauri against bibliographical and archival classifications, taxonomies, subject heading systems, ontologies, terminolo- gies, authority lists, and synonym rings. Finally, the implications of the ISO 25964 standard for the theory and practice of knowledgeorganization systems are discussed.
Considerando a organização do conhecimento enquanto um marco teórico-conceitual que abriga processos mediadores entre um contexto de produção e de uso da informação no âmbito da Ciência da Informação, destaca-se a International Society for KnowledgeOrganization (ISKO), sociedade internacional que atua como fórum de discussões da área, gerando, a cada dois anos, anais de suas reuniões internacionais. Assim sendo, são identificadas, neste trabalho, suas redes sociais por meio de um estudo métrico em seus 12 anais (1991-2010). Para tanto, parte-se de um levantamento das co e múltiplas autorias existentes para traçar as redes sociais formadas por esses autores e suas instituições. São apresentadas, ainda, uma tabulação dos co ou múltiplos autores mais produtivos identificados, bem como de suas instituições de modo a destacar possíveis frentes de pesquisa na área. Como resultado, identificou-se que as redes sociais no tocante a ISKO são frágeis, uma vez que a área de organização do conhecimento configura-se ainda pequena, mas já apresenta consolidação teórica e sinalizações de expansão no que diz respeito à produtividade e colaboração científica.
become institutionalised in the UK, there were letters in the letter pages of the Library Association journal about whether libraries should be encouraging the reading of novels and the consumption of fiction for pleasure alone, or whether libraries should be con- cerned with the intellectual “improvement” of its patrons, by encouraging the reading of serious knowledge based literature (Barr; Sturges, 1992). This concern about reading for pleasure leaves its trace in Saarti’s reference to the common library approach to shelf classification of separating serious (literary) and entertaining (popular) fiction. Secondly, there underpins Saarti’s review a notion of genre that is relatively ontological. There is an assumption that there are some well-known genres. What is less clear, however, is whether acknowledgement of these “well-known genres” is shared across fiction KOS. “Detective novels” is a generic category cited in Saarti, though, interestingly, it does not figure in OCLC’s WorldCat genres listings, where detective fiction is subsumed under the category “mystery fiction”.
Language tables were completely revised in 1992 after a long period of prepara- tion, based on linguistic knowledge available from the 1970s and 1980s. In the past thirty years new knowledge emerged with respect to indigenous languages especially in South America, the richest part of the world in linguistic terms. Now this part of the UDC schemes is under revision again, but this revision focuses on the new concepts, instead of on changing structures. From time to time new aspects come forward in this area, for example Valencian and Rusyn.
The redesign of productive systems in the firm around the concept of being virtual finds a theoretical point of view in different thoughts coming from the strategic field. The evolution of the theory of the transaction costs recognises the barriers in accumulating core competencies (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990), especially in the conditions firms are living in today with a high technological uncertainty (David & Han, 2004; Walker & Weber, 1984). Maybe for this reason firms should develop a different way of acquiring knowledge from third parties.
In short, the book Knowledge and Institutions stands at an interesting crossroads between geography, knowledge and institutions and boldly takes on the challenge of broadening understanding of the spatial context and time dynamics of institutions, as well as the effects that these have on the creation of knowledge and regional develop- ment. Important lessons can be learned from this book in terms of scientific progress and the design and implementation of regional development strategies. It talks about the importance of the institutional contexts that shape the regional economic develop- ment, promoting key drivers; such as the creation and dissemination of knowledge and innovation within the production system, which facilitates the renewal of both traditional sectors and the most advanced clusters, or the boosting of entrepreneur- ship. In essence, the case studies confirm the key role of institutional factors, col- lectively understood as a type of relational infrastructure which provides support for development processes. By contrast, it also notes the existence of adverse effects, for example in the development of infrastructures or the protection of the environment, in relation to matters such as corruption, a lack of transparency and the lack of ac- countability in large investments. In fact, it is common in the specialised literature to talk about competitiveness problems that hinder lagging or declining regions, deriv- ing from certain lock-ins, where institutionalism is part of the problem and/or the solution.
The development stage of SISBIO initiates with the stage of Knowledge Engineering, responsible for the analysis of requirements, studies related to biofuel chain, identification of the informational sources, and definition of the fields of the interface. It is organized in the Knowledge Engineering suite. The suite consists of an independent computational structure for the extraction, organization and representation of the knowledge extracted in the phase of Knowledge Engineering, beyond the construction and edition of ontologies performed in the coming phase of Engineering of ontologies. The Knowledge Engineering Suite was developed to act together with Dynamically Contextualized Knowledge Representation- DCKR. Among the main tools, we can highlight the frequency extractor and the semantic extractor and the ontology editor.
The interorganizational learning can be seen as a co- llective acquisition of knowledge among a group of organizations, and it has its origin in a process of sha- ring of knowledge revealing itself as a new strategy to the development of capacities which can minimi- ze the exposition of companies to the uncer tainties imposed by the environment. It is qualified as a re- presentative dimension of the success reached by or- ganizations (VALENTE; PEDROZO; BEGINS, 2008). The collaborative action directed to collective lear- ning is not just about searching external knowledge to individual companies through relationship net- working, but above all, on knowing how to develop it by par tnerships. Thus, social, institutional knowled- ge and knowledge of the network itself are collecti- vely build and new knowledge is learnt jointly in the group (LARSSON et al. 1998; ASPROTH, 2007). Larsson et al. (1998) suggest that the way to mana- ge the collective learning process plays a central role in the success and failure in interorganizational rela- tions. They point out that understanding of interor- ganizational learning primarily focuses on how the in- dividual organization can be a good par tner» or tr y to win the internal “race to learn» among the par t- ners. The interorganizational learning dilemma is that (1) being a good par tner invites exploitation by par t- ners attempting to maximize their individual appro- priation of the joint learning, and (2) such oppor tu- nistic learning strategies undercut the collective knowledge development in the interorganizational context (LARSSON et al. 1998). The authors deve- lop a framework for understanding the dilemma through consideration of trade-offs between how
This selection process will be focused on detecting transversal competencies in the candidates interested in working in this company. As it has already been said, Iotsens is expanding its business and it is going to require more staff in the coming years. The mentioned company is not requiring any experience in its candidates, and different study fields are valid for the company. The minimum requirements for participating in this process is set in possessing a Bachelor’s degree or to be studying the last year of these degrees. Moreover, Iotsens will train its new employees on the knowledge and technical skills required to conduct their tasks. As every Iotsens position is a high qualified job, it makes sense to set a minimum standard to apply for any position.