Following the first year of monitoring, a conclusion was drawn that reliable estimates or comparisons of gas fluxes cannot be made from only one or two time measurements due to the number and variability of factors affecting the gas fluxes. A decision was made to sample more intensively in a few, well-characterized locations. Two sites, Indonesia and Perú, were chosen for intensive monthly sampling. These sites were selected because of well-defined land-uses and the capacity of the laboratories at the sites to monitor the soil variables that affect gas fluxes. Similar land-use categories are being monitored in the two benchmark areas, representing forests, complex agroforests, fallows, tree plantations, crops, and grasslands. Permanent bases have been established for each chamber so that measurements are taken from the same place each time, reducing the variability and also the disturbance caused by placing the chambers each time. Ancillary soil measurements taken at each sampling time include extractable nitrate and ammonium, N mineralization, nitrification, bulk density, moisture content, texture, pH, and CO 2 evolution.
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Demographic growth and consequent land-use changes are consid- ered one of the main factors causing inundations in many cities in de- veloping countries. During the last decade, the city of Colima, Mexico, has suffered from an increase in flooding events. These episodes mostly occurred during tropical rainstorms associated to hurricanes (such as Jova in 2011, Manuel in 2013, and Patricia in 2015, all with average accumulated rainfall of 200 mm in 24 h), as well as during short- duration, high-intensity rainfall events at the beginning of the rainy season. To define the mechanisms leading to the increased occurrence of floodings, a space-time analysis of land-use changes, coupled with the characterization of natural and urban soils, are presented here for the Colima metropolitan area. Three land-use categories were created: native land (N1), urban land (N4), and cultivated land (N5). Each of these categories has subcategories depending on vegetative cover and/ or level of urbanization. SPOT imagery acquired in 2005, 2009, and 2015 was classified to analyze the spatial and temporal changes in land use. Thirty-two soil samples representative of different land uses were analyzed to obtain their physical and chemical properties such as granulometry, bulk and particle densities, porosity, and organic matter content. Hydraulic conductivity tests were performed in situ using a drip-infiltrometer device.
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Four experimental lots with various land uses were selected in the research state for the assessment of their soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and their C/ N ratio. The first condition was a Tamaulipan thornscrub plot, native vegetation dominated by various dense and thorny shrubs, characterized by a broad range of growth patterns, various life stages of the leaves, and textures and growth dynamics with contrasting taxonomic and phonological developments. In terms of productivity, the average aerial biomass of the thornshrub and its annual production in dry weight have been determined to be 22 Mg ha -1 and 3.2 Mg ha -1 year -1 ,
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The forest dynamics and land use in the hydrographic watersheds that integrate Tomatlán municipality, Jalisco State (1997-2017) were analyzed. To fulfill this objective, three satellite images were classified: Landsat 5 and 8 (P030 and R046). As a result, two thematic maps were generated with seven types of forest cover and land uses: urban areas, agriculture, grassland, water bodies, medium semi-deciduous forest, deciduous low forest and temperate conifer and broadleaf forest. The map was compared to calculate the change in coverage present at different times. The exchange rate for the 1997-2017 period was determined; the percentage of forest covers that remained was 77 %; and change corresponded to 23 %. Results show that, over the analyzed period, the forest cover that had the greatest gains was the medium semi-deciduous tropical forest with a 1 % increment; the water bodies exhibited a change rate of 1.2 % per year. The gain or increase in this cover is considered to be related to the abandonment of agricultural and livestock areas, which has resulted in a regeneration of the medium growth semi-deciduous forest, while the water bodies are decreasing mainly in the lower parts of the basins, due to the expansion of agricultural areas —which may have implications for soil erosion and salinization—, as well as to changes of the natural landscape.
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1998 Smith, 2004; Spellerberg, 1998). Also the rural road net- work leads to LF, which depends on characteristics of the roads (Jaarsma and Willems, 2002). LF caused by roads and railways can be assessed using indices, such as the IFI, which is encountering the interest of some scholars (Bruschi et al., 2015; Fabietti et al., 2011; Guccione et al., 2008; Melis and Puddu, 2008; Battisti and Romano, 2007; Zanon et al., 2007; La Rovere et al., 2006; Biondi et al., 2003; Romano, 2002; Romano and Tamburini, 2001). With a closer attention for connectivity, landscape is commonly studied by means of indicators measuring different characteristics of a land- scape’s composition or spatial conﬁguration (McGarigal and Marks, 1995; Forman et al., 2003). Changes in the spatial conﬁguration of land uses and the presence of a new linear transport infrastructure have a major impact on the ﬂows of matter and energy occurring in the ecosystems, and on the natural movement of individuals and on population dynamics (Trocmé et al., 2003), i.e., in LC. To study its effect on the environment, indicators are frequently used to measure the permissiveness of the territory to these movements (Scolozzi and Geneletti, 2012), although they have a certain degree of subjectivity due to the resistance values assigned. In recent years a number of researchers have developed LC indicators to model this process (Marulli and Mallarach, 2005; Saura and Pascual-Hortal, 2007; Mancebo Quintana et al., 2010; Gurrutxaga et al., 2011). In Table 1
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Based on this logic, Space Syntax studies have developed several modelling tools for urban planning and design, in order to “create the right places (in fact, the right set of potential relationships) to host specific land uses. They include models based in “axial lines” and, also other based on the visibility fields. The later are known as Visual Graphic Analysis (VGA), and analyze spaces as a continue surface (‘raster’): the extent to which a location is seen from any other location, or, when they are not directly visible, the complexity implied in getting to see it.
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Modification of above-ground land use leads to many changes in the below-ground rhizosphere. A study was conducted of soil nematodes and their diversity associated with different land uses in the Biosphere Reserve Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Three sites were selected to investigate 4 types of land uses: natural forest, secondary forest, pasture, and maize fields. Total abundance of nematodes and estimators based on generic and diversity indices were assessed and compared between the 4 land uses and sites. Fifty-three families and 124 genera of nematodes were identified from the study area. The dominant families were Criconematidae, Hoplolaimidae, Cephalobidae, and Tylenchidae, and the most abundant genera in this study were Helicotylenchus, Discocriconemella, Tylenchus, Steinernema and Mesocriconema. The greatest nematode abundance, generic richness, and diversity were found in natural forest, closely followed by secondary forest. Intensive (largely monocrop) agricultural systems, represented by maize fields and pasture, had low generic richness and significantly less diversity than non-disturbed systems. Most of the estimators and indices were useful in showing the significant effects of different land uses on soil nematodes in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. This study is the first of its type to be carried out in the Biosphere Reserve Los Tuxtlas, being the first report of soil nematodes that shows the effects of the land use changes that have been made in recent years.
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Recurring annual costs should be estimated based on the current operating budget, expected popula- tion growth, and infrastructure lifecycle costs. Note that rapid financial feasibility assessment will focus on costs and funding for areas of public responsibility. However, an assessment of private sector financial feasibility can be useful as a separate exercise, particularly when assessing whether planned land uses and densities are realistic under market conditions and whether private developers have high enough profitability to support exactions or other negotiated contributions to infrastructure, services, or social housing (see the next section). Matching sources with uses is the next step, and will likely involve conversations with multiple imple- menting agencies about their available budgets and financing options. This may include utility compa- nies, donors, and national ministries in charge of roads, education, health, and/or social housing. After initial conversation with these agencies and organizations, it may become clear that their plans or the plan for the PCE may need to change. For example, in the case of the PCE in Nacala-al-Vel- ha, Mozambique, a large housing investment was planned by the national Housing Fund (Fundo de Fomento de Habitacão) outside of the boundar-
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The central city, whether it is a metropolitan or downtown area (if it refers to a political-administrative unit), is not able to retain the level of population; and even if it offers (initially) higher levels of installed infrastructure, equipment, services, etc, it keeps losing its attractiveness as a residential area because of pollution, noise, and insecurity. Consequently, the migration of high-income sectors to outside the urban limits has, in the long term, a negative impact on the levels of demand of services and equipment in the central city. Rusk (1995:74) asserts that this situation of threatened urban sustainability becomes critical when the population loss in the central city is 20% of the population. - The loss of population in the traditional city comes along with the concentration of social problems in specific places − those where low-income population or minorities are located. This way, suburbanisation is explained in terms of segregation and the physical degradation of certain urban areas. Segregation studies in North American cities evidence that urban sectors that initially have high segregation levels (specifically high concentration of poor population) become even more segregated areas through time. Social limitations in terms of mobility, labour nets integration, as well as the difficulties for accessing urban services or basic infrastructure would contribute to reproducing poverty conditions. As a result, the urban situation in these areas becomes neither sustainable in economic terms (due to the decrease in land- values, property values, rent values, etc.) nor social (for their increasing levels of segregation, urban violence, etc.), which leads to urban-spatial fragmentation.
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Regarding new urban development types, infill development has the highest mean temperature while leapfrog development has the lowest temperature (Table 4). This can be explained in two ways. First, urban infill areas are surrounded by high LST land use type such as built-up areas, which positively influences the infill area's LST. In contrast, leapfrog urban areas are surrounded by other land use types with lower LST such as agriculture land. This helps to reduce the leapfrog area mean LST. In addition, leapfrog urban areas often have good planning policies that incorporate an appropriate percentage of public areas like parks and lakes. This "good" LULC structure contributes to the decrease in LST. An urban area under extension often has higher LST than a leapfrog area and lower LST than infill area because its surrounding areas include both built-up areas and other LULC types. The correspondence of differences in mean LST to urban development types provides important feedback. Process of filling up the open land in a city has many negative impacts. It critically increases the urban warming effect within the city and reduces living conditions by decreasing public space. In such a situation, UHI cannot be avoided, but its effect can be reduced by applying more appropriate urban development types. Constructing new urban areas with proper LULC structure instead of filling up the existing urban space is an efficient solution for reducing the UHI effect.
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In this context, the pattern of urbanization that has generated the pro- duction of urban sets in Calimaya, could be called as Duhau (2008), as a model of isle, to the extent that the production of urban structures is only linked to the environment and to the cities by means of some primary roads this model implies that the new inhabitants of these urban complexes to face the negative aspects such as: the isolation of its habitat, the remote- ness of work, schools, health services, markets and financial services that the city offers, in addition to the trace and distribution of the urban uses ofland in the interior as the functionalist logic under which they are cons- tructed.
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In this example in zone 1 there are 31.6 hectares of land at a price of 4000. The model doesn’t know really the units in which land and prices are represented. The model user may choose whatever units seem most appropriate, provided it is consistent throughout. If land is in hectares, then the price must be $$$ per hectare. Land may be in hectares, m2, acres, etc. Note that in the table the amount of land in each zone is under Base Prod because it is an induced sector. The values are repeated under Min Prod and Max Prod because this sector is constrained. The price goes under the Base Price column, and is repeated under Value Added to help in the convergence of the model.
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Para satisfacer los clientes, se debe generar un costo que nos pueda dar la oportunidad de crear alternativas para que los clientes sientan el cariño que tenemos con ellos de diferentes maneras, por ejemplo crear foros de futbol en la que puedan asistir los niños y los padres para tener más información del mismo deporte, eventos recreativos familiares para tener mayor integración con las familias asociadas al Club Deportivo Soccer Land, detalles inesperados que le den a los padres y alumnos de la escuela una sonrisa y así hacerlos fieles a nuestros servicios.
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Only the FAO soils map was available for the whole country. as we11 as many loca1 soil stud ies covering srnall areas, when the MWP project was started. Very good p resent and pótential 1:50,000 scale land use maps are being deve1oped in Mexico by CETENAL (Com1sí6n de tstudios del Territorio Nacional). Unfortunate1y. the FAO soi1s map is too general, and not suíta ble for water resources planning. On the other hand, CETENAL maps are exce11�nt but cover less than a third of the country at present time.
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Land is the basis for food production and the main source of income in rural areas. When land ownership is not secure, farmers, both male and female, have difficulty obtaining loans. It is also hard for them to have access to rural organi- sations and to different agricultural inputs and seeds. In most municipalities near Madagascar’s major towns, all of the above has become difficult in view of the importance the state attaches to involving large national and interna- tional firms in the country’s landowning systems and the speed with which these companies are granted land. Large numbers of investors come to buy land, and farmers have problems keeping the plots they have tended for many years. It is even hard for them to keep their homes or find new land to operate in the future. As a consequence, rural people have a general feeling of not having any formal rights as regards the land (insecurity related to national heritage).
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Palm oil is one of biodiesel’s most important components. The crop has steadily expanded globally in the past three decades, given its large yields (it is the most efficient oleaginous crop in the world), its high value compared to other agricultural products, and rising demands for its many uses. Southeast Asia has been the predominant pro- ducer region since the 1980s, process- ing around 90% of the world’s palm oil. Partially because available land in that region is diminishing, the industry is also growing in other tropical areas such as
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The Leaf area index (LAI) differed among land use types and dates (p<0.05) Maximum LAI appeared to corresponded with SWC peaks in October, June and July. For dry and wet seasons, both the exclosure and the species-shift sites displayed similar LAI, except for July in which the species-shift site exhibited higher LAI values. For October, the species-shift, the exclosure and the Oat Crop reached the maximum LAI (0.608 ± 0.124, 0.602 ± 0.052 and 0.527 ± 0.066 m 2 /m 2 , respectively); whilst the shrub encroachment and overgrazing plots showed a 30% less LAI (0.207 ± 0.017 and 0.180 ± 0.023 m 2 /m 2 ). The LAI for the shrub encroachment stayed very stable during the recording time because the major plant component were the evergreen perennial herb Asfodelos fistulosus and the shrub Isocoma veneta, that accounted for ci. 56 to 75% of the leaf area. In the case of the Oat Crop, LAI was overall low exhibiting values close to zero after the crop was harvested (November to May). Non-zero LAI in this land use type was the result of growth by annual species responding to isolated rain events. For the overgrazing site, the plant community maintained overall a very low LAI with a decrease following the end of the rainy season (Figure 12).
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Besides the aircraft acquisitions, the other important component of the campaign was the ground measurements performed over the different surface types, as reference for the STARRS measure- ments. Thus, in the land experiments, a complex deployment was displayed for the ground mea- surements of soil moisture content, vegetation parameters, radiative temperature (thermal) of the different surfaces, surface roughness, stone percent cover, soil texture, etc. (Figure 9).
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After 84 years of changes in territorial policies from a natural resource perspective, there have been successes and failures. In the beginning, the visionary planning of territory policy stands out with the rational use of each region of the country. However, this holistic idea was quickly abandoned without giving space to its application, natural resources have been depleted as economic development advances, in the first years by the opening of agricultural crops, later on a smaller scale but greater impact by the needs for infrastructure, communications, services and housing (Fig. 4, Table 6). These phenomena show that the protection of natural resources is superfluous to the needs of economic development, as is the case in the rest of Latin America. And Mexico facing a future in the midst of a global environmental crisis linked to climate change, it will be necessary to return to a territorial vision similar to that of the 1930s. This type of planing is more consensual with the participation of all stakeholders and specialists to determine the best use and destination of the land, in order to ensure not only livelihood of the people, but its preservation to achieve sustainable development.
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Tukey’s test (P≤0.05) evidenced statistically significant differences in the Sr (P≤0.05) for the morning and afternoon samplings between the various land use systems (Figure 3). No differences were found between the thronscrub and the plantation in either sampling schedule. Thus, while the agricultural system has the lowest levels of CO 2 emission, it is not statistically different from the
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