Growing urbanization and the expansion of the agricultural frontier in tropical ecosystems have generated patchy landscapes composed of remnants of natural habitats and abandoned fields. This scenario offers an opportunity to develop urban reserves in order to preserve local fauna in expanding cities. We propose that if native animals are able to use these two habitat types, reserves composed of a mixture of natural habitats and abandoned fields would contain more diversity than reserves composed only of natural habitats. However, to be useful for conservation, these reserves must harbor specialized organisms that depend on natural habitats. To test this proposal, we focused on diurnal butterflies inhabiting an urban reserve located within the city of Puebla (Mexico), which contains relics of oak forests and abandoned fields. Butterfly assemblages were sampled and compared in the different habitat types of the reserve. The data were then pooled and analyzed for the reserve as a whole. These analyses discriminated between habitat generalist and forest specialist butterflies. Our results indicated that the different habitat types of the reserve harbor different forest specialist butterflies, which in turn enhanced the diversity of forest-dwelling butterflies at the landscape scale. This suggests that the inclusion of abandoned fields together with natural habitats in the design of urban protected areas could help to preserve at least part of the regional biodiversity.
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diversity–multifunctionality relationship is often used as an ar- gument to promote biodiversity conservation (6, 10). However, al- though society seeks to maximize the delivery of potentially conflicting ecosystem services, such as food production, bioenergy generation, and carbon storage at the landscape scale (11–13), re- search into the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality has been largely limited to local-scale studies, where diversity is manipulated in experimental plant com- munities. Although some studies have focused on more natural communities distributed over larger spatial extents (e.g., 14–16), they examined relationships between local-scale biodiversity and local-scale multifunctionality. The only previous study to in- vestigate multifunctionality at larger scales (17) simulated arti- ficial landscapes using data from experimental grassland communities. It showed that although different aspects of bio- diversity affected multifunctionality, local-scale (α-) diversity was a much stronger driver than the turnover of species between sites (β-diversity). However, whether those findings can be extrapolated to real-world (i.e., natural, seminatural) ecosystems, such as forests, is unknown. As a result, we have a poor understanding of how multifunctionality relates to biodiversity at the larger spatial scales that are most relevant to ecosystem managers. This question is of particular concern, given recent findings suggesting that human- driven homogenization of communities [loss of β-diversity (18–21)] may be just as widespread as α-diversity declines (22, 23).
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Top-of-canopy height (TCH) was estimated by constructing digital surface and ground models , and subtracting them to determine vegetation height at 1.12 m resolution. Laser ranges from the LiDAR were combined with embedded high resolution Global Positioning System-Inertial Measurement Unit (GPS-IMU) data to determine the 3-D locations of laser returns, producing a ‘cloud’ of LiDAR data. The LiDAR data cloud consists of a very large number of georeferenced point elevation estimates, where elevation is modeled relative to a reference ellipsoid. The LiDAR data points were processed to identify which laser pulses pen- etrated the canopy volume and reached the ground surface. We used these points to interpo- late a raster digital terrain model (DTM) for the ground surface. This was achieved using a 10 m x 10 m moving kernel to obtain a spatial average ground elevation. Subsequent points were evaluated by fitting a horizontal plane to each of these ground seed points. If the closest un- classified point was < 5.5 m away and < 1.5 m higher in elevation, it was also classified as ground. This process was repeated until all points within the flight coverage were evaluated. The digital surface model (DSM) was based on interpolations of all first-return points. Mea- surement of the vertical difference between the DTM and DSM yielded the TCH model. In each forest inventory plot, the average of all 1.12 m DCM pixels was used to estimate mean plot TCH as described by Asner and Mascaro . The DTM was used to create a digital ele- vation model to derive the landscape parameters used in the analysis of topographic effects on ACD variation, such as slope, curvature, elevation, aspect. Previous research has demon- strated the accuracy and reliability of this approach for mapping TCH in tropical forests, in- cluding on highly variable terrain such as steep slopes [21, 31].
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A b s t r a c t . Low detectability of small nocturnal carnivores and biases associated to different census methods hamper the interpretation and reliability of the results of censuses and habitat studies of many cryptic and elusive species, especially because of false-negatives and/or lack of negatives. In order to overcome this problem, methodologies based on the use of presence-only data have been used to predict distribution of species. In this paper, we used presence data of two abundant nocturnal carnivores to test for segregation in their habitat. We compared niche overlap between the common genet and the stone marten at two different spatial scales, home range scale and landscape scale, through logistic regression analyses using presence-only data from Biscay, an area in which both species are common and widespread. We found great niche overlap at both spatial scales, but in spite of it logistic regression analyses found statistically significant differences in the predictor values of some variables. Habitat of genets and stone marten was differentiated by areas with dense vegetation that were of importance for genets, and open areas that were characteristic of stone marten habitat. We suggest that competition between the two species causes the observed segregation.
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We described the spatial variation of topsoil properties to address two major questions: 1) what are the factors controlling the gradients of soil chemical composition?, and 2) are they differentially operating at different spatial scales? We depart from a priori modeling approach that can be used in other ecosystem types elsewhere in the world as a tool for understanding spatial variation of soil properties. We tested the role of various environmental factors that can potentially influence the gradients of total ion content, acidity, carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous content. We hypothesized that these gradients depend on the complex interaction of a set of biotic and abiotic factors that are relevant at two different spatial scales (Figure 1): (1) a landscape scale (climate and land form) and (2) a field scale (topography, soil texture, soil moisture, and plant community composition). We hypothesized the following:
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The Apennine brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus) is an endangered subspecies endemic to Italy, where a small population, estimated at 40–50 bears, inhabits a human-dominated landscape. Although little is known of the ecology of this population, habitat loss and fragmentation often has been considered one of the main threats for small and endangered populations. To assess habitat availability at the landscape scale, we used a distribution model to compare historical, present, and future land-cover suitability for the Apennine brown bear population in central Italy. The 4 models are based on 3 existing land-cover maps (1960, 1990, and 2000) and 1 simulated map for 2020, obtained from a cellular-automata Markov-chain land-transition model. We also compared changes in human population density as a surrogate for human pressures on bear habitat, and we measured the contribution of protected areas to the bear’s conservation. Our results show that, at the landscape level and assuming that current human population trends continue in the future, land-cover suitability does not seem to be an issue or priority. The current negative trend of this population, despite opposite trends in land-cover suitability, suggests that conservation efforts should focus more on direct actions aimed at reducing human-caused mortality and enhancing population expansion into suitable unoccupied areas.
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In this paper we will focus mainly on three measures that can be efficiently computed using landscape theory. They are the autocorrelation, the fitness-distance correlation and the expected fitness after bit-flip mutation. The first two statistics have been considered as measures for problem hardness. None of them is a perfect measure of the hardness of a problem and both have been criticized in the past. How- ever, they are used even in some recent works. In this paper we will see how they can be efficiently computed using land- scape theory under some conditions and we provide software tools to do it. Regarding the expected fitness after bit-flip mutation, it has some links to runtime analysis, which is a direct measure of problem hardness. But, more interesting is the fact that the elementary decomposition of a combi- natorial optimization problem has a one-to-one relationship with the expectation curves (depending on the probability of mutation) of bit-flip.
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Over the years, the term "landscape" has been used with many different meanings, including Nature, territory, geographical area, the environment, a system of systems, habitat, backdrop, everyday environment, and the surrounding area. One of the most important is ‘the subject of landscape ecology’, Turner (2005a, 2005b) (a subdiscipline of ecology that examines the patterns, processes and changes in landscapes), Turner (1989). But above all, and in all cases, landscape is an external manifestation, an indicator image or key reflecting the processes (natural and anthropic) that take place within a territory. As a source of information, landscape requires interpretation. Man establishes his relationship with the landscape as a perceiver of information, which can either be analysed scientifically or experienced emotionally, Otero & Ramos (2002). However, the absence of a clear concept of landscape, plus the difficulty in reducing the amount of information it provides to manageable quantities, have led to the recent development of methods for its analysis.
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There have been presented different aptitudes lead- ing with integration of line infrastructures into cultural landscape, from the more controlled and subtle strategies, that are present but in a more dis- tant way from the heritage elements, to the more interventionist ones, changing with care and sen- sibility, some aspects of the heritage landscape. To conclude, it has been demonstrated that it is pos- sible, with a wide and deep study of each situation and a sensitive approach, without forgetting the responsibil- ity we have to take care of the environment and herit- age landscape, to come to good solutions far from the determination of the gradient of intervention in herit- age. Cultural landscapes have their own characteristics that are the most important aspect to be considered. Finally, the cases studied had three strategies in common: the reflective choice of the exact loca- tion, an attractive and complex promenade and the
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Also at the architectural scale, Paola Quattrini dealt with Adalberto Libera and “The start of a new speech” for the architectural design . The Airone cinema in Rome, working on the example of the Cinema Airone built by Adalberto Libera in Rome. She explained the sceintific recovering of the original image of a highly demeaned architecture, that was used for other functions other than the former ones. Other means as architectural plans and models dated four thousand years ago, helped Adriana Rossi in her The Hou- se of Abraham to explore the increasing levels of reading and interpretation of historical architectures throughout an evolution ending in the 3D digital models.
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The transformation of a location into a place, the visual and functional connection, the creative manifestation gives meaning to what is neutral by adding vegetation, water and climate to the relief, a human action modelling and modulating the land and “fabricating” landscape. The physical environment, human activity, history, culture and traditions configure the spirit and character of the place. “Beautiful landscapes are irreplaceable in that they fulfil our longing to be part of the natural World and heal the rift between subject and nature, both the nature out there and the nature in us” (Krebs, 2014). Nowadays, constructions are real symbols of towns if they have turned into the latter’s constructed landscape. The perception of the Eiffel Tower in Paris during the 1889 Universal Exposition is different to the “symbol” it represents today. The same may happen with the Golden Gate in San Francisco (1937) (Figure 1) or the Segovia aqueduct (1st century A.D.). They have become facts when they were born as landmarks that yearned for utopia.
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Our global synthesis expands the growing body of empirical research addressing how changes in landscape structure through habitat loss, fragmentation or degradation affect pollinators and potentially pollination services. We found that the most important factors enhancing wild bee communities in agroecosystems were the amounts of high-quality habitats surrounding farms in combination with organic management and local-scale field diversity. Our find- ings suggest that as fields become increasingly simplified (large monocultures), the amount and diversity of habitats for wild bees in the surrounding landscape become even more important. On the other hand, if farms are locally diversified then the reliance on the surrounding landscape to maintain pollinators may be less pro- nounced. Moreover, farms that reside within highly intensified and simplified agricultural landscapes will receive substantial benefits from on-farm diversification and organic management. Safe-guard- ing pollinators and their services within an agricultural matrix will therefore be achieved through improved on-farm management prac- tices coupled with the maintenance of landscape-level high-quality habitats around farms.
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The Landscape Study examines how people around the world access and use information and computers in public settings such as public libraries, telecentres and cybercafés. This study was conducted in 2007-2009 by the University of Washington’s Technology and Social Change group (formerly known as Center for Information & Society CIS), with a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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Landscape information and mapping have many po- tential applications in environmental sciences and ap- plied geomorphology. Landscape classification and evaluation are necessary, for example, for suitability studies, regional planning or land system inventories, which might be made on the basis of landscape mapping. In this case, planners are usually involved in projects re- lated to sustainable development and social acceptance of land use changes, which is a main issue in various fields within Natural Protected Areas (NPAs). Besides, landscape is a feature usually considered part of our Geo- logical Heritage; and related with this point, it is worthy to mention that there is a strong increase in tourism linked to the aesthetic values and historical quality of na- ture in general, and the elements of geodiversity in par- ticular. Thus, tourism related to rural landscapes is increasingly offered and demanded in NPAs and Geo- parks. These NPAs and Geoparks use the geological he- ritage in order to, among others, illustrate the processes of landscape evolution, and for training and education (Eder and Patzak 2004).
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El mundo globalizado en el que vivimos exige personas polivalentes capaces de aplicar su conocimiento en diferentes áreas, con habilidades y capacidades muy diversas, necesarias para superar cualquier dificultad sociolaboral. Esto se traduce en la necesidad de incorporar nuevas metodologías en el ámbito educativo que resulten en un aprendizaje eficiente y con las que podamos, no solo introducir los contenidos de la asignatura de Lengua Extranjera, sino también integrar competencias clave. El learning landscape es una alternativa innovadora que posibilita la enseñanza de cualquier destreza, en nuestro caso la destreza oral, fomentando además el desarrollo de las inteligencias múltiples y el aprendizaje eficiente y autónomo de nuestros alumnos mediante la taxonomía de Bloom. Esta metodología permite además realizar actividades motivadoras y pragmáticas y, por tanto, conseguir un proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje más beneficioso con el que conseguir el desarrollo óptimo de la destreza oral.
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length was in the 200-300 m range (Fig. 3). The difference in length between these two groups was significant (Kruskall-Wallis p< 0.05), with an average in 1960 of 284 m, in 1984 of 235 m, and in 2004 of 197 m. There were also signifi- cant differences in fence lengths between 1984 and 2004 (Man-Whitney p< 0.05). The evolu- tion of live fences in the study region is of great importance, due to their increase in magnitude (length and area), particularly in the period between 1960 and 1984, and in their units num- ber and distribution in the landscape. In terms of density by number, in 1960 there were 0.09 live fences/ha, increasing to 0.23 live fences/ha by 1984. In 2004, there were 0.26 live fences/ ha. The density (in m/ha) also changed over time, increasing from 0.028 km/ha in 1960 to 0.05 km/ha in 2004 (Table 4).
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The paper is organized as follows. After this introduction, I describe the dataset used in this paper, where I emphasize the novel nature of it. Then I will I will define how I can include distance in the econometric estimation, given the diverse nature of Bolivian landscape. After that, I will estimate a balanced panel data regression of the dynamics of regional Bolivian economic growth to try to answer how a shock could affect other regions. I conclude this paper with a discussion of the results
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Also today there are academic fields exploring the interplay between landscape and culture. Environmental psychology maps the effects of natural and created environments on individuals and collectives. Whereas environmental psychology focuses on the human response to environmental and landscape features, the field of bioregionalism starts out with mapping ecological conditions, such as climate zones, watersheds, soil, etc., and then describing how cultures adapt to those conditions. Whereas environmental psychology is predominantly scientific and empirical, bioregionalism contains an element of environmental activism. Tim Ingold goes one step further and criticizes the culture/nature binary that underlies concepts of landscape, stating, “I reject the division between inner and outer worlds—respectively of mind and matter, meaning and substance—upon which such a distinction rests. The landscape, I hold, is not a picture in the imagination, surveyed by the mind’s eye […]” (191). What all presented approaches have in common is the understanding of landscape as a system that includes human and non-human, material and cultural elements. Ratzel and Sarmiento should be remembered not as environmental determinists but as precursors of a modern systemic understanding of landscape.
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Today, most of the Azores surface (75%) is dedicated to human activities (46% to crops, 15% to towns and 14% to other purposes), whereas forests occupy only 25% of the area (Dias, 2007). A large part of these forested areas is dominated by introduced trees. In the forests of São Miguel, the dominant trees are Pittosporum undulatum, Acacia melanoxylon, and Eucalyptus globulus, which were introduced from Australia, Cryptomeria japonica from Japan, and few representatives of the native forests, mainly Morella faya and Laurus azorica. Pittosporum undulatum, initially introduced as a hedgerow species, is considered one of the more successful and dangerous invaders of the island, along with Hedychium gardnerianum, Gunnera tinctoria and Clethra arborea ( Hortal et al., 2010 ; Gil et al., 2013). Cryptomeria japonica and the Mediterranean Pinus pinaster were introduced for silviculture and transformed the island's landscape by establishing dense forests that replaced the former laurisilvas above 300 m elevation ( Moreira, 1987). The present landscape of São Miguel is almost totally cultural, in contrast with other islands, such as Pico and Flores, where human pressure has been less intense (Dias, 2007).
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The need to integrate the social dimension of landscape with the type of information typically found in the ecological health assessment has been repeatedly claimed to be critical, since perceptions, values, and attitudes do not follow spatial patterns in the same manner as biophysical information do (Ryan, 2011). Our response to the environment is in part determined by our aesthetic experience, which in turn shape in some degree our decisions about landscapes. The use of the charisma of endangered or iconic species to capture public attention and gain support for nature conservation is one of the most paradigmatic phenomenon of resonance of aesthetics in ecological management.
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