Another method is the Task-Based LanguageTeaching, which is slightly similar to the previous methods since they all have explicit and pre-determinate activities to develop. In the same way, this method follows a list of specific and real procedures or tasks aimed to increase vocabulary, grammar, and specific skills. Willis (1996) advises the following tasks for purpose: Listing, sorting and ordering, comparing, sharing personal experience, creativity tasks and problem solving. However, Task-Based LanguageTeaching Method could seem in some cases, too ambiguous to be broadly applied.
This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect the English languageteaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public high schools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
At the present time, edublogs enjoy great regard not only from the pedagogical angle but also from the side of scholars. The Span- ish Premio Espiral Edublogs grants its awards for the best edublogs in different categories (from ‘Learning Communities’ to ‘Reflections about the teaching practice’ among many others). There is an exten- sive variety of edublogs depending on their topic, their author(s), the different contexts where they are created and addressed, etc. Here- after we present a brief chronology of the classifications of edublogs provided throughout history in order to set the ground for our own edublogs classification presented later on. In 2003, Aaron P. Camp- bell suggested a threefold classification of languageteaching blogs: the tutor blog, learner blog and class blog depending on who creates them (Campbell, 2003). However, we know of many edublogs which are not necessarily designed within the class syllabus that are devot- ed to sharing and discussing teaching methodologies and practic- es standing as valuable arenas for educators worldwide. This is the case of the SFL (Spanish as a Foreign Language) edublog Aprende español callejeando por Madrid (https://palabraspormadrid.blog- spot.com.es/) which stands as a useful e-resource for flipped learn- ing of the Spanish language by means of its culture which this study analyzes in the following section. Thus, we need thus a more accu- rate classification of edublogs that successfully meets the new trends
Parallel to the Reform Movement ideas was an interest for developing principles in languageteaching as the ones that are seen in first language acquisition. These were called natural methods, and finally during the nineteenth and the twentieth century this new method was called the Direct Method. The Direct Method was based in an instruction exclusively in the target language since the mother tongue was not permitted. The vocabulary was taught through demonstration. The oral skills were organized around questions- answers between the teacher and the students. In opposition to the Grammar- Translation Method, grammar was taught inductively and speech and listening comprehension were taught. By the 1920s, the use of this method declined. Despite this decline, by the 1930s, applied linguists systematized principles proposed in the Reform Movement to teaching English as a foreign language. This led to other methods like the Audiolingualism.
país como referente cultural, sino que, al ser el inglés una lengua internacional, habría que tener en cuenta todas las culturas y aprender literatura de todas ellas, no sólo de la americana o inglesa. Del mismo modo, Collie y Slater (1990) plantean en su libro Literature in the Language Classroom: a resource book of ideas and activities que la literatura puede proporcionar al estudiante acceso a la cultura del país cuya lengua se está estudiando. Defienden que la literatura proporciona un contexto acerca de cómo una persona puede actuar en una sociedad en particular o comportarse en un determinado momento. Sin embargo, manifiestan que sólo pocas novelas o poemas pueden asegurar haber basado sus hechos en una documentación exhaustiva de la sociedad en cuestión. Además, cuestionan el aspecto cultural que queda reflejado en la novela, ya que los alumnos pueden caer en la falacia de asumir que un aspecto concreto representa la totalidad de la sociedad. Por este motivo, resulta oportuno proporcionar al alumno información real acerca del contexto histórico y social del lugar en cuestión cuando se está leyendo una novela. Le otorgará al estudiante un conocimiento más amplio y le ayudará a comprender mejor la obra y el país 3 .
And to sum, Haiku takes on influences from Buddhism and from Zen, the most spiritual part of Buddhism. The most important teaching of Buddha was the path to the liberation, its main aim was the experience of nirvana, Alan Watts (2003) “Como la enseñanza del Buddha era un camino de liberación, no tenía otro objeto que la experiencia de nirvana” (p. 79). Zen is a kind of Buddhism, the word Zen means meditation, Alan Watts (2003) “Aunque el nombre Zen significa dhyana o meditación” (p. 99) and it is based on that the true cannot be expressed with words. Alan Watts (2003) “Tampoco es peculiar del Zen el hecho de “no tener nada que decir”” (p.99). One of its characteristics is that is highly direct and it is especially direct in its way of teaching because it teaches the true without getting lost in symbols.
language is both what L2 teachers teach and linguists describe [wouldn’t it seem] self-evident that the findings of linguistics should be relevant to how the content of language courses is to be defined[?]” (Widdowson, 2000: 21). The question, then, is not whether language tea- chers should be trained in linguistics, but which aspects of linguistics should be emphasized in teacher training courses (Ellis, 2010). I agree that linguistics for teachers should not be “watered down” linguistics courses, but I also believe that languageteaching is not linguistics any more than “medicine is chemistry”. In this sense, we need to provide future language teachers with a good picture of what they are working with (language) and leave the rest alone. This might leave out discussions on current linguistic theory, but would emphasize the description of the different aspects of language included in any other linguistics-for-linguists course as well as the need to be up to date with relevant, applicable research.
We can also state that was also meaningful and effective because the cultural classes were not teacher-centered and grammar centered though grammar and teachers ‘guidance were very important, but keeping in mind that these classes were focused on using language as a means to be aware of our Colombian culture and a foreign culture like the American one in order to have a better understanding of who we are and in which context we are involved. The classes were also students-centered because they had the opportunity to express what they felt and what they thought about the new knowledge they faced during those classes and we were just a guide for them to approach this new knowledge through the linguistic competences needed for each class.
2 It is widely believed that starting the study of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) before the critical period -12 or 13 years old – will build more proficient speakers of English. However, there is no empirical evidence supporting the idea that an early start in English language learning in foreign language contexts produces better English speakers (Nunan 1999). Levels of proficiency seem to be dependent on other factors –type of program and curriculum, number of hours spent in English class, and techniques and activities used (Rixon 2000). If an early starts alone is not the solution, then what can EFL teachers of young learners do to take advantage of the flexibility of young minds and the malleability of young tongues to grow better speakers of English? As the age for English education lowers in classrooms across the globe, EFL teachers of young learners struggle to keep up with this trend and seek effective ways of teaching.
Evans (2009) argues that language teachers should not adhere to any methodology but be open to them all since people see and perceive things differently. Some authors agree that learning can be acquired by heredity; that is why some people are more skilled in some areas than others; despite the fact that other authors consider that learning can also be taken through experiences or by the environment. In the theory of Multiple Intelligences Gardner (1983) assures that there are at least eight separate intelligences; linguistic, musical, spatial, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. He also suggests that there might be other intelligences, such as; spiritual and existential intelligence. Such an important point of view not only has influenced the area of psychology but has also been a relevant support in the education field. Today these claims continue having a powerful effect on how teachers approach their students and on the variety of ways learners acquire, retain, and apply information. Taking into account that Multiple Intelligences models are an important support for education, it is necessary to consider the most determining characteristics of each one.
Slavic text tagger projects are an attempt to resolve the dilemma between pressing instructional needs and limited resources. Providing tools which facilitate the comprehension of written texts (newspaper articles, short stories, public and corporate web sites, etc.), meets the aforementioned instructional needs with little or no resources required by the instructors. More information about the general framework of the project can be found in Sipka (2004). The present project is meant to complement the existing immersion materials, such as those listed at the UCLA Language Materials Project (http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/SampleLessons. aspx). Concurrently, this project continues the established tradition of using corpora in language learning. An informative review of this tradition can be found in chapter four (The Use of Corpora in Language Studies) of McEnery and Wilson (2001). One should also consult data- driven studies within this tradition carried out at the Centre for English Corpus Linguistics of the Université catholique de Louvain (see: http://cecl.fltr.ucl.ac.be/) and reported in the publications such as Granger at al. (2002) and Granger and Tribble (1998).