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Sergio Maruenda-Bataller and Begoña Clavel-Arroitia (eds.) (2011): Multiple Voices in Academic and Professional Discourse: Current Issues in Specialised Language Research, Teaching and New Technologies. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Sergio Maruenda-Bataller and Begoña Clavel-Arroitia (eds.) (2011): Multiple Voices in Academic and Professional Discourse: Current Issues in Specialised Language Research, Teaching and New Technologies. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 673 pages.

contains. As a result, the book will be found interesting and worthwhile for a wide variety of potential readers, who may find new perspectives and suggestions in the fields covered by the authors. Therefore, among the aspects tackled with in this section of the book, we may mention the following: first, learning applications of ICTs in the university context: (Gómez Ángel; Argüelles, Sendra, Millán, Blanco and Herradón; López Lorca; Oxbrow and Rodríguez-Juárez); second, applications and implementations of ICTs for meta-reflection on the cognitive and procedural aspects of the teaching/ learning process and learning styles, and also with a view to fostering the learner”s autonomy (Matesanz del Barrio, De Miguel García and López Alonso; Gimeno Sanz, Martínez Sáez, Sevilla Pavón and De Siqueira Rocha;): some authors, like Gimeno et al., have developed specific computer tools aiming at more autonomous, self-monitored forms of learning, which in turn have also enabled them to develop coursework materials; third, Internet sites, digital resources and software available for the development and practice of different skills and digital aspects and content, including the use of social networks as aids in the learning process, both of the English language and of other languages (Pino James; Girón García; Cáceres Würsig); fourth, more specific tools, such as the use of digital portfolios or dossiers for teaching and learning Spanish or English as L2 (Morell Moll and Alesón Carbonell); fifth, help, guidance and resources offered to the different protagonists of the teaching/ learning process, and that promote the autonomy of the learner (Vázquez and Lario; Fernández- Pampillón, Sierra, Sarasa and Matesanz; Pino James; Cabrejas Peñuelas, Cardona Sanchis; Gimeno Sanz, Martínez Sáez, Sevilla Pavón and De Siqueira Rocha); sixth, the teaching of specialised translation (Durán and Muñoz); the application of ICTs for the teaching of specialised translation (Vitalaru and Lázaro Gutiérrez); seventh, resources for the methodology of the basic skills (Estévez, Antón and Martínez Pelegrín); or eighth, applications for the teaching of literature (Simonson and Montero); and also of linguistic disciplines, such as dialectology (Zaragoza Ninet), or applied linguistics (Taillefer de Haya and Muñoz Luna), and even as a way to bridge the gap between linguistics and literature (Alcantud Díaz).

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Formal and Methodological Approaches to Applied Linguistics

Formal and Methodological Approaches to Applied Linguistics

spent in Greece. The importance of SA learning contexts has been emphasized by several scholars (e.g., Collentine 2009; Freed 1995, 1998), who have considered it a very efficient way to learn an L2. Recent research on the effects of SA programmes on L2 acquisition has highlighted the improvements that learners make while abroad, especially, but not solely, in the area of oral production—as it is the area considered to improve the most (see Tullock and Ortega (2017) for a recent synthesis of studies on multilingualism and SA). This is due to both the quantity and quality of input that learners obtain in this type of setting, as compared to traditional classroom contexts. SA experiences give language learners the opportunity to increase their amount of exposure to the TL, as well as to experience different types of language discourses. That is, learners in a naturalistic environment are more prone to receive both a higher amount of input and a more varied and interactive type of input in comparison to the limited language contact that has traditionally characterized instructional settings (Lightbown 2000). In this respect, the input that learners receive while abroad is richer. Thus, the increase of both quantity and quality of the input leads to language improvement (i.e., DeKeyser 2007; DuFon and Churchill 2006; Freed 1995, 1998; Lafford 2004; Llanes and Muñoz 2009, 2013; Pérez-Vidal 2014; Sasaki 2007; Serrano et al. 2011), although recent research has also highlighted the importance of L2 use, especially in relation to proficiency before departure, (see Faretta-Stutenberg and Morgan-Short 2018). This access to rich input, as well as plenty of opportunities to practice the learnt items, enables learners to automatize and proceduralise new knowledge. As a consequence, learners do not need to rely on their previously learnt languages as frequently, since gaps in their knowledge have been filled but also because, as shown in Linck et al. (2009), the L1 seems to be inhibited in immersion contexts. In this study, the researchers analysed a group of L1 English learners of L2 Spanish in a semester abroad in Spain and compared it against a group from the same American university that followed regular classes at home during the same time period. The participants who were abroad produced fewer category exemplars in the L1 in the verbal-fluency task as well as no sensitivity to L1-related distractors in the translation task, thus suggesting that L1 influence was attenuated while abroad.

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The study of grammatical meaning in Uzbek linguistics

The study of grammatical meaning in Uzbek linguistics

Substantial step of studying grammatical meaning. In the 70s of the last century formal (empiric) step of Uzbek linguistics came to its end. As it was mentioned, the great task given to the linguistics of this period of time – the social order of working out the criteria of literary language and absorption it into the public mind was managed. By doing these tasks a powerful fundament and a strong support was prepared for the new step of the linguistics. There appeared wide opportunities to study scientifically the rich linguistic treasure gathered by empiric bases relying on the laws and categories of dialectical logics which was the methodology of theoretical study. In 1984 and 1986 the tasks, which cannot be delayed, about the interpretation and investigation of the Turkic languages in the new era were published in the central press by a number of Turcologists. The ideas in them and the aims and tasks based on them were the logical continuation of the tasks of the Uzbek formal linguistics. The raised questions can be conditionally grouped as the followings: 1) the task given to the responsibility of Uzbek linguistics in the 40s of the last century and carried out in the 70s – the interpretation of the units of the Uzbek language levels carried on the basis of formal analysis, the criteria of Uzbek literary language worked out on the basis of the criteria of Russian literary language, textbooks and manuals created for different curriculum levels in order to publicize these criteria, forming theoretical knowledge on the basis of empiric materials in the normative grammars, to reveal linguistic commonness in the speech privateness, linguistic essence which was the base for language phenomena, and the linguistic opportunities appeared in speech realities; 2) moreover, because the Uzbek language was studied under the Russian and European languages for over half century as above mentioned, like the Turkic and other languages in the territory of former Soviet Union, investigating it according to its Turkic feature. (Sayfullaeva R., and others, 2010)

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LEXICOGRAPHY AND COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: HEBREW METAPHORS FROM A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

LEXICOGRAPHY AND COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS: HEBREW METAPHORS FROM A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

Traditionally, metaphors and metonyms are called figures of speech. As such they are usually seen as highly marked expressions, used in highly specific contexts like rhe- torical style and poetry. Of late, however, scholars have started to realize that these are phenomena that are not restricted to a certain limited number of contexts but rather pervade the entire language. Metaphorical expressions are found in languages over the world and often they do not happen as mere accidents, but reflect patterns of think- ing. They reflect structural relationships that people perceive between the entities in the world around them.

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Reviews

Reviews

contains. As a result, the book will be found interesting and worthwhile for a wide variety of potential readers, who may find new perspectives and suggestions in the fields covered by the authors. Therefore, among the aspects tackled with in this section of the book, we may mention the following: first, learning applications of ICTs in the university context: (Gómez Ángel; Argüelles, Sendra, Millán, Blanco and Herradón; López Lorca; Oxbrow and Rodríguez-Juárez); second, applications and implementations of ICTs for meta-reflection on the cognitive and procedural aspects of the teaching/ learning process and learning styles, and also with a view to fostering the learner”s autonomy (Matesanz del Barrio, De Miguel García and López Alonso; Gimeno Sanz, Martínez Sáez, Sevilla Pavón and De Siqueira Rocha;): some authors, like Gimeno et al., have developed specific computer tools aiming at more autonomous, self-monitored forms of learning, which in turn have also enabled them to develop coursework materials; third, Internet sites, digital resources and software available for the development and practice of different skills and digital aspects and content, including the use of social networks as aids in the learning process, both of the English language and of other languages (Pino James; Girón García; Cáceres Würsig); fourth, more specific tools, such as the use of digital portfolios or dossiers for teaching and learning Spanish or English as L2 (Morell Moll and Alesón Carbonell); fifth, help, guidance and resources offered to the different protagonists of the teaching/ learning process, and that promote the autonomy of the learner (Vázquez and Lario; Fernández- Pampillón, Sierra, Sarasa and Matesanz; Pino James; Cabrejas Peñuelas, Cardona Sanchis; Gimeno Sanz, Martínez Sáez, Sevilla Pavón and De Siqueira Rocha); sixth, the teaching of specialised translation (Durán and Muñoz); the application of ICTs for the teaching of specialised translation (Vitalaru and Lázaro Gutiérrez); seventh, resources for the methodology of the basic skills (Estévez, Antón and Martínez Pelegrín); or eighth, applications for the teaching of literature (Simonson and Montero); and also of linguistic disciplines, such as dialectology (Zaragoza Ninet), or applied linguistics (Taillefer de Haya and Muñoz Luna), and even as a way to bridge the gap between linguistics and literature (Alcantud Díaz).

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Historical linguistics and biblical hebrew : steps toward an integrated approach

Historical linguistics and biblical hebrew : steps toward an integrated approach

In addition to the publications discussed in the following sections we can point to three articles that take good first steps toward remedying the neglect of CTVA in studies of BH (although they approach the subject from outside the theoretical and methodological framework of CTVA that we are describing here). Fassberg points to two reasons why, in his opinion, the DSS biblical manuscripts have not drawn much attention: many have only recently been published and “the biblical documents, on the whole, parallel the Masoretic text.” 52 Following the lead of Kutscher and Muraoka he then summarizes almost fifty variants of some eighteen syntactic variables (e.g., presence vs. absence of he locale, simple tense vs. waw consecutive plus verb) in manuscripts (DSS and MT) of six biblical books (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Isaiah, Jonah, Psalms) and he gives about thirty more representative variants in manuscripts of these and several other books (Numbers, Deuteronomy, Judges, Kings, Jeremiah). He concludes: “The picture that emerges from a comparison of syntactic features in multiple copies of biblical books is clear: in the case of many variants, one syntagm or form is well attested in Classical Hebrew whereas the second is well known from post-classical Biblical Hebrew, namely Late Biblical Hebrew, Tannaitic Hebrew, or Samaritan Hebrew.” 53 He also says: “A comparison of multiple copies of a biblical book, e.g., the copies of Isaiah, reveals that late features can be found in all of the manuscripts (not necessarily the same feature in each manuscript), yet all manuscripts also show some classical features, and so no one manuscript can be labelled syntactically early or syntactically late; rather each manuscript is syntactically mixed.” 54 Fassberg does not claim to give comprehensive data and so his study should not be faulted for incomplete coverage of the features and books he discusses. But there are several other problems with his method. He does not clearly establish “directions” of variation between the DSS and the MT with regard to each variable or calculate the frequency of those variations including both change and stability. In general he seems to conclude that the variation is unsystematic or random since he speaks about “the random mixing of different syntactic features.” 55 This leads to an equally significant problem since “the random mixing of different syntactic features” is an observation which he applies only to the DSS manuscripts in comparison with the MT which therefore is envisioned as the “earlier” or “original” text: “[A]n earlier text has been reworked linguistically by scribes, who, consciously or unconsciously, were inconsistent in adapting the older

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Willem J. M. Levelt.  A history of Psycholinguistics. The pre-chomskyan era

Willem J. M. Levelt. A history of Psycholinguistics. The pre-chomskyan era

El capítulo 13 se ocupa de la relatividad lingüística, con especial énfasis en las ideas de Franz Boas, Edward Sapir y Benjamin Whorf, que sostuvieron una doctrina horizontal en relación con las distintas lenguas, en contraste con el ideario, predominante en el siglo XIX, emblemáticamente expresado en la creencia de Wundt de una escala evolutiva vertical que situaba al latín en la cima de la complejidad y la sofisticación y en la base a la lengua de señas y otras lenguas consideradas primitivas. Levelt recorre el relativismo en sus distintas versiones, de las más fuertes a las más moderadas, y advierte que la relación entre lenguaje y punto de vista se mantuvo sostenidamente presente en la agenda antropológica, de modo que alentó los trabajos empíricos y la comparación entre lenguas. En la psicolingüística, en cambio, las primeras indagaciones experimentales de estas ideas llegaron unas décadas después, en 1950, en particular de la mano de John Caroll, Eric Lenneberg y Roger Brown. Estos últimos elaboraron el primer paradigma experimental para abordar la cuestión de la relación entre lengua y experiencia sensorial utilizando la noción de “codability”. Más allá de sus resultados, sembraron con su experiencia un productivo terreno para la investigación translingüística. Levelt expone también la situación de las ideas whorfianas en la actualidad: “[Aunque las ideas whorfianas sobre la determinación de la lengua sobre la cosmovisión han declinado] the study of tendencies, preferences in conceptualizing states of affairs in agreement with mandatory or habitual distinctions in the native tongue, has become a rich and productive field of research” (507).

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Expressiveness and complexity analysis of information extraction languages

Expressiveness and complexity analysis of information extraction languages

After this we consider computational aspects of base IE formalisms, starting with the combined complexity of evaluating extraction expressions over documents. Here we isolate a decision problem which, once solved efficiently, would allow us to enumerate all mappings an expression outputs when matched to a document. Since the size of the answer is potentially exponential here, our objective is to obtain an incremental polynomial time algorithm (Johnson, Yannakakis, & Papadimitriou, 1988), that is, an enumeration algorithm that takes polynomial time between each output. As we show, this is generally not possible, but we do isolate a well-behaved fragment, called sequential regex, which properly includes functional regex introduced by Fagin et al. (2015). We also analyze the evaluation problem parametrized by the number of variables and show that the problem is fixed parameter tractable (Flum & Grohe, 2006) for all expressions and automata models studied in this thesis.

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Essentials In Ontology Engineering: Methodologies, Languages, And Tools

Essentials In Ontology Engineering: Methodologies, Languages, And Tools

ƒ The On-To-Knowledge methodology (Staab et al., 2001) proposes to build ontologies taking into account how these are going to be used in knowledge management applications. The processes proposed by this methodology are the following: feasibility study, kickoff, where ontology requirements are identified, refinement, where a mature and application-oriented ontology is produced, evaluation, and maintenance. With respect to the reuse of knowledge resources, in the kickoff process it is mentioned that developers should look for potentially reusable ontologies. However, this methodology does not provide detailed guidelines for identifying such ontologies nor for reusing them. Besides, the methodology does not explicitly mention guidelines for the reuse and re-engineering of non-ontological resources, nor for the reuse of ontology design patterns.

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Logic languages

Logic languages

An interesting characteristic of many of these users is that, rather than using traditional high performance languages such as C, Fortran, or even Java, they use scripting languages such as Perl, Python or Ruby, or high-productivity environments such as Matlab or R. These languages dramatically improve their productiv- ity in terms of writing and debugging code, and there- fore in terms of their overall goals of exploring data or testing theories. That is, they have explicitly opted for simplicity and expressivity in their tool of choice for sequential programming. However, these environ- ments pose major challenges in terms of performance and memory usage. Parallelism on a relatively mod- est scale can permit these users to compute effectively while remaining comfortably within an environment they find highly productive. But, to be consistent with the choice made when selecting these sequential com- puting environments, the parallelism tool must also emphasize simplicity and expressivity. High level coor- dination languages like Linda can provide them with simple tools for accessing that parallelism.

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Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

JFLAP (del inglés, Java Formal Language and Automata Package) es un software que permite experimentar de forma gráfica con los conceptos relativos a la teoría de autómatas y lenguajes formales. Permite diseñar, evaluar y realizar distintas transformaciones y comprobaciones sobre autómatas finitos, gramáticas, autómatas a pila, máquinas de Turing, y otros elementos adicionales que no forman parte del contenido de este curso.

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Informe d'Autors UOC a ISI Web of Knowledge  Juliol Agost Setembre 2010

Informe d'Autors UOC a ISI Web of Knowledge Juliol Agost Setembre 2010

Garrido-Cumbrera, M.; Borrell, C.; Palencia, L.; Espelt, A.; Rodriguez-Sanz, M.; Pasarin, MI.; Kunst, A. (2010). Social class inequalities in the utilization of health care and preventive services in Spain, a country with a National Health System. International Journal of Health Services, 40(3), 525-542. DOI: 10.2190/HS.40.3.h

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Corpus linguistics and its aplications in higher education

Corpus linguistics and its aplications in higher education

Corpus exploitation has been found beneficial in foreign language teaching through direct approaches. For instance, Römer’s (2005) conclusion of her own survey about corpus use by qualified English language teachers at secondary schools in Germany reveal that “many of the problems teachers have could be solved, at least, partially, if they were introduced to some of the basic corpus resources and received more support from corpus researchers.” (Römer, 2009: 95). Incidentally, this also testifies to DDL's lack of implementation at these stages. Indeed, recent studies show that in spite of all the promising results, its implementation is still an unresolved issue. Aijmer claims that “the direct exploitation of corpora in the EFL classroom is unusual and the impact of corpora on syllabus and materials design has been slight” (2009: 2). In this respect, Braun (2007) notes the existence of an important contrast between tertiary and secondary pedagogical practices. Whereas most empirical work with DDL is largely confined to higher education, progress in the introduction of corpora in schools is still meager (Braun, 2007: 307-8; Römer, 2008: 123). Römer (ibid: 123-4) and Braun (ibid: 50) find it expedient to design policies in order to create DDL-friendly environments. But to do so efficiently, first and foremost we need to identify the main obstacles. The problems concerning DDL implementation may be seen as essentially affecting four areas: (1) technology; (2) training (3) methodology and (4) the addressee.

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AUTOMATA THEORY AND FORMAL LANGUAGES

AUTOMATA THEORY AND FORMAL LANGUAGES

• The American Structuralism School developed in the 50s some informal ideas about the universal grammar. For example, if a (natural) language is an innumerable set of phrases  description by means of a generative grammar or set of rules that underlie the composition of correct sentences and structural description for each phrase and explain how to compose such a phrase from the grammar.

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Formal Languages and Automata Theory Exercises Finite Automata Unit 3

Formal Languages and Automata Theory Exercises Finite Automata Unit 3

2. In several programming languages, comments are included between the marks “/*” and “*/”. Let L be the language of every string of comments limited by these marks. Then, every element in L begins /* and ends with */, but it does not include any intermediate */. To simplify the problem, consider that the input alphabet is {a, b, /,*}. Indicate the DFA which recognizes L.

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Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

JFLAP (del inglés, Java Formal Language and Automata Package) es un software que permite experimentar de forma gráfica con los conceptos relativos a la teoría de autómatas y lenguajes formales. Permite diseñar, evaluar y realizar distintas transformaciones y comprobaciones sobre autómatas finitos, gramáticas, autómatas a pila, máquinas de Turing, y otros elementos adicionales que no forman parte del contenido de este curso.

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Linguistic Means Of Expression In Proverbs Of Tatar, Russian, Turkish

Linguistic Means Of Expression In Proverbs Of Tatar, Russian, Turkish

despite the fact that in linguistics in this direction there is a large arsenal of works [anikin, 1976; akhmedshina, 2000; Makh- mutov, 1995 and many others], there remains a number of unresolved problems requiring a detailed investigation in the scientific aspect. The relevance of this topic is determined by the fact that a comparative study of the use of literary devices in Tatar, Russian and Turkish proverbs will be a definite contribution to the international classification of proverbs.

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Genes, peoples and languages in Central Africa

Genes, peoples and languages in Central Africa

colonisation process, where the French implemented a system that led to people of European Indian, East Asian and African origin living side-by-side and intermingling, in order to ascertain whether the multi-ethnic character observed in our sample set is representative of La Réunion population as a whole, further larger- scale studies need to be carried out. Recently, the detailed analysis of mtDNA lineages in several Reunionese groups (Dubut et al. 2009) has reinforced the conclusions drawn in the present thesis and highlighted the importance of ethno-historical data to reconstruct the history of admixed populations. Furthermore, it would be interesting to establish the patterns and levels of genetic diversity for the Y-chromosome in the established ethnic groups currently described in La Réunion.

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