The present paper shows de design of an experimental study conducted with large groups using educational innovation methodologies at the Polytechnic University of Madrid. Concretely, we have chosen the course titled “History and Politics of Sports” that belongs to the Physical Activity and Sport Science Degree. The selection of this course is because the syllabus is basically theoretical and there are four large groups of freshmen students who do not have previous experiences in a teaching-learning process based on educational innovation. It is hope that the results of this research can be extrapolated to other courses with similar characteristics.
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We can also find examples of CSCL in large groups. An illustrative case is Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia written collaboratively by thousands of contributors from around the world (Kittur & Kraut; 2008). There are also experiences using Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs); Girvan and Savage (2010) used the virtual world Second Life in order to examine how Communal Constructivism could be an appropriate collaborative pedagogic tool for these environments and Bennerstedt & Linderoth (2009) studied how collaborative interaction takes place among players in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG). A final example is Jara et al. (2009), who worked with virtual laboratories, a web-learning resource that incorporates collaborative learning practices through the Internet.
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The action of active interest groups (lobbies) has been traditionally considered to be a source of harmful waste for the economy which reduces social well-being. Can this analysis be adapted to the case of large unorganised groups which do not ask for anything directly? Or, on the contrary, does the setting up of policies which improve the situation of these large groups permit an improvement in social welfare? We start from classical (public choice) analyses of lobbying and rent- seeking developed since the 1970s, closely linked with the hypothesis of re- election-seeking politicians, before extending our analysis also to consider non- sector-specific policies and passive interest groups (notably those too large to meet the Olsonian condition of efficient collective action). Then the research question to be answered becomes whether promoting the interest of large groups can deliver social welfare as defined by the incumbent’s social welfare function. We refer to the political cycles’ evidence to consider that no social welfare objective can motivate the favouring of large groups.
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Our work has several specific objectives. The first is to design a model of assessment that is aligned with both the instructional activities and the learning outcomes. This model should simplify the process of introducing professional ethics competences to current engineering teaching and be applicable in diverse contexts: small and large groups, standard courses and project based courses, and different topics (ethical, social or environmental issues). The second objective is to assess the effectiveness of our teaching strategies by grading the level of improvement in the ethical skills that our students achieve in the course. The final objective is to study the effects of some methodological factors, such as the use of professional codes of conduct or the practice effects of the dilemmas that are analyzed in the tests.
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A number of studies involving collaborative work anchored on TBA principles (Beniss & Bazzaz, 2014; Kowal & Swain, 1994; Lynch & MacLean, 2001; Storch, 2002; Xhafaj, Muck &D´Ely, 2011, Xhafaj, 2013, to name a few) have demonstrated the impact of this condition on both performance and perception. Some of those (Xhafaj et al., 2011, Xhafaj, 2013) were interested in collaborative planning. However, these two studies focused on the pair work versus the individual planning conditions only. Drawing from Hyde (1993) and also the need to investigate different grouping setups (i.e., planning done by three or more students) due to large groups present in public schools, this study aims at investigating the effect individual and collaborative strategic planning have on performance of an oral task performed by Brazilian teenage learners of English as an L2.The analysis of collaborative planning work is based on Swain´s (1985) output hypothesis.
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No, it’s not. Of course, YouTube format allows to neglect the completion of sentences, but still, this understanding of Marxism is not precisely accurate. The Marxian class theory is not about conflict of oppressed with oppressors, but the contradiction between exploiters and exploited - classes. Moreover, by classes Marx's theory implies “large groups of people, differing by their place in the historically defined system of social production - produce or not, relation to the ownership of the means of production - own or not, share in product/ profit distribution – the largest, the lowest, scanty.” Marxism is a model for describing the processes and relationships that take place in human societies and their development over time and determine the general direction of the historical process.
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In conclusion, regarding this research process, the two objectives were met to a certain extent. The first one was to identify and understand a specific problem in my teaching practice which was the lack of student participation in a large classroom. Then, the second objective was to design, implement and evaluate an action plan to try and encourage students to participate more during English lessons, by means of a PBL approach. Furthermore, this action plan achieved far more than was expected. The PBL approach encouraged motivation amongst students, fostered group cohesiveness, increased expectancy of success in the target language, achieved social goals, developed cooperative skills and reduced anxiety. Language skills were also improved, because students were engaged in purposeful communication to complete authentic activities which were more meaningful to students in order to increase interest, motivate, participate and promote learning. Finally, despite the fact that most of students consider themselves to be shy, they were more willing to participate because they had enough time to prepare and practice what they presented thus obtaining self- confidence by working in teams and developing collaborative work.
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In 1991, the declaration of the sovereignty of Croatia and Slovenia disintegrated Yugoslavia, and at the same time war events began which – by applying ethnic cleansing, concentration camps and forced population exchange – tried to achieve what history had refused, the creation of ethnically pure areas and nation states. These violent actions took most of its victims in Bosnia, which had had the most ethnically mixed population. The other significant war zone was Croatia, where the conflict between the Croats and the Serbs caused serious human, material and emotional damage. Hostilities actually occurred in each member republic, and the cause for conflict was always ethnic or religious affiliation. In Macedonia the conflict between the large numbers of Albanians and Macedonians resulted in minor armed exchanges, while in Serbia, the Albanian Kosovars erupted in armed conflict. Only Montenegro avoided active fighting, if we neglect the considerable damage done by the NATO bombings and if we do not consider it a separate actor in the Croat-Serb conflict, as it had been a member state of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with Serbia at the time. This is difficult, considering the occupation of the Dubrovnik area by the Montenegrin army.
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The second «generation» of IDs are the so-called Marshallian Industrial Dis- tricts (MIDs). They became visible and started to stand out in the mid-1970s when the golden age of mass production was showing the first signs of weakness. These IDs were constantly confronted by the concentrated economic and strategic power of large firms, powerful capitalists, and big urban systems. An early and popular explanation of this second wave of small scale production was proposed by M. Piore, C. Sabel and J. Zeitlin, who referred to the re-emergence of flexible specialization and artisanal modes of production as the «second industrial divide». Indeed, flexible specialisation presented a viable (but not necessarily dominant) alternative to mass production, generated by the increasing demand for variation and variety from the many increasing affluent consumers. 6
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However, the market for illegal drugs hides complex interactions that should be addressed using models that can account for feedback effects between policies, prices and the consequent strategic reactions of the actors involved in the drug trade and the war on drugs, especially when evaluating large-scale policy interventions such as Plan Colombia. Important papers incorporating these effects are Becker, Murphy and Grossman (2006), Naranjo (2007), Chumacero (2008), Costa Storti and De Grauwe (2009), and Mej´ıa and Restrepo (2011). These papers explicitly model illegal drug markets when analyzing the effects of anti-drug policies. Becker et al. (2006) show how the social costs of fighting against drugs crucially depends on the price elasticity of the demand for drugs. More specifically, they show that if the demand for drugs is inelastic, policies aimed at reducing the supply of drugs by punishing dealers are socially optimal only when the negative externalities associated with drug consumption are sufficiently high. Naranjo (2007) develops a model in which insurgent groups provide security for drug producers in exchange for a fraction of the drug output. He finds that supply side interventions may have a counter-productive effect on the drug industry and may escalate conflict. Costa Storti and De Grauwe (2009), and Mej´ıa and Restrepo (2011) focus on the interrelationship between anti-drug policies aimed at reducing the demand for drugs (such as treatment and prevention policies in consumer countries) and those aimed at reducing the supply of drugs (by means of interdiction and increased enforcement). Finally, Jeff Miron analyses the costs of drug prohibition (Miron and Zwiebel (1995)) and the budgetary consequences of drug legalization in the U.S. (Miron (2010)). None of these contributions focuses on evaluating the costs, effectiveness and future prospects of the war on illegal drugs in producer countries, nor are they aimed at evaluating actual anti-drug policies. This paper does both.
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In higher plants and green algae, the structure of Rubisco consists of eight chloroplast-encoded large (L, 50-55 kDa) and eight nucleus-encoded small (S, 12-18 kDa) subunits assembled into a hexadecamer (Andersson and Backlund 2008). Large subunits possess the active site and therefore primarily determine Rubisco kinetic traits (Spreitzer and Salvucci 2002), although recent studies demonstrate that S- subunits can also influence catalysis (Genkov and Spreitzer 2009; Ishikawa et al. 2011; Morita et al. 2014). Directed mutagenesis and a variety of recombinant Rubiscos from plastome-transformed plants allowed identifying changes in L-subunit that translate into changes in Rubisco catalysis, and how they affect leaf photosynthesis and plant growth (Kanevsky et al. 1999; Sharwood et al. 2008; Whitney et al. 2011b; Zhang et al. 2011; Galmés et al. 2013; Li et al. 2014). Our two recent papers demonstrated the relationship between Rubisco L-subunit amino acid polymorphism and catalytic efficiency in natural vegetation, by comparing both distant phylogenetic lineages (Galmés et al. 2014c) and closely related species (Galmés et al. 2014a) of land plants.
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• B n (q) and C n (q) with n 3 and q odd: In  and  they prove that the conjugacy classes of the involutions in these groups do not match; more precisely, there is an involution in the former group whose conjugacy class has size γ = q n (q 2 n +) (where = ±1), and no involution in the latter group has a conjugacy class of the same size. However, if the Burnside rings of the two groups are isomorphic, by Theorem 2.1 there exists a correspondence between their families of soluble subgroups, and this corres- pondence preserves order and order of normalizer. In particular, the involutions in both groups, (which represent subgroups of order two), would correspond, in a bijection which also preserves the size of their conjugacy classes. This is a contradiction.
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What can already be concluded at this point is that groups are not any more trusting or trustworthy than individuals. This rather weak conclusion is nevertheless valuable, since it is consistent with what we already know about group and individual behavior in games. Bornstein and Yaniv (1998), who compared behavior in an ultimatum game, found that groups demand more than individuals but are willing to accept less. Luhan, Kocher, and Sutter (2006) demonstrated that groups are less altruistic in dictator games. Kocher and Sutter (2006) showed that in a gift exchange game groups chose the smallest possible wage and eﬀort, respectively. Bornstein, Kugler, and Ziegelmeyer (2004) found that groups ter- minate the centipede game earlier than individuals, meaning that group decisions are guided by a concern for payoﬀ maximization more than individual decisions are. In sum, the exper- imental literature on games seems to support the existence of the ‘‘discontinuity’’ eﬀect.
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Abstract: In this paper we discuss about the utility of the species concept as real definition, particularly the Mayr concept. We propose a method for the logical separation of taxa based in the statements of the logical mathematics and the application of the sets theory to the concepts in systematic. We attempt to provide an objec- tive methodology for the interpretation of natural groups in biology including the species as a basic group in evo- lution. We introduce the concept of the hypothetical ancestor as a mathematical possibility derived from the use of matrix calculations for non square matrix.
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We now look at Sidon sets, a well known family of interpolation sets in harmonic analysis. In fact, there are several definitions for the notion of Sidon sets for nonabelian groups, although all coincide for amenable groups (see ). Here, we are interested in the following: We say that a subset E of a locally compact group G is a (weak) Sidon set if every bounded function can be interpolated by a continuous function defined on the Eberlein compactification eG. This is a weaker property than the classical notion of Sidon set in general (see ) but both notions coincide for amenable groups. Proof of Theorem C. Since every I 0 set is automatically weak Sidon, it suﬃces to
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In this section, we classify finite minimal non- B -groups. Here we first note that the classification of minimal non-Dedekind groups was given in  and . So, it only remains to classify finite minimal non- B -groups which are not minimal non-Dedekind groups.
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All users are members of one or more groups. By default, new users are added to a private group with the same name as the user (in the above example, the account created for user john was a member of a private group also named john). As an administrator, it makes sense to organize users into more logical groups. For example all sales people might belong to a sales group, whilst accounting staff might belong to the accounts group and so on. New groups are added either using the User Manager graphical tool, or by using the groupadd command-line tool. In this section we will look at both methods. To access the User Manager tool, select the desktop System menu and choose Users and Groups from the Administration sub-menu. To administer the group settings click on the Groups tab. The Group panel will appear, listing all the groups available on the system:
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Abstract. The notion of locally quasi-convex abelian group, introduce by Vilenkin, is extended to maximally almost-periodic non-necessarily abelian groups. For that purpose, we look at certain bornologies that can be deﬁned on the set rep(𝐺) of all ﬁnite dimensional continuous representations on a topological group 𝐺 in order to associate well behaved group topologies (dual topologies) to them. As a consequence, the poset of all Hausdorﬀ totally bounded group topologies on a group 𝐺 is shown to be isomorphic to the lattice of certain special subsets of rep(𝐺 𝑑 ). Moreover, generali-
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Moderate sized and large female bees of various systematic groups can be heard in several tropical parts of the world producíng intermittent brief loud buzzing sounds a's they collect pollen from certain flowers, notably those of the genus Cassia (Leguminosae) and at least one species of S olanum (Solanaceae) .
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has been studied intensively. See for example the anti–de Sitter version of Hamiltonian mechanics of J.-P. Gazeau, “On two analytic elementary systems in quantum mechanics,” in G´ eom´ etrie complexe, F. Norguet, S. Ofman, and J.-J. Szczeciniarz, eds., Hermann, Paris, 1996, pp. 175–199. We quote from an article by S. Detournay, D. Orlando, P. Petropoulos, and P. Spindel, “Three- dimensional black holes from deformed anti-de Sitter,” JHEP 07 (2005) 072, hep-th/0504231: “Three-dimensional anti–de Sitter space provides a good laboratory for studying many aspects of gravity and strings, including black- holes physics.” The geometry of the anti–de Sitter space-time as well as the representations of the groups SU(1, 1) and SL(2, R ) play an essential role in these theories. In the preprint list http://fr.arxiv.org/ﬁnd/hep-th, the number of papers containing “anti–de Sitter” or “AdS” in the title was 77 in 2005, 100 in 2006, 123 in 2007, and 176 in 2008.
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