Late Modern English scientific writing

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Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

Título“Arguments That Could Possibly Be Urged”: Modal Verbs and Tentativeness in the Coruña Corpus

In the current study, we will be using the same material. However, in order to go a step further, we will explore the syntagmatic relations of these two adverbs and their accompanying modal verbs. Although it is widely assumed that scientific English has shifted from author-centered to object-centered (Atkinson 1998), the presumably objective nature of scientific discourse has in fact been questioned, with the use of hedging (Hyland 1998) and other elements expressing stance (Moskowich and Crespo 2014; Alonso Almeida and Inés 2016; Dossena 2017) cited as evidence here. In the present study, we will continue our description of late Modern English scientific writing by assessing how the modal verbs accompanying these stance adverbs can modulate the expression of tentativeness. Perhaps and possibly both indicate an author’s desire to show tentativeness and uncertainty, as well as being devices that seek the reading public’s involvement in the presentation of content (Seoane Posse 2016). The use of stance adverbs of this kind not only shows authorial presence, but also demonstrates a covert interaction with the reader, which makes these texts more engaging for the latter.
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12 Lee mas

TítuloThe Conventionalization of the Passive in Late Modern Scientific English

TítuloThe Conventionalization of the Passive in Late Modern Scientific English

examination of the linguistic factors that might determine such a change leads to the conclusion that none of them can be considered responsible for this ongoing change. Thus, the decay of passives cannot be attributed to an increasing colloquialization of English (Mair, 1998), or to the fact that the scientific discourse may be becoming more personal or subjective (Taavitsainen, 2002). The only factors apparently at work are sociocultural in nature, and concern the pressure derived from an increasingly competitive scientific market, which makes it necessary to design scientific discourse in such a way that it reaches a wide readership. The desired aims are no longer to create an objective and abstract kind of discourse which integrates pompous and elaborate linguistic devices, but to create a clear and accessible discourse. This urge to make scientific English more accessible, together with a widespread tendency to democratise discourse (Fairclough, 1992), would make it advisable to suppress all the linguistic traits which, while making it slow and elaborate, do not have a clear pragmatic function. My hypothesis is that passives, which were introduced in scientific English in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with the specific purpose of making it impersonal, detached and objective, have become conventionalised, i.e. thoughtlessly adopted merely because they add ‘scientific flavour’ to texts; they have become deprived of a specific pragmatic function, and therefore are being elided in informative writing.
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11 Lee mas

TítuloStance is present in scientific writing, indeed  Evidence from the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloStance is present in scientific writing, indeed Evidence from the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Stance as a pragmatic feature has been discussed widely in recent years, although the analysis of its presence in the scientific register has been more limited. Stance is most clearly seen in the use of adverbs (Quirk et al. 1985; Biber et al. 1999; Huddleston – Pullum 2002), providing a comment on the propositional content of an utterance. Thus, in any speech act the information they transmit involves both participants, which in the case of academic prose are the writer and reader. Biber et al. (1999) have claimed that oral registers exhibit the highest number of stance adverbs and that these are “relatively common” in academic prose (Tseronis 2009). In this paper we try to ascertain the extent to which stance adverbs were used in Late Modern scientific discourse, and whether differences in use can be observed between British and American authors and also across disciplines and genres, taking the orality or written nature of texts as a key feature in the analysis. Data have been drawn from around one hundred and twenty authors, from three sub-corpora of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (see also Zea, this volume). Each of these sub-corpora contains extracts of texts from different scientific disciplines written between 1700 and 1900. However, for the present study, only nineteenth-century authors have been selected. The material also allowed us to consider whether the sex of a writer had a bearing on the use of these forms. Ultimately, we have found that the most frequently used stance adverbs are those indicating inclusiveness and expressing either emphasis or tentativeness. Curiously enough, they are more abundant in texts written by North American authors and when we come to sex, male uses exceed by far female ones.
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24 Lee mas

TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

As we have seen earlier, specialised diachronic corpora permit to look at the evolution of a particular register along a given period of time. Such is the case of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (hereafter Coruña Corpus), an electronic corpus which is currently being compiled by the members of the Research Group in Multidimensional Studies in English (MuStE) 15 at the University of A Coruña (Spain) and which provided the materials for this piece of research. The Coruña Corpus is part of the on-going research project Coruña Corpus: A Collection of Samples for the Historical Study of English Scientific Writing, conceived for the diachronic study of variation and change in late Modern scientific English. The corpus covers a period of two hundred years (1700-1900) and consists, to date, of four subcorpora which contain samples from texts on Astronomy, Philosophy, Life Sciences and History (while other subcorpora, dealing with texts on Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics and Linguistics, are currently under compilation). Each subcorpus has a total of twenty texts per century 16 , and therefore two texts per decade, while each text sample is ca. 10,000 words long, excluding figures, graphs, tables, formulae and punctuation marks, as well as quotations containing text reproduced literally from other sources, or fragments written in languages other than English. On the other hand, the corpus contains samples of both male and female authors who were educated in different English-speaking regions (England, Scotland, Ireland, the US and Canada) and who used different genres (e.g. treatises, essays, textbooks…) in their writings. However, in order to avoid stylistic idiosyncrasies, only one work per author was selected. The reasons behind the principles followed in the compilation of the Coruña Corpus, including representativeness and balance, corpus size and time span, as well as the selection of authors for the different scientific disciplines, are dealt with extensively in Moskowich & Crespo (2007), Moskowich & Parapar (2008), Lareo (2009), and
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327 Lee mas

On the Decline of Pleonastic that in Late Middle English and Early Modern English

On the Decline of Pleonastic that in Late Middle English and Early Modern English

In our opinion, there is still an important gap in the field, especially from a historical perspective as the phenomenon has been mostly discussed from a synchronic perspective in Late Middle English, Chaucer’s verse in particular. The present paper then analyses the origin, development and decline of pleonastic that from a diachronic point of view in the light of The Corpus of Early English Medical Writing in the historical period 1375-1700, considering that medical writing is freer from the artificiality of verse and may offer some fresh details about the ups and downs of this pleonastic form. By the year 1475, the first phase of the vernacularization of scientific and medical writing was largely complete, to such an extent that the use of the vernacular became even more common than Latin for the rendering of scientific material (Voigts 1986: 316; 1996: 816; Pahta & Taavitsainen 2004: 12). In the absence of a national standard for these purposes, the emergence of the scientific register, shaped under the shelter of the Greco-Roman models, may shed some light on the development of these on-going changes in English. In the light of this, the present paper has been conceived with the following objectives: a) to analyse the use and distribution of pleonastic that in a corpus of early English medical writing (in the period 1375–1700); b) to classify the construction in terms of the different types of medical texts; and c) to assess the decline of the construction with the different conjunctive words.
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13 Lee mas

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

TítuloEighteenth century scientific writing in the Coruña Corpus: English "cultivated by industrious and good hands"

It is the aim of the current paper to examine late Modern English scientific texts in order to ascertain whether scientific writing was wholly vernacularised, as claimed by some, and to what extent not only isolated terms but also expres- sions of Greek and Latin origin are still to be found in scientific works of dif- ferent technical levels. A further goal here is to compare the behaviour of these forms in disciplines which today we would call hard or soft sciences. To this end, section two provides a short overview of the scientific and linguistic situation in the English-speaking world during the eighteenth century, and also sets out the initial working hypothesis for this study. Section three describes the material and methodology used, followed by a section presenting the findings of the analysis, both in general terms and in a more detailed way, offering a perspective on the kind of terms predominating in each of the disciplines analysed, plus their type and distribution. Finally, some conclusions will be presented.
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17 Lee mas

TítuloOn conditionality: a corpus based study of conditional structures in late modern english scientific texts

TítuloOn conditionality: a corpus based study of conditional structures in late modern english scientific texts

During this period science became more dependent on its social context, as well. From the emergence of empiricism, submitting one’s findings to criticism from peers was both unavoidable and desirable. This prompted the emergence of a series of strategies which authors followed to achieve a better reception for their accounts. Among other elements, these strategies consisted in avoiding categorical claims and confrontation, recognising different points of view and others’ work, and using mitigating elements, such as conditional structures, modal verbs, verba dicendi, “distancing verbs” such as suggest or seem, or probability adverbs such as perhaps. These coexisted with the linguistic results of the shift of science towards methods and evidence, such as an increased use of objectification, nominalisation, specific terminology, and passive voice; and a decrease in the use of personal references. These uses, evidence of the persuasive nature of scientific writing, were especially fruitful among women authors. At the same time, disciplinary differences showed as well in language, as philosophy texts appeared to be more speculative in nature, whilst life sciences texts, with their focus in classifications, were descriptive, and astronomy texts combined a descriptive and a theoretical side.
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334 Lee mas

TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloAt close range: prefaces and other text types in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

What we nowadays term “front matter” was conceived of in the past as a direct address to the reader. Over time, standard formulae were developed and certain rhetorical devices consolidated. Late modern authors were familiar with the highly conventionalised patterns of prefaces and dedications and employed their “discursive freedom” in their scientific works even though the style used for the transmission of scientific knowledge was also changing and being standardised. This paper revolves precisely around the either parallel or divergent development of prefaces to scientific works and the body of the texts themselves. In order to study such evolutions we have analysed samples written by women between 1700 and 1900 in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing. The scrutiny of some linguistic elements generally admitted to express involvement have rendered a decline in the use of involvement features but we assume that frequency of use of the same features should be different in both prefaces and actual works. Unexpectedly, the overall frequency of these features is higher in the texts than in their corresponding prefaces.
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25 Lee mas

TítuloNoun formation in the scientific register of late modern english : a corpus based approach

TítuloNoun formation in the scientific register of late modern english : a corpus based approach

  not very clear why dialects from the Midlands managed to permeate the speech of Londoners, but some scholars (Pahta 2001: 208) emphasise the nationalist nature of the Midlands Standard, which can certainly be related to the beginnings of the standardisation based on the nationalist politics of the Lancastrian kings in the fifteenth century. Other commentators on language (Samuels 1963) claim nevertheless that the rise of the English Standard is based on the writings of the clerks at the Chancery. Meanwhile Wright (1994, 1996) establishes a link between the development of the standard and the macaronic business writing used by London merchants, caused by the change of “trade patterns, especially that of the marked increase in the commercial influence of London on the country as a whole” (Wright 2001: 189). Nowadays, however, there is a common agreement among researchers, who reject previous theories relying on single origins or unitary processes to explain the birth of the standard (Hope 2000). Also, Moskowich & Montoya (2003: 14) outline a multifactor approach to the question of the standard. Following Haugen (1996: 76) they apply four criteria in their study that “any variety must fulfil in order to say it is fixed, or in other words, that it is a standard”. These are: (i) the selection of a particular variety over the rest; (ii) the codification and (iii) the elaboration of that variety to fulfil all linguistic purposes, and (iv) its wide acceptance as the only variety for any language use.
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Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Título"The golden rule of divine philosophy" exemplified in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Philosophy, as any other discipline, has had its writing conventions. Such conventions may have not always been overtly expressed but scholars certainly know “how to write”, very often basing upon what others had done before. Changes in the way in which philosophical knowledge was transmitted certainly operated along history from the scholastic Middle Ages (when knowledge was a divine gift) to the very moment in which the rationalistic and empiricist movements advanced over Europe. During the Modern English period it is basically prescriptive tendencies we are going to find more or less overtly (Valle, 1999; Moessner, 2001) whereas nowadays the approaches adopted are more varied. We can still find some prescriptive viewpoints behind style sheets for prospective authors in scientific publications, but, at the same time, we can also find a more descriptive objective in the interest of corpus linguistics scholars. As a methodology, corpus linguistics offers an excellent opportunity to quantify findings and reach more reliable conclusions regarding the evolution of such conventions.
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30 Lee mas

TítuloWho Requests Whom and How They Do It: Use of Request Markers in Late Modern English Letters

TítuloWho Requests Whom and How They Do It: Use of Request Markers in Late Modern English Letters

In spite of the low number of instances found in the corpus, we can sketch general tendencies. Please was in the late nineteenth century the most common courtesy marker in requests, although the use of pray was still considerably high by the older generations. Taking as a starting-point the first instances of please as a courtesy marker from the late eighteenth century, the present study would indicate that the consolidation of please as the default marker took place more than one century later.

10 Lee mas

"This english writing thing": students' perceptions of their writing experiences at an english medium university

"This english writing thing": students' perceptions of their writing experiences at an english medium university

At the same time, comparisons of findings from studies of student perspectives on their writing experiences in different contexts may open up further questions for research. For example, the participants in Tardy’s (2004) study, graduate students from various Asian countries studying in a US university, perceive writing in English as more concise, clear, and less ambiguous than in their native languages, which is almost identical to the perceptions of the participants in this study, coming from Slavic language backgrounds. Why do students from different linguistic backgrounds perceive writing in English in similar ways? Does this have to do with linguistic features of English, different writing conventions as studied by contrastive rhetoric (see Connor, 1996), or English writing instruction? As more data is gathered on student perceptions of their academic literacies, new light may be shed on these issues.
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11 Lee mas

TítuloLop webbe and henne cresse: morphological aspects of the  scientific register in late Middle English

TítuloLop webbe and henne cresse: morphological aspects of the scientific register in late Middle English

Latin and Old French represent the etymological source of most complex nouns in astronomy texts. Old English is the most frequent origin in the suffixes and bases of the medical text, evidence, once again, of a clear process of ver- nacularisation in this discourse form. Our results seem to confirm that native Germanic affixes attach to free bases (Germanic, usually) while affixes that attach to bound bases tend generally to be borrowed (Castairs 2002: 106). If it is true that a language “comes of age” when it can express any extra-linguistic reality by resorting to its own mechanisms, then, as far as the lexical category of nouns is concerned, fifteenth-century English appears to be an adult.
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TítuloNegative intensification in modern English

TítuloNegative intensification in modern English

The strengthening of negatives in English can be achieved in five main ways: a The use of a series of expressions with negative import; b The repetition of the adverb never or the combin[r]

14 Lee mas

TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

TítuloEighteenth century female authors: women and science in the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

This paper explores the use of linguistic features characteristic of impersonal or personal style in scientific writing by female authors in the eighteenth century. Variables such as discipline, subject-matter and genre are used to assess the ways in which abstract thought and argumentation are expressed by women, given that, even when these works were accepted by the scientific establishment, such modes of expression were more typical of men and men’s writing in the context of the Modern Age. Data from different genres and disciplines (History, Philosophy, Astronomy and Life Sciences) will be used in order to obtain more reliable findings.
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Writing, evaluation and publishing in a scientific journal

Writing, evaluation and publishing in a scientific journal

incrementally extending our knowledge but do not make a contribution that satisfies the originality or significance criteria for Annals. They fill in some gaps but are not cutting edg[r]

62 Lee mas

A descriptive analysis of anglicisms used in ecuadorian magazines

A descriptive analysis of anglicisms used in ecuadorian magazines

According to the Pan-Hispanic Dictionary of Doubts, the word “ mail ” is an abbreviation for the word “ e-mail ”, and its use is unnecessary because there are other words in Spanish that can be used such as “correo” ó “correo electrónico”. . Whereas, the Wikipedia Dictionary (2010) states that in English “ mail ” is not only a system of sending messages through the computer network”, it is also “a method of transmitting information and tangible objects, where in written documents, typically enclosed in enclosed in envelopes and also small packages are delivered to destinations around the world”. The Wiktionary Dictionary (2010) states that this Anglicism comes from Middle English male, from Old French male “bag, wallet, of Germanic origin. This anglicism has not been included in the DRAE yet, however it may be in a near future due to its wide use.
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ANALYSIS OF THE WRITING STRATEGIES USED FOR TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN CAMILO GALLEGOS TOLEDO SCHOOL, SEVENTH GRADE OF E G B PARALLEL “A” IN THE CITY OF RIOBAMBA, CHIMBORAZO PROVINCE IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2017 2018

ANALYSIS OF THE WRITING STRATEGIES USED FOR TEACHING WRITING SKILLS IN CAMILO GALLEGOS TOLEDO SCHOOL, SEVENTH GRADE OF E G B PARALLEL “A” IN THE CITY OF RIOBAMBA, CHIMBORAZO PROVINCE IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2017 2018

1.-Prewriting: This is the planning phase of the writing process first thing to know is when students brainstorm they investigate, gather and draft ideas, often using diagrams for organize their thoughts. also the Audience and purpose should be considered at this point a an important part and for the older students, a working thesis statement needs to be started. Agreeing with (Krashen, 2017) said that “the input hypothesis helps to explain how the learner assimilates a second language through acquisition. Comprehensible input - intelligible language is the key element for language assimilation to occur.” So, The learner progresses to the extent that he receives intelligible input. Language intelligible is one that is at a level slightly above the learner's level of proficiency. It is the language that he could not produce but can still understand. It goes beyond the simple choice of vocabulary. It presupposes contextualization, explanation, use of visual resources, body language, and negotiation of meanings and replacement of obscure points in other words.
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Environmental awareness through writing tasks to learn english

Environmental awareness through writing tasks to learn english

topics into English lessons have positive results for the students. On the first hand, Jaramillo & Medina (2011, p. 23) study found that "Guiding students in the process of writing descriptive short texts through the development of controlled and focused activities is a good way to sensitize students towards environmental care and conservation because they improve their knowledge." On the other hand, research findings (Castillo & Rojas, 2014, p. 189) reveal that "Drawing and writing proved to be a strategy that allowed the youngsters to expand their expression and move towards critical thinking, which would lead them to behaviors that are friendly to the environment." Despite of the benefits that those activities can give, just a few teachers have focused their lesson in environmental issues.
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125 Lee mas

Some developments in the semantics of the English progressive from old English to early modern English

Some developments in the semantics of the English progressive from old English to early modern English

The preceding sections have shown the main functions of the expanded form in OE and ME. This section will concentrate on the semantics of the progressive in eModE, illustrating its use with different examples taken from this period, which will contribute to a better understanding of the history of the pe- riphrasis. That the eModE progressive is different from the PE progressive is shown by the fact that both simple forms and expanded forms could be used indiscriminately in certain contexts (cf. the famous examples by Shakespeare, What do you read my Lord?, Polonius asks in Hamlet, while Achilles, in turn, asks What are you reading? in Troilus and Cressida). Therefore, vacillation in the use or non-use of be + -ing can be taken as an indication of the stylistic function of the pro- gressive still at this time. In spite of this, Shakespeare’s use of expanded forms seems very modern, as can be seen in the following combinations:
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