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Adhikari et al 2016 Admixture in Latin America

Adhikari et al 2016 Admixture in Latin America

Thus far, GWASs have been carried out mostly in Eur- opeans, thus representing a relatively narrow sampling of human diversity [68,69]. By comparison, studies in Latin Americans allow analyses of much wider genetic and phenotypic scope. Trans-ethnic genome-wide association studies have been advocated as a tool for fine-mapping trait loci shared by continental populations [70]. As illus- trated by the recent studies mentioned above, the mixed ancestry of Latin Americans can in addition lead to the identification of novel trait loci characterized by differen- tiated allele frequencies between the continental groups that admixed in Latin America. Noticeably, in the ex- treme case of trait loci with different alleles fixed across continents, such trait loci would be detectable by associ- ation tests in admixed samples but not in the un-admixed parental groups. In sum, the high genetic and phenotypic diversity of Latin Americans can empower genetic
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Financial and currency crisis in Latin America

Financial and currency crisis in Latin America

Each financial crisis has its own particularities. However, at certain level of abstraction, crises in developing countries have shared several important elements. In this regard, analyzing financial crises in Latin America has no value added compared to studying those in Asia, Russia or Turkey. For this reason, our analysis in this paper can easily be extended to financial crisis in other developing countries. There is something, however, making Latin America special. This is related to the fact that the region started to participate earlier in the international capital markets and was a pioneer in experiencing financial crises. Latin America suffered a higher number of crises than any other region and its major countries experienced more than one crisis in the last third of the twenty century. This gives a unique opportunity to draw lessons from the comparative analysis between countries in the same period but also from the analysis of the same country in different periods. Or, using the econometric jargon of panel data, the experience in LA provides “experiments” to control for both time-specific and country-specific effects. The analysis of crises in LA is the topic of the first part of this paper.
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The second IEEE MTT S Latin America Microwave Conference

The second IEEE MTT S Latin America Microwave Conference

At LAMC 2018, we reinforced collab- orations among North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Latin America. Two of the most important people who pro- moted this collaboration, Dr. Thomas Brazil and Dr. Silvio Barbin, passed away only a few months before the 2018 conference, and both were honored during the proceedings.

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BAT BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

BAT BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

searched for articles related to “bat rabies” in Latin American countries between 1953 and 2012 in English and Spanish, a number of articles from this search were used as search effort in posterior analysis. Because several articles from Latin American journals were not available via Web of Science, Google Scholar was searched for articles, theses, and official sources available online using the same criteria. Publications including rabies diagnosis based on histopathology, direct fluorescent antibody tests, or molecular techniques were included. When multiple manuscripts source the same bat species or antigenic variants from the same country, only the older such reference was cited (Table 1). To date, the most valuable compilation of rabies-positive bat species in Latin America was published by CONSTANTINE (2009), so part of this article’s analysis is based on his data. For preliminary bat distributional information, vector-format based maps (shapefiles) from IUCN 36 were used; maps were handled using ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI). Chi-
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Nanotechnology in Latin America

Nanotechnology in Latin America

Nanotechnology development in Latin America is at its primary stage with associated individual investigators mostly in the academia in thematic areas of nanomaterial, bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics, nanoeducation, etc. This report highlights the distribution of such development in Costa Rica, Argentina, Peru, Brazil, Columbia, Venezuela, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay, etc. Keywords: Latin America, bionanotechnology, nanoelectronics and nanoeducation

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Migration and development in Latin America

Migration and development in Latin America

This brief survey of the migration of Africans can only give a partial impression of the com- plex patterns of movement and the many factors shaping them. It has only looked at the wide variety of international migration within Africa, ranging from the informal moves across poorly demarcated borders to the journeys by air of elite migrants to centres such as Johan- nesburg in search of jobs or education. There are also important and growing trends for migration from Africa to other developing regions, including Latin America and China (Lututala 2014) but these are not discussed here. These movements within Africa have been little studied and more research into African migration would be extremely valuable. This demand for further research is nothing new; as complaints about the lack of data to guide policy are commonplace. However, I would argue that there are more fundamental social scientific reasons to examine migration between developing areas with greater care.
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Nanotechnology Public Policy in Latin America

Nanotechnology Public Policy in Latin America

Besides breakdowns in the value chain, in capitalist societies there is a dual metamorphosis preventing products from directly satisfying the needs for which they were created. The first is that these products must get to the market, which means their prices must recoup the cost of production and still provide a profit to the business owner. When there are alternative investment options that offer greater returns, production shifts towards those sectors. Neglected diseases are a very eloquent example of important areas of research that have been sidelined due to market reasons. The second metamorphosis is that consumers must have the purchasing power to buy the goods. Once again, this is not the case for millions of people in Latin America and around the world. Due to these two metamorphoses, in a market economy, technology development proposals limited to timidly suggesting or subsidizing the production of strategic products that satisfy immediate needs are nothing more than a declaration of good intent.
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Tobacco Cultivation in Latin America

Tobacco Cultivation in Latin America

This paper evaluates the importance of tobacco cultivation in Latin America. To this end the main variables of the sector will be analyzed, such as the quantity and value of production, the number of cultivated hectares and crop yields. The value of the sector as export strength is also studied. In addition, a comparison of direct employment generated by tobacco cultivation in tobacco countries of Latin America is created based on different sources. The results show that the production of Latin-American countries as a whole has been increasing in recent years, making the share of production of this continent close to 16% of world production. Argentina and Brazil stand out for their production to be placed among the ten largest producers in the world. The extension of cultivated area in the region reaches 13.55% of the area dedicated to tobacco in the world. The increase in production has driven a growth in the productivity of the product with a growing trend for the past several lustrums. This positive trend has been accompanied by an increase in prices paid to the grower, particularly since 2007. It is then a sector with a signi�icant impact on the region. Tobacco cultivation has the capacity of generating 650,000 direct jobs and exporting U.S. $ 3,788 million annually. Considering the analysis only involves direct employment, these �igures are very signi�icant.
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Non Suicidal Self Injury in Latin America

Non Suicidal Self Injury in Latin America

Until 2010 information on NSSI prevalence was very difficult to find in Latin America. Since then more data are available in five countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico, which are all countries that score high on the Hu- man Development Index. They are not the only countries that score high on this ranking, yet from the other areas little or no information seems to be available. Because of the large geographical area one should also take into account the dif- ferent counties within each country. A country like Brazil, for example, has a mixed population from county to county. Also countries in the north of Latin America will have a different population from countries in the outmost south. Therefore the experts that were interviewed stressed the importance of ethnicity, because of its association with psychosocial and economic factors that influence health and well-being.
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What Powers Latin America?:Patterns and Challenges

What Powers Latin America?:Patterns and Challenges

The literature also clearly indicates that the wealthier a country is, the more energy it consumes per capita, with most of that energy used for transportation. Indeed, Latin America’s largest consum- ing sector changed in the early 1970s when industry replaced residential use as the region began to leverage its natural wealth—particularly in hydrocarbons— and many people migrated to cities from the countryside. The second transition took place in the mid-1990s when the industrial sector yielded its irst place to transport as LAC began seeing higher levels of wealth per capita.
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Libraries and indigenous peoples in Latin America

Libraries and indigenous peoples in Latin America

Presently, Latin America counts with more than 40-50 million people (Matos Mar, 1993; Stavenhagen, 1996; PNUD, 2004) of those considered to be the old “owners of the land”, who nowadays cannot always exhibit such a title. The importance of their cultures, among other valuable things, has its roots in constituting a very high percentage of the global cultural diversity (cf. IWGIA, 2007). Both at Latin American and world levels, indigenous peoples posse an immense mosaic of languages and cultural features, of philosophies and literatures (oral and in writing), of uses and daily customs… Their cultural baggage has an intimate relationship with the environment that they inhabited (which usually is not the one that they occupy at present) and provides a very interesting spectrum of knowledge about the world and its forms, very different from the range of ideas shown by the global dominant culture. In Latin America, many of their words and attitudes have been added to the mestizo heritage of each nation, enriching their unique and indisputable identity… And their traditions, sounds and sense of time have been acknowledged, in their most general terms, through the entire world.
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The individualist legacy in Latin America

The individualist legacy in Latin America

The informal economy is hardly a new development: the rise of the West in cen- turies past took place in exactly the same way, with millions of people producing and exchanging goods and services under spontaneous rules of the game that developed according to expanding needs and in circumvention of the authorities who laid down the onerous, burdensome, and elitist laws. In Latin America, too, the tradition is old. Most of the trade conducted under colonial rule was illegal, and urban squatting existed as early as the sixteenth century. When, centuries later, the Portuguese monarch fled to Brazil after the invasion of Portugal by Napoleon’s army, thus paving the way for a peaceful independence, one of the most important measures of eco- nomic liberalism was to authorize the open sale of any commodity in the streets and door to door (Viotti da Costa 1975, 51).
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Social Media in Latin America

Social Media in Latin America

While Facebook is the preferred social network for the rest of Latin America, Orkut is the clear favorite for Brazilians. A social network created by a young college student in 2004, Brazilians represent more than half of the members. Facebook was able to take advantage of the network’s popularity by offering the possibility of updating an Orkut account directly from Facebook. While it is still too soon to tell whether Facebook will take the reigns, the number of Brazilian Facebook members has only continued to increase, recently passing the 9.5 million mark.

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Financial inclusion in Latin America

Financial inclusion in Latin America

According to data from the IMF’s FAS (2015), mobile phone subscriptions in the region account for 115% of the population, while the number of Internet users amounts to 47%. Moreover, the number of ATM and bank branches, on average, is of only 49 and 39, respectively, for every 100,000 inhabitants. The report “Informe de Mobile Banking en América del sur y el mundo” (mobile banking in South America and the World), presented by TBI Unit in December, 2016, revealed that most banks in Latin America are already allowing and encouraging their cus- tomers to carry out mobile banking transactions, through applications, interactive mobile sites, or SMS.
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Integration Processes in Latin America

Integration Processes in Latin America

Recently, specialists from the World Bank (Brown, et al 2017 p. 6) have taken the previous argumentation to raise the pertinence of “Open Regionalism Renovation”, focusing their attention on Latin America. To sustain this proposal, they make emphasis on the role played by the economic integration as a vehicle for technology diffusion and knowledge. Quoting the contributions made by other scholars in the topic (Coe y Helpman, 1995; Lumenga-Neso, Olarreaga, and Schiff 2005), they affirm that countries could learn from the technological component incorporated on the goods they import, specifying that this knowledge component depends on the innovative efforts of the partners of the country and their partners. Other scholars (Morales, Sheu, and Zhaler 2014; Chaney 2011) consider that economic integration could help enterprises from a country to learn about goods, productive processes and business relations of third markets partner’s enterprises, which can provide an increase on the productivity, as well as the entry and permanence on those third markets.
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Borrelia Infection in Latin America

Borrelia Infection in Latin America

Although the initial reports have been scattered, sometimes lacking detailed information on serological testing, the inconsistent confirmatory results could be explained by the presence of new species of B.b.s.l. in these countries. Future studies will need to determine the extension of new B.b.s.l. species infections in ticks, reservoirs, and humans in Latin America. The exis- tence of these new Borrelia genomic species should prompt the development of novel diagnostic and clinical approaches.

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Telemedicine: a challenge for Latin America

Telemedicine: a challenge for Latin America

Abstract: Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.
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Spectrum Auctions in Latin America and Europe

Spectrum Auctions in Latin America and Europe

This paper builds on the federal indicator used by the ICT and development literature to answer the research question on what indicators better represent ICT institutional background in the Americas Region (Central America and the Caribbean Islands, North America and South America). Its main underpinnings are the concept of information revolution and the methodology put forward by the Telecommunications Law Indicators for Comparative Studies (TLICS) Model. Six sets of federal indicators on revenue, fiscal transfer, regulatory jurisdiction, adjudication, planning, and media content regulation are put together to compare ICT federal environment in the Americas Region as a groundwork for ICT comparative research. The empirical universe of the paper encompassed twenty-six countries from the Americas Region, that form a potpourri of twenty officially unitary countries – Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Uruguay –, and six federal countries – Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, United States and Venezuela –, that account for the most representative countries of the Caribbean Islands and all countries of Central, North, and South America apart from Guyana. The article is organized in three main parts. A brief description of the paper assumptions is performed in the first part. The second part applies TLICS variables to sets of the aforementioned states. The third part delves into the comparison of the states analyzed by means of categorizing the differences and commonalities revealed by more than one thousand variables collected in the legal and institutional framework of those countries and finally summarized in the ICT federal index (IFI) and ICT unitary index (IUI). We also tested the association between federalism as the outcome and each of the independent (explanatory) variables proposed by TLICS model by applying statistical tests of significance (Fisher exact test and relative risk). The only ICT variable significantly associated with a country being classified as a federal state is tax in the telecom, broadcast, broadband and e-commerce sectors. As a main outcome, based on data collected from the institutional background and legal frameworks of those countries, we found clusters of federal commonalities in federal and unitary countries of the region. With that, we proposed two indices that better represent federal and unitary institutional backgrounds: The ICT Federal Index (IFI); and the ICT Unitary Index (IUI). They provide a real picture of their institutional background for ICT and development comparative purposes.
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Fiscal rules in Latin America : a survey

Fiscal rules in Latin America : a survey

Yet there is a wealth of evidence on the procyclicality of fiscal policy in Latin America (see Gavin and Perotti, 1997; and Kaminsky et al., 2005) which contributes to macroeconomic volatility, depresses investment in real and human capital, hampers growth and increases fiscal vulnerability. This procyclical nature of the fiscal policy in the region has been exacerbated by: i) the relative scarcity, uncertainty and high volatility of revenues (with Brazil and, to a lesser extent, Argentina being exceptions) as commodity‐linked revenues (taxes, royalties, profits) can be a large portion of government revenue; ii) the pervasive rigidities in public expenditures (which have led to a concentration of fiscal adjustments on public investments); iii) the need for ensuring progress to reduce poverty and inequality which are very high in the region; iv) the exposure of some countries in the region to pronounced economic fluctuations –shocks from sharp changes in the terms of trade as they are rich in commodities, price takers and small open economies‐ and to procyclical capital flows; and, v) in bad times (sudden stops and/or negative trade‐related shocks) governments in emerging markets are credit‐constrained while when times improve are free to go on a debt‐ financed spending spree (see Alberola and Montero, 2006). Thus, avoidance of procyclicality requires first and foremost the creation of adequate “fiscal space” (saving revenue windfalls in good times) to prevent the emergence of such financing constraints in bad times, or to prevent the rapid changes in investor sentiment and ease the vulnerability to financial crises, especially given the small size of automatic stabilizers (mainly due to informality).
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Sumario de la edición No. 14

Sumario de la edición No. 14

The text shows the heterogeneous views of various Latin American countries, like Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Venezuela, in terms of their analyses of and studies about foreign policy. This paper aims to make clear the different images that China generates as a rising power in the world economy, particularly as a major trade partner of these countries. The goal of this article is to provide elements for analysis about policy coordination vis-à- vis China. The central argument states that there should be coordination be- tween regional integration strategies and foreign policies in relation to China. However, these heterogeneous visions can work against that goal as well. Keywords: China / Latin America / foreign policy / international economic re- lations / North-South relations.
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