In respect to digital libraries, it is evidenced that they are also widely used by the UNESCO and other organizations to bring knowledge to every possible place in the planet, since they allow users to access to an extensive variety of reliable sources and materials without losing track of their main purpose as occurs with Internet. In the information superhighway, users sometimes get lost in such a big amount of available information. In the case oflanguagelearning, Wu, Shaoqun and Witten, Ian H. (2006) state that “the Internet offers innumerable language resources, learners and teachers alike face the challenge of discovering usable material. Search engines return an overwhelming amount of dross in response to any query, and locating suitable sources demands skill and judgment. When learners study on their own, it is hard for them to locate material that matches their language ability.”
This paper deals with the role of teaching LanguageLearning Strategies (LLS) to non- philological university students in the context ofthe new language Policy in Cuban universities. Students at graduation must prove to be Independent Users ofEnglish, which is equivalent to the B1 level ofthe Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). From the application of achievement tests, surveys, observation and document analysis, it was possible to determine that students at this level used a very limited repertoire oflanguagelearning strategies that did not favor the development of speaking skills. Therefore, the aim of this work is to promote the use oflanguagelearning strategies in order to develop speaking skills in A1 level students ofEnglish. The results obtained demonstrated the effectiveness ofthe applied system of tasks. The repertoire of LLS used by the students increased; in addition, there was an improvement ofthe students’ speaking skills in English.
All ofthe interviewed students reported that they learn through the use of diverse activities which allow them to get a better learning with respect to the lessons. However, it was found during the survey that in some classes the space is not enough and it may be difficult for teachers to group students for the different activities. According to Baker and Westrup (2003), large classes pair work and group work needs careful planning to keep all the students involved in the lesson an allow them to work with each other. Pair and group work gives all students lots of practice time. Larger groups can be more difficult to organize, so teacher can start with pair work. When students and teacher can organize and work in pair quickly and easy, teacher can go on to try a larger group work activity. These considerations are very important in larger classes because it will help teacher to organize group in a better way.
and those without it. The research was carried out adopting the pre-posttest quasi experimental/control groups design. Two instruments were designed by the researcher and two research assistants. These instruments are namely Onuka Mathematics Achievement Test and Onuka EnglishLanguage Achievement Test. The research was conducted on experimental and control groups. 280 students were involved in the investigation. At the beginning of each lesson a short test ofthe knowledge gained in the previous lesson was given. The scripts were collected and redistributed to the students after they had worked the solutions on the board, however, ensuring that no student got and marked his/her own paper. The teacher worked out the solutions on the board and then asked the student to randomly exchange their notebooks and mark strictly under his supervision with support ofthe research assistant. The results were organized and recorded at the end ofthe lesson. The teacher then proceeded to teach. The exercise lasted for eight weeks. A pre-test was given to each subject group (experimental and control) at the beginning ofthe investigation. At the end ofthe eight weeks, a post – test was administered to find out whether or not the treatment had had any effect on the students’
involved in the application of autonomous learning are promoted through the exercise of critical media analysis, with the aim of encouraging students to “independently choose aims and purposes and sets goals; choose materials, methods and tasks; exercise choice and purpose in organizing and carrying out the chosen tasks; and choose criteria for evaluation” (Thanasoulas, 2000, p.2). This idea of autonomy in learning covers different aspects of thinking, analyzing and creating that can be applied not only in theEnglishlanguagelearning context, but essentially as a lifetime ability. Jacobs and Farrell (2001) expressed that the concept learning autonomy makes more emphasis on the learner’s role in the class, out ofthe class, and his actions regarding thelearning process. It focuses on the process rather than the product and encourages learners to develop their own purposes for learning and to see learning as a lifelong process. An autonomous learner is the one who is able to build up on knowledge from direct experience, instead ofthe one who just answers to directions (Benson, 2001). Autonomous learners have the characteristic of being able to “transcend the barriers between learning and living” (Little, 1995, p. 175), which is, in other words, being able to transfer knowledge from basic stages to wider contexts (Little, 1991).
circumstances (Spratt et al., 2011). When a person is learning a language, they rarely get it right at first which is common even when people are learningthe first language. Native speakers of a language tend to make mistakes during informal conversations too (Harmer, 2012). What teachers traditionally do whenever an error occurs is to correct it immediately, even though with the coming ofthe communicative approach it is required to redefine this common practice (Littlewood, 1981). Thus, it is recommendable for teachers to accept these errors as a natural occurrence in the process oflearning a language, by doing so students will feel and show confidence about using the target language (Hendrickson, 1978). Errors have always been regarded as failure or obstruction to learning or as a strategy for punishing the student and it has been supported by behaviorism (Maicusi, Maicusi and Carrillo, 1999). Types of error correction
CLIL methodology is gaining path in Spanish universities as a promising means to train students to manage in a globalized world by increasing their competence in foreign languages, particularly English. The advent of CLIL in tertiary settings raises a variety of questions related to the possibility and the manner of applying this approach to English-Mediated learning contexts, especially regarding the syllabi planning and methodological development to scaffold thelearningofthe target language and the subject content. Although a number of experiences are currently starting to be reported in Spanish university settings, this phenomenon is still recent and needs to be extensively investigated. Thus, on the one hand, the present article intends to show the positive opinion of post-graduate university students after the curricular integration experience and the application of CLIL scaffolding techniques. On the other, it proposes to identify areas of methodological improvements and recommendations in the application of CLIL in the referred programme, as well as in other higher education contexts.
As the large-class subject matter is very wide, some further studies have been examined with the idea of establishing some sort of comparison. The first study is related to one investigation done at the An-Najah National University in Nablus, Palestine. The purpose ofthe research was to discover the effects of large class on EFL students and the instructional, social, and psychological implications large classes have on their attitudes. There were also questions aimed to consider other variables such as gender, level of study, college and placement exam marks. The population of this study consisted of 1.200 students and the random sample was composed of 230 male and female students. The results ofthe different domains show that the students’ responses
In previous studies, Finn, Pannozzo, & Achilles (as cited in Bray & Kehle, 2011) indicate that less than 20 students per class is considered small, and more than 20 is considered a large one. Both authors explained that the fact of having large or small groups in the classroom does not necessarily result in higher achievement or failure rates because there are different factors that are very important in students when learning another language. As a result, what really matters is how well teachers are prepared.
with all the students. There is also the “café style” arrangement, in which the students are grouped as if they were in a café. Teacher may use this to generate group work among students, filling up work sheets or going over discussion activities. This type of arrangement represents a challenge for any teacher since the checking has to be done with a lot of moving around, going from one table to another assisting the students. Finally, in terms of pair work, there is nothing better than just moving the student’s desks one next to the other. Teachers will find this very simple to do and check up on. Students will be engaged in a variety of activities, obtaining great results. There are many advantages attached to arranging the student’s seats in order to do certain tasks, but there is always the issue of timing the actual movement in a way that does not drag time from the pedagogical activity prepared. If the activities involve more than two students, the teacher can call the work groups in a specific place, leaving enough room to control what is happening in the classroom.
The importance of teaching- learningEnglish as foreign language in Ecuador has been widely recognized in the last years due to its everyday use in all fields. Having an advanced level ofEnglish has become into a tool, which allows facing the accelerated advance of globalization and the galloping development of technology. The unlimited access to the countless educational resources published in this language, as well as, to the information available in internet, updated every day; furthermore, a great deal of scholarships offered abroad directed toward students who master Englishlanguage are the strongest reasons for students to achieve a B1.2 (CEFR) level at the end of third year of high school.
Are learners intrinsically or extrinsically motivated when it comes to languagelearning? Everyone studying English has their own reason for learningthelanguage. Maybe it is for work, to pass an exam, to communicate more easily when travelling: there are many possible motivations for languagelearning. Some motivations will help to reach learners’ goals more quickly than others and some could keep you at a level of fluency forever. Other reasons for motivation will have forgotten what students learnt a few months previously. Therefore, it is necessary to identify apprentices’ motivation for learning a language and use that to improve their language skills and retention. Extrinsic Motivation
When learners started to familiarize with the activities, they also started to enjoy them and stopped seeing them as an obligation. Since most of them were innovative and involved real material, learners felt that these activities were not so far from their realities and not so boring as the ones from their books. All the students actually accepted they liked, at least, one ofthe activities from the implementation and, as it was observable, all of them reported benefits in their Englishlearning processes from minimal to moderate. I realized that the activities they liked the most were the ones involving real materials and games, such as scrabble, story with images, songs, etc. Most ofthe success of these activities, as it was stated before, relies on the fact that students are not commonly exposed to this kind of exercises.
The projections that are visualized for this methodology are related to the initial teacher training in theEnglish Teaching Programme at San Sebastian University where future teachers ofEnglish have implemented it in their practicum centers during their periods of teaching practices and have worked as collaborators ofthelearning process. There has been enough work with the Dialogic Pedagogy, especially in vulnerable schools, to reveal the excellent results obtained by students. There has also been great empirical contribution from trainee teachers who have worked with the Interactive Methodology and confirmed its benefits for students and teachers. Thus, it is necessary to systematize its application in order to make it become part ofthe profile ofthe professionals who graduate from this Institution and possibly from other Tertiary Institutions, as well, who are interested in attending students from vulnerable schools who do not have access to the same resources and methodologies that others do.
17 Snivicki, Rice, Chism, and Bickford (2002) claim that if the number of students is about 16, the position face to face is more advisable; on the other hand, there is another way to arrange the chairs: they can be placed around the tables which is called “café style”. The advantage of this type of organization gives a successful result because learners are in a comfortable position, since “café style” offers students the possibility to work in pairs or in groups. Also, the authors explain that during the ‘open pair work’ two students discuss some topics under the supervision of their tutor, while the other students can hear the discussion, they do not move from their chairs, which give them the possibility of establishing communication; moreover, the teachers could arrange the seats in a circle and learners can move easily.
This research “The influence of large classes in theEnglishlanguage teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools” is aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect theEnglishlanguage teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Three research questions were proposed to carry out the investigation; and, a questionnaire was structured and applied to two hundred nine students from three public educational institutions and one private high school in the city of Quito who were selected at random. They were attending to eight year of basic to third year of secondary and their ages oscillated between 12 and 18 years old.
Gower, Phillips, and Walters (2005) state that short instructions are entirely appropriate to this situation where the students accept their authority. Also, they usually realize that a firm directive manner is necessary in order to make a good language practice and to avoid confusion and uncertainty. Sometimes students need a little time before they get going while others get on with the task immediately. By providing ongoing feedback you can help your students evaluate their achievement and progress. Feedback can take a number of forms: giving praise and
Learner strategies can be effective, but they need to be internalized so that they can be utilized in adverse learning situations. For example, if an environment is perceived to be stressful or threatening, for example, writing as part of a job interview process, or performing under timed test conditions, learners' affective states can influence cognition. Emotional influences along with cognitive factors can account for achievement and performance in L2, to a certain extent. Schumann (1998) argues that affect may influence cognition through its role in framing a problem and in adopting processing strategies. He states that we very often use feelings as information: "When faced with a situation about which we have to make a judgment we often ask ourselves how we feel about it. We may also employ feelings when time constraints and competing tasks limit our cognitive capacities". This outcome may affect the way second language students perform when they are under stress.
Speaking skill is the productive skill in the oral mode. Like the other skill, speaking is more complicated that seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words. There are five components of speaking skill that can be defined as follows: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. To be a good speaker theEnglish learners have to master all ofthe components. However, besides those linguistic components above there are many factors that influence speaking ability. Cooperative learning method can be an appropriate method to use in teaching learning process to improve students speaking skill. Cooperative learning method has several techniques that stimulate the student to make verbal interaction with the other member ofthe class. Cooperative learning method is a method that divides the class member to several groups and arranges the students to work in a group. This method is useful to encourage the students’ activeness and responsibility to their own self and their team members. (Darsini, 2013)