Learning the english language

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A digital library for English Language II  a tool for improving its bibliography

A digital library for English Language II a tool for improving its bibliography

In respect to digital libraries, it is evidenced that they are also widely used by the UNESCO and other organizations to bring knowledge to every possible place in the planet, since they allow users to access to an extensive variety of reliable sources and materials without losing track of their main purpose as occurs with Internet. In the information superhighway, users sometimes get lost in such a big amount of available information. In the case of language learning, Wu, Shaoqun and Witten, Ian H. (2006) state that “the Internet offers innumerable language resources, learners and teachers alike face the challenge of discovering usable material. Search engines return an overwhelming amount of dross in response to any query, and locating suitable sources demands skill and judgment. When learners study on their own, it is hard for them to locate material that matches their language ability.”
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Lightbrown and Spada (2006) summarize the term learning : “it has been used to describe an individual’s natural, habitual, a nd preferred way of absorbing, processing and retaining new information and skills ” (p.59). One of the most popular learning styles is the “kinesthetic” which refers to learning through action. In order to take into account the different learning styles teachers must be flexible and Coleman (2005) consider this by saying that evidence shows that individuals perceive, analyze, organize, and recall information in different and stable ways. They go on and state that conflicting theoretical frameworks and classifications make applying the information practically difficult. As a result of these difficulties, teachers must be aware of the different students learning styles and be flexible in the classroom in order to accommodate these different learning styles. Once the students’ learning style; visual, auditory, tactile or kinesthetic are identified then the teacher can choose the best activities for their lessons.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

After that , the field research started . Two public high schools of the city of Cariamanga were selected. The survey aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English teaching-learning process. The students were asked an open – ended question about the effect of large classes on them which were classified into three major areas: instructional, psychological and social. The gathered data was registered in tables, to do this, the quantitative method was taken into account. The research techniques used in this study were: Questionnaire , Note-taking. Instruments like questionnaire and tables were also applied. To analyze the results of this
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

and those without it. The research was carried out adopting the pre-posttest quasi experimental/control groups design. Two instruments were designed by the researcher and two research assistants. These instruments are namely Onuka Mathematics Achievement Test and Onuka English Language Achievement Test. The research was conducted on experimental and control groups. 280 students were involved in the investigation. At the beginning of each lesson a short test of the knowledge gained in the previous lesson was given. The scripts were collected and redistributed to the students after they had worked the solutions on the board, however, ensuring that no student got and marked his/her own paper. The teacher worked out the solutions on the board and then asked the student to randomly exchange their notebooks and mark strictly under his supervision with support of the research assistant. The results were organized and recorded at the end of the lesson. The teacher then proceeded to teach. The exercise lasted for eight weeks. A pre-test was given to each subject group (experimental and control) at the beginning of the investigation. At the end of the eight weeks, a post – test was administered to find out whether or not the treatment had had any effect on the students’
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools.

Aspects such as: discipline, timing, feedback, and instructions are carefully considered when teaching a lesson. This graph shows that the 100% of teachers answered they consider the aspects mentioned above to teach their lessons. It was noticeably observed because there was no sign of indiscipline by the students in spite of the number of students that sometimes exceeded 30, in contrast, all of them were paying attention to the teachers and to the classes. Gower, Phillips & Walters (2005) mention the importance of keeping discipline by establishing rapport among motivating students, giving feedback, trying to find areas of improvement in individual students´ work and using proper timing during classes.
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The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

The Influence of Large Classes in the English Language Teaching Learning Process in Ecuadorian High Schools

At last, the implications related to how feedback is dealt to the students will also be a matter of discussion of this work. Assisting every students’ requirement may turn to be impossible in big classes. Feedback is important for both, students and teacher; however, it has to be planned in a way that saves time and unnecessary work. This study puts forth that a little more than half of the students, 51.60%, show disagreement with the fact that they cannot benefit from a good feedback, though the difference with the ones who feel that the class lacks this benefit, is not big. The reason for this little margin between the ones who agree and the ones who disagree is simple to explain, the teacher can only answer so many questions due to the lack of time common in large classes, so the students who have questions with no answers, feel as if they were left aside, growing a negative feeling towards the teacher’s way to work out the students’ doubts. Truscott (1999) and Krashen (1994) have discussed the effect of feedback in students. It must be given out the appropriate way to avoid the students’ self-limitation in their participation because of possible public embarrassment, but it cannot be left on the side.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

students, remembering, visualizing, noting things down and even staring into space while drinking a tea. The author makes the point that planning is an organic, continuous process and describes some important advantages of planning lessons such as reducing panic and increasing confidence, inspiring confidence to students who perceive purpose, progression and coherence, as well as reminding teachers of what materials to prepare to make it easier to organize the time; and activity flow in classes. On the other hand, the author also comments on possible disadvantages of planning such as the fact that students can change their attitude towards learning English during the course, or that staying too close to plans can make teachers inflexible.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

teachers develop their own style of teaching according to their personality. Gower & Walters (1995) give some practical advice to follow when referring to instructions. They suggest to primary create a center of attention in the student to make sure everyone is listening and watching, to employ simple language and short expressions, and to use language at a lower level than the language being taught. Furthermore, teachers should use visual or written clues whenever possible utilizing real objects, pictures, gestures and mime. Making demonstrations if possible, illustrating what to do; break down instructions if the activity requires a series of procedures, provide simple commands in sections and check for understanding, rather than giving out all instructions at the start of the activity. It is also a good idea to target instructions in the sense of explaining the content only to the students who need it, instead of giving complete directions to the class as a whole. In addition, discipline is a very important issue in the classroom. It depends on a number of factors such as: age of students; evidently children require more discipline than adults. Usually young teenagers are considered to be the most complex when it comes to classroom control. Discipline is intimately related to the causes for learning and student motivation whether they are forced to be in class or whether they are there voluntarily. Class size plays an important role, as it is more difficult to keep an orderly atmosphere in a large class than in a smaller one.
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Awareness about the communicative language teaching principles by English teachers, participants of the Master’s Program Teaching English as a Foreign Language, at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, La Molina, Lima, 2016

Awareness about the communicative language teaching principles by English teachers, participants of the Master’s Program Teaching English as a Foreign Language, at the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, La Molina, Lima, 2016

circumstances (Spratt et al., 2011). When a person is learning a language, they rarely get it right at first which is common even when people are learning the first language. Native speakers of a language tend to make mistakes during informal conversations too (Harmer, 2012). What teachers traditionally do whenever an error occurs is to correct it immediately, even though with the coming of the communicative approach it is required to redefine this common practice (Littlewood, 1981). Thus, it is recommendable for teachers to accept these errors as a natural occurrence in the process of learning a language, by doing so students will feel and show confidence about using the target language (Hendrickson, 1978). Errors have always been regarded as failure or obstruction to learning or as a strategy for punishing the student and it has been supported by behaviorism (Maicusi, Maicusi and Carrillo, 1999). Types of error correction
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools.

The authors above also pointed out that there are different and stimulating techniques to learn English. First, there are interesting tools for teaching English, such as jigsaw tasks, information gaps and solving tasks. Second, information-gap tasks show that students find out information missing from other students. Third, problem solving tasks where the students have to obtain information to solve a problem. Next, decision-making activities help students to get multiple results of information to solve a problem. And the last task, opinion exchange focus on students guide mutual expressions of opinions without worrying to reach a term.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Kral (1994) argues that time is very important for our lives but it is really important inside the classroom, because in the classroom we have different types of students and the different way how they apply the knowledge and time has an important role. Teachers must keep in mind the algorithm to be used, it means explain students the steps to follow in the class including the time assigned for each activity, also the class must include a warm-up, introduction to the topic, and all the steps considered in a lesson plan; besides this, students must have the time to copy the important information from the board at the end of the lesson, but ¨slower students¨ must have more time to copy the necessary information.
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Followe rs of this method think that “by analyzing the grammar and by finding equivalents between the student’s language and language to be studied, the students will learn how the foreign language is constructed” , Harmer (1998, p.30). For this reason special attention is given to the deep analysis of grammar rules. Students are often asked to translate sentences and texts, and to memorize vocabulary through bilingual list of words which is a very tedious experience for them. It is known that learners use translation as way of understanding the language at various stages of learning, but concentrating in grammar only; as stated by Harmer (1998), does not give students opportunities to activate language knowledge.
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Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Factors that affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian public high schools

Feedback about the task is more effective when it clarifies misconceptions rather than adding more information about the assignment but the disadvantage is that it is only used in one task at a time. Feedback about the processing of the task guide students to do the activity; it is necessary that students assume roles to complete the given assignment. In Feedback about self-regulation, students are responsible for their own learning. Main problem is that this type of feedback is effective with learners that demonstrate and internal disposition to require more information in order to complete the task. Finally, feedback about the person shows several disadvantages because, as the author explains, it is not focused on the learning process. In addition, the use of this type of feedback tend to create a false believe on students that intelligence is a fixed
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Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

Factors that influence the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian private high schools

comfortable with the number of students in their classrooms. The rest of teachers representing 37 % of the group of 15 teachers claimed they were comfortable with the number of students they had to work with. This last group has a reason why they said it; those teachers had groups with less than 20 students. There is a direct relationship between the number of students in a classroom and the rate of success a teacher will have in having students learn according to the number of students in a classroom. The reduced number of students gives ample options of activities, as well as a more personalized focus on students’ needs and individual traits to help the teacher teach better. Savage and Savage (2010) claim the teacher-student ratio needs to be considered as well as the student density ratio for a successful class.
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he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

he influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Italian high-schools

17 Snivicki, Rice, Chism, and Bickford (2002) claim that if the number of students is about 16, the position face to face is more advisable; on the other hand, there is another way to arrange the chairs: they can be placed around the tables which is called “café style”. The advantage of this type of organization gives a successful result because learners are in a comfortable position, since “café style” offers students the possibility to work in pairs or in groups. Also, the authors explain that during the ‘open pair work’ two students discuss some topics under the supervision of their tutor, while the other students can hear the discussion, they do not move from their chairs, which give them the possibility of establishing communication; moreover, the teachers could arrange the seats in a circle and learners can move easily.
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La influencia de las clases numerosas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés en los colegios de Ecuador

La influencia de las clases numerosas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés en los colegios de Ecuador

This research “The influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learning process in Ecuadorian high schools” is aimed to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools. Three research questions were proposed to carry out the investigation; and, a questionnaire was structured and applied to two hundred nine students from three public educational institutions and one private high school in the city of Quito who were selected at random. They were attending to eight year of basic to third year of secondary and their ages oscillated between 12 and 18 years old.
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Use of communicative activities and English Language Learning in basic level students at the language center of Cesar Vallejo University.

Use of communicative activities and English Language Learning in basic level students at the language center of Cesar Vallejo University.

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions can be deduced that students taught with interactive teaching technique performed significantly better than students taught with Conventional Method. The trend of higher performance by the experimental group could be as a result of guiding rules in the learning atmosphere provided by the teaching approach, which helped the students to master the grammatical concepts without much difficulty than the control groups. It could also be as result of the elimination of teacher strained relationship or the exciting nature of the approach in using step by step procedure in teaching and learning atmosphere. The step by step instruction procedure provided by the approach is a unique technique that could have made for better performance by the experimental group than the control groups. The effective use of interactive teaching technique could also be explained based on the presentation of the concepts with concrete teaching aids. The use of instructional aids is considered effective in enhancing performance in teaching. This situation usually enhances learning since students tend to learn more and better when more of the senses are involved. However, evidence from study revealed that school type has no significant effect on the student’s performance. And that school location has a significant effect on the performance of students when taught English language with the use of interactive teaching technique.
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Analysis of cooperative learning in the teaching learning process of English language with the students of sixth level “C” of Language Center at “Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo” Veloz District, city of Riobamba, Chimborazo Province during the school t

Analysis of cooperative learning in the teaching learning process of English language with the students of sixth level “C” of Language Center at “Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo” Veloz District, city of Riobamba, Chimborazo Province during the school term october 2016 march 2017

English is used in the daily life such as newspapers, televisions, Internet and in other sources because English is an international language which is used all over the world. Reading skill is necessary for those whose official language is not English to access and information in their daily lives. Several research reports agree that there is a strong correlation between reading and academic success. In other words, a student who is a good reader is more likely to do well in school and pass exams than a student who is a weak reader. As the world becomes more complex, reading is increasingly more important for students trying to find their place in it.
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Teachers and student’s perceptions of teaching English as a Second language in small classes

Teachers and student’s perceptions of teaching English as a Second language in small classes

The results in statement 20 indicated that three teacher which is equivalent to 60% are totally agreed that a small class allows students to keep a healthy competence, two teachers that represents 20% of the sample agreed with the statement. From the students’ point of view the outcome indicates that twenty six students, the 70% of the sample, felt that small class invites them to have a healthy competence between classmates. Likewise, eight students which correspond 5% just agreed with it. It was also indicated that three participant were partially agreed with the statement. In contrary with the above, one student which represent 3%, did not feel that having a small number of the students in a classroom will allowed to a healthy competence. This disagreement may be due to that the students has not enjoy any kid of activities that required a competence. A clear competition was observed within the students and that created a perfect environment and gave the students a great moment in which to learn. It also invited the students to own the classroom learning process.
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The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

The influence of large classes in the English language teaching-learning process in Ecuadorian high schools

Before keep on indicating the results obtained in the survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
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