The aim of this paper is to show the initial findings of research focused on the potential of LessonStudy –a cooperative action research strategy– for the reconstruction of the practical knowledge of infant school teachers, and its implications for initial and ongoing training. Within this framework, our interest is to further extend our analysis of the role of teachers, which forms one of the core areas of the research and also one of the expressions which make up practice based on practical thinking aspects such as knowledge, abilities, attitudes, values and emotions (Soto, Serván, Peña and Pérez, 2013), in order to better understand the reconstruction process in both espoused theories and theories-in-use (Argyris, 1995).
Analysing further, we can say that unless the teacher is capable of reconstructing his or her beliefs, images and intuitive Gestalts, as developed –without the need for consciousness or reflection– in the long process of socialisation as a student or teacher, in order to transform them into informed Gestalts resulting from scientific and espoused theories and one's own relevant experiences and those of others (Korthagen, 2008), there are no guarantees of conscious action adapted in line with the new, complex, ever- changing contemporary educational challenges which guide practice in complex classroom situations. For this reason we start from the basis that LessonStudy constitutes, in our opinion, a fundamental resource and procedure to facilitate the internal contrasting of the espoused theories of the participants whilst designing the methodological cores of the action and, above all, between the design and application of the proposal (Pérez, Soto, Serván and Peña, 2014). With this motive in mind and the methodological approach presented below, we aim to answer the following after applying LessonStudy in this group of Pre-School teachers: Are there changes in PK and PT? Are the gaps between espoused theories and theories-in-use modified? What was the impact on their professional growth?
Aunque es igualmente visible en los momentos de observación y análisis posterior de la Lesson, donde los docentes registran y contrastan las evidencias del aprendi- zaje de los estudiantes. Situarse como observadores les ayudó a reflexionar sobre su conocimiento práctico, tanto al que observa la acción como al que la desarrolla. En el caso de la formación inicial, el propio alumnado participante, lo ha puesto de manifiesto en la fase final de la LS, el contexto ampliado, concretada a través de las exposiciones finales de clase, como en la evaluación final del Trabajo de Fin de Gra- do donde el resto del tribunal evaluador ha sido consciente del relevante proceso de teorización de la práctica y experimentación de la teoría que han alcanzado a través de las diferentes fases de la LessonStudy, como cristalización de las competencias profesionales requeridas para ser docente (Soto, Serván & Caparrós 2016).
The data collection not only provides information itself to inform practice but goes hand in hand with a coherent explanation of the process used by the student- teachers in designing the lessons and setting up the inquiry, which leads to the pres- entation of evidence in the report, indicating that they have understood the process they have been through and can show what they have learned. In addition, it is also very important to consider how teacher-educators support student-teachers to reflect on, organise and report their work in writing. In order to help student- teachers to reflect better and more profoundly on lessonstudy implementation, Mar- tin and Clerc-Georgy (2015) developed a lessonstudy reporting protocol consisting of three elements. First, a 13-statement questionnaire based on Honigsfeld and Cohan’s (2006) research asks student-teachers to indicate their level of agreement on a five-point Likert scale on the impact of lessonstudy on current teaching effec- tiveness, on becoming a more successful participant in a collaborative educational setting, and on the likelihood of their seeking out advice from other teachers on planning and implementing lessons. Secondly, a general open questionnaire in rela- tion to the context deals with various aspects of lessonstudy such as strengths and weaknesses, contributions to the profession, and difficulties encountered. Thirdly, an individual self-evaluation allows student-teachers to identify knowledge gains during their training sessions and reflect upon knowledge gained and their actual practice during the teacher placement. These three elements not only help student- teachers when structuring their report, but also help them to develop a more critical view and make connections between the theory studied and the practice.
A partir de aquí empieza el segundo eje de esta tesis: La Formación Permanente en relación a la enseñanza de la lectura y la escritura, que ocupa los capítulos V, VI, y VII. Comienza en mi paso por el colegio Nuestra Sra. de Gracia, primero como docente de Infantil y después como Directora y docente del primer ciclo de Primaria, donde descubro cómo en pocos años, si nos unimos, se puede cambiar la escuela y hacer de ésta, un proyecto de vida apasionante. Siento la necesidad de difundir este sueño, esta utopia, y además de otras cuestiones personales, aterrizo en el Centro de Profesorado de la Axarquía y después, como ya avanzaba, en la Universidad, en la Formación Inicial, como profesora asociada al Departamento de Didáctica y Organización. Ya en este momento, pienso que la transformación de la escuela no pasa por leyes o decretos, si no pasa por el cuerpo y la mente de los docentes es imposible el cambio. Aquí y en el CEP, coordinado con la Universidad y con mi grupo de investigación, tengo la oportunidad de participar en varios proyectos de innovación e investigación donde se está planteando un nuevo enfoque en la Formación Inicial y Permanente del profesorado: Las LessonStudy. Este enfoque me interesó muchísimo porque después de unos cuantos años como asesora de formación, ya había descubierto que el modelo transmisivo de la teoría a la práctica tiene muy poco impacto en la misma y andaba buscando modelos alternativos que cambiaran las prácticas. Esta es la pregunta que orienta el capítulo V: ¿Cómo se cambian las prácticas?
Normally, a teacher is the only one who evaluates or reflects on his own teaching practices without having a contradictory consideration against his perceptions or beliefs on teaching. This, although it can be taken as a self – regulation of teacher performance, it might also induce a biased and narrow perspective that limits teaching expectations in accordance with students’ needs. This way, the use of the lessonstudy to enhance teacher talk clarity might provide teachers with opportunities or insights from colleagues and even students, not with the purpose criticizing their performance, but instead with the aim of fostering it based on weaknesses and strengths. This, implies that a teacher’s open attitude to receive, accept, apply and deal with others’ beliefs about teaching, may be turned into teaching and learning opportunities that benefit not only the teacher, but his or her students as well.
Hacia 1920, se impulsó que los profesores de algunas escuelas propusieran sus propios métodos de enseñanza; ello comportó otorgar un acentuado protagonismo a los alumnos en las clases. A su vez, esto sirvió de base para la aparición de nuevos métodos de enseñanza, que se enfocaron en la re- solución de problemas. Esta dinámica provocó resistencia en actores del sistema educacional, pero, debido justamente a que las clases se podían observar, los detractores quedaron impresionados al ver que los alumnos aprendían por sí mismos por medio de la resolución de problemas. De este modo, en el proceso, la crítica de la lección fue introducida como un método de formación del profesorado con el propósito de examinar el quehacer pedagógico y mejorar su efectividad. Por tanto, las LS han sido utilizadas sistemáticamente en Japón para examinar la eficacia de la educación en torno al logro de las metas de aprendizajes deseados. Posteriormente, esta metodología fue llevada, de manera exitosa, a países como Australia, Malasia y Estados Unidos (Murata, 2005; Stella López & Toro Alvarez, 2008). Por otra parte, parece oportuno precisar que el término de LessonStudy deriva de la palabra japonesa Jyugyo-Kenkyu, “estudio de la lección”; término que fue acuñado por Makoto Yoshida y que también puede ser traducido como “lección de la investigación” [acuñado por Catherine Lewis]. El propio nombre evidencia el nivel de escrutinio aplicado a las clases individuales. Los objetivos planteados y la dinámica propuesta en el sistema educacional japonés requieren de alto grado de desarrollo de las capacidades de los profesores. Ello supone especial atención en la formación pedagógica y en la necesidad de un programa de capacitación continua y permanente, cuidadosamente estructurado. (Isoda & Olfos, 2009).
La LessonStudy como metodología modeladora ha permitido plasmar un ciclo de reflexión – acción en el colectivo docente, llevando a cabo procesos en conjunto que han permitido mejorar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje en los docentes en formación (Calvo y Rodríguez, 2017; Peña, 2013); través de los resultados presentados se debe contrastar la importancia de la interpretación y la acción del docente en el contexto práctico que ha permitido generar la construcción y organización del proceso, por lo que se promueve el intercambio y la acción personal, social y profesional, se activan respuestas automáticas e inconscientes que parecen divergir e incluso contradecir nuestro pensamiento más racional y consciente pero que ha permitido la reconstrucción en la formación permanente del pensamiento práctico en el colectivo de manera cooperativa.
The case study presented in this paper aimed at investigating how PSTs might become competent reflective educators. Thus, the study analyzes 12 undergraduate pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the way lessonstudy has contributed to a more effective teaching practice to preschool and primary school pupils. These 12 PSTs are part of a much larger cohort who will do teaching practices in several schools in the region. For this specific pilot project, only two schools in the area were willing to accept PSTs under the lessonstudy scope. Their capacity to allocate PSTs was up to 12. Thus, in this way, the 12 PSTs (8 women and 4 men) who participated in the study were the ones who were randomly allocated in these two schools.
In developing this experience over the last few years, we have been able to collect evidence on how students overcame different cognitive processes during the process. Students can directly experience teaching autonomy in order to design learning contexts related to childhood interests. We see how the LessonStudy process, with its phases and cooperative work, allows them to combine creativity and singular talents in a common project that acquires meaning and relevance thanks to SeL. This provides a framework that facilitates the construction of solid structures related to the meaning of the educational process, and which can be used to recalibrate what it means to be an Infant School teacher: a creative, relevant, complex experience that requires them to recreate the knowledge and experience which prospective infant school teachers bring to the university training process.
Soto Gómez, E., Serván Núñez, M.J., Pérez Gómez, A.I. y Peña Trapero, N. (2015). LessonStudy and the development of teacher’s competences. From practical knowledge to practical thinking. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies. 4(3), 209-223. ISSN: 2046-8253. DOI 10.1108/IJLLS-09-2014-0034
The aim of this research project, for which we present part of the results, is to analyse the possibilities offered by LessonStudy in the context of initial training for the reconstruction of the practical knowledge of student teachers through cooperative design, experimentation and assessment of curriculum-making projects. In this regard, the curriculum can be seen as creation or recreation based on generating proposals, and involves a creative process by the teacher, who interprets classroom life and recomposes and redirects his or her forecasts in line with events and requirements. The teacher is therefore a creator of circumstances, a builder or creator of the curriculum (Clandinin and Connelly, 2000).
In the Interdisciplinary Core, we felt it necessary to expand the educational innovation experiences 3 which fed the external contrast process. We realised, following the Learning Study philosophy, that analysing a single experience was not enough to abstract the basic critical elements of the innovation process. The contrast of experiences would help them to understand and differentiate the critical and common dimensions of any process from the most accidental, singular attributes of each experience. Our LessonStudy process incorporated Learning Study principles.
the end I end up making more changes even at the moment of implementing the planner, of course without changing the essence of the lesson or the topics or anything, but I end up putting other activities or modifying the way they are done, then sometimes I think, I do not know if all that work that other people did is being lost, because sometimes it doesn’t work for me; and, I’m not saying that my activities are the only ones which work for my class, but definitely some activities don’t work for me. There are also super cool activities that I would not have thought of and I say, uh, cool, this is very interesting, I would not have thought of this and it’s nice, it’s cool… Interview 1. June 21st, 2016. Participant 6. Although this teacher mentioned that some activities were replaced according to the needs of the groups, she was also aware that some of the activities were actually very innovative and offered a new perspective on the concepts that were to be taught. The participant also made an analysis regarding the amount of work that the planners required and how this work might have been lost if teachers did not make use of the resources and activities proposed.
Additionally, the qualitative paradigm helps better understanding any phenomenon about which little is yet known, as claimed by Strauss and Corbin (1990), which matches with our motivation to explore this teaching/learning methodology in Colombian soils. In addition to this, Mack, Woodsong, M. Macqueen, Guest, & Namey. (2005) inform us about other aspects that are included in the qualitative research for us to be taken into account. The first one will be when seeking answers for questions, whether the questions are opened or closed, qualitative research also allows us to collect evidence through field notes and observations. One of the most important aspects in this research is that qualitative research allows us to find things that were not part of the research study. This qualitative research allow us to be involved with the perceptions participants may have about cultural specific information which is very relevant to our study.
www.smarttech.com> Support> Downloads> en la opción SMART Notebook collaborative learning software, se escoge el sistema operativo donde se va a realizar la instalación del repositorio (Windows o Mac) y por ultimo damos clic en la opción Lesson Activity ToolKit Downloads allí se selecciona el LAT que se desea descargar.
This group should be placed in levels through the Common European Framework of References for Languages or the CEFR. According to the semester of study, they are currently in the group that should be at a higher A2 level, however only 7 students are actually at this level in the group. The majority or 16 students fall at a lower A2 level, 5 are at a B1 level and 2 are at a B2 level. Because of the various levels it is regular for some students to get bored and stop paying attention, while others feel lost because the content of the curriculum is too difficult so they ultimately stop participating in the class. It can be seen that all of the students who are studying to be teachers take English together regardless of their skill level. There are teacher trainees in each class ranging from beginner to advanced intermediate. This can create challenges for teachers to create engaging lessons with activities that spark interest and are at the correct level of all of the students in the class.
In the sixth class, the topic was “Ordinal numbers” and the objective o f the class was to use ordinal numbers to indicate position. The whiteboard was used to make a review of ordinal numbers; the teacher drew four columns. In the first column she wrote “1°” , in the second column sh e wrote “first” , in the third column she wrote “January”, and in the fourth column she wrote “January is the first month of the year” . Then, she encouraged some students to complete the list until number twelve. Once students finished the list, the teacher used a red marker to correct the mistakes. The whiteboard was pertinent to the topic and objectives of the lesson because it helped students to practice ordinal numbers. Similarly, it was appropriate to students’ age and level because the drawing on the board called students’ attention and they practiced simple sentences that allowed them to comprehend the use of ordinal numbers. The whiteboard was in good conditions and the content was well organized. The drawing was made using different color markers, it was big enough, and all students were able to see it.
The Lesson Plan Platform has been developed with the goal of allowing teachers to structure and share their lesson plans in any domain. It aims to make lesson planning a structured pro- cess in which teachers describe goals, strategies and instruments to be used in their classes. During this process, the tool automatically identifies the main topics of the course and then tries to recommend related contents. The tool has been developed in PHP and Java,also using theYiiFramework(http://www.yiiframework.com/) and Postgre.