Here we claim that semantic technologies can provide a solution to the dis- covery of web resources in the context of the LifeSciences. common interface for registering, browsing and annotating LifeSciences web services. To enhance its accessibility and usability, BioCatalogue can be indexed by search engines such as Google, provides a programmable API and can be queried from a web browser. The catalogue does not host the services but provides a mechanism to discover and annotate them. BioCatalogue annotations explain what the services do and how to use them. These annotations are manually provided by the service providers and the user community plus some monitoring and usage analysis data obtained automatically by BioCatalogue servers. However, at the moment, most of these annotations are very far from being standard metadata specifications, as they are just free text elements that do not conform to the my Grid ontology
This does not mean that there have been no attempts to write the history of particular fields in the postwar and Cold War physical and lifesciences. The social history of science in Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia has produced first-grade studies that show the importance of studying science and technology at the “periphery” to understand scientific prac- tices and the construction of hegemonic views through international collaboration in the postwar world. In particular, the role of the Rockefeller Foundation in Latin America has given impulse to important historical research. Marcos Cueto’s book on malaria eradication in Mexico (2009), for instance, shows the profound relations between the foundation and Mexi- can physicians. Another example of this collaboration is the study of the Green Revolution and the role played by the such foundation (Barahona 2009, Cueto 2007, Harwood 2009), as well as the recent socio-historical study on the barbasco industry in Mexico by Gabriela Soto Laveaga (2010). Focusing on Mexico, a few studies in the history of science during the Cold War have recently been published. For instance, Azuela and Tal- ancón (1999) studied the Mexican nuclear project from the 1940s and the 1950s up to the acquisition of a nuclear reactor set in use at the Laguna Verde nuclear plant in 1989. Though they make a brief reference to the impact of WWII on Mexican nuclear physics, their book extends over a long period of national history, and it is centered on local or national politics (such as the intervention of labor unions in nuclear policy), while the circulation of international practices and their establishment in Mexican settings is missing.
The second problem is based on the semantic heterogeneity, which is a problem derived of the use of Linked Data in the category of LifeSciences. For example, as described in , one example that reflects the problem of semantic heterogeneity is PhLeGrA. This platform, published in 2017, has as objective to integrate four RDF data sources in pharmacology through SPARQL query federation, to tackle the structural heterogeneity in LifeSciences data and discover new pharmacological associations. In this project, the authors detected that the same drugs can be represented several times by different URIs in different RDF data sources. According to the authors, it is necessary a process of URIs reconciliation that can not be solved with query federation given their complexity. Therefore, in order to address the problem of URIs reconciliation, the Linked Data applications’ developers use warehousing in which all data is transformed under a common schema using a uniform set of notations or shared identifier repositories. An example of this is the work developed by  in which RDF data sources from NCBI taxonomy, Uniprot, Kegg and Bio2RDF were stored in a common Virtuoso RDF repository whose data in RDF is retrieved by the kpath application. However, this solution requires a lot of maintenance efforts and updating by the developers. The steep learning curve is another problem on the understanding of the end-users the Linked Data technology in LifeSciences. In , the authors stress the lack of documentation or guidelines in order to discover and reuse the information stored as RDF and interconnected to other sources and also the problems that many LifeSciences researchers have to make SPARQL queries. Taking into account all these problems, in 2013, we published the platform Bioqueries that aims to encourage the sharing of users’ experience trying to take advantage of Linked Data in the LifeSciences domain . Bioqueries aims to start the process towards a greater understanding of LifeSciences Linked Data sources by means of online social networks. Bioqueries opens up a way to build-up communities around a shared interest in certain biological domains to take advantage of public Linked Data. This is achieved by sharing a virtual space in a wiki-based portal for the design and execution of (federated and non-federated) SPARQL queries that are documented using natural language descriptions. However, Bioqueries currently confronts the aforementioned problem of availability as many of the SPARQL services have stopped by the maintainers with exception of some successful projects such as EBI RDF platform. The success of this project might be explained because of the its capability of data centralization as EBI is one of the largest resources on Bioinformatics in the world. However, the quality of the Open Linked Data cloud increases as much as the data providers publish their data as Linked Open Data.
systemic approach in lifesciences can be finally borrowed from Urbani Ulivi: “Referring to ordered reports what has often seemed a maze of contingencies, all the diversity, behavior, expressions are fleeting and changeable, as parts, but they are deeply and inextricably linked to that stable and invariant relational pattern, proper and exclusive of the ’hu- man’” (Urbani Ulivi 2011, 247).
For Aristotle and for pre-Darwinian biology knowledge of the struc- tures and life histories of whole organisms, is the most relevant quest since morphology, development and reproduction (that it is true to type) entail continuity, regularity and so stability in this ever-changing world. Hence in the composite of matter and form that constitutes a particular thing, it is the formal component that is the primary substance. This formal compo- nent is the thing’s nature (essence) and so the development of an animal is the path to its nature as form which is not only mere shape because it also implies function (since function follows form). Therefore, a sculpture may have the shape of a horse, but it is obviously not a horse since it cannot fulfill the activities proper to a horse.
1995; DeBoer and Boerlijst 1994; Sasaki 1994; Nowak and May 2000). The basic theoretical idea is that a rapidly replicating HIV quasispecies estab- lishes a permanent infection that goes through many viral generations within a short time. The immune system responds to various viral epitopes, but the virus population escapes from many such responses by generating mutants that are not recognized in particular epitopes. During the cause of infec- tion, virus evolution proceeds toward increasing pathogenicity by reducing immune control and increasing viral abundance. There is ample experimen- tal evidence for this mode of disease progression: (i) The HIV population in any one infected host is fairly homogeneous during primary phase but becomes heterogeneous afterwards (Bonhoeﬀer and Nowak 1994; Bonhoeﬀer et al. 1995; Wolinsky et al. 1996); (ii) the average life-cycle of HIV during the asymptomatic phase of infection is short, about 1-2 days (Ho et al. 1995; Perelson et al. 1996; Bonhoeﬀer et al. 1997); hence the HIV quasi-species can rapidly respond to selection pressure; (iii) HIV escapes from B-cell and T-cell mediated immune responses (Phillips et al. 1991; Wei et al. 2003; Addo et al. 2003).
In a more exaggerated way than eighteenth-century Philosophy, LifeSciences in the 1700s is mostly composed of treatises (>75%), suggesting this time again a connection between scientific discipline and genre (even though, as was mentioned earlier, it is probable that the definitive version of CELiST will have a different classification and a lesser proportion of treatises). Of the three scientific disciplines contemplated for our study, eighteenth-century LifeSciences appears to have the most formal, specialised frame of discourse, which seems to indicate that the topics listed above were treated with similar rigour and precision (at least, concerning genre conventions). Some diversity is nonetheless present, with two essays, one textbook and one letter. In the nineteenth century, treatises still occupy the main position, but cover now only half of the subcorpus, giving way to the didactic genres (lectures and textbooks), two letters and an article. As was noticed in previous studies (Atkinson 1999; Moskowich & Monaco 2014, 2016), it is likely that letters are used in the nineteenth-century part of CELiST as a carefully constructed genre which invites the reader to “observe” something (in this case, nature) from a so-called “personal” (i.e. the writer’s) view, often used by women writers. On the other hand, the emergence of the Textbook and the Lecture genres in the nineteenth century seems to suggest that, just like Philosophy, LifeSciences had a more theoretical character in the eighteenth century, whereas the need (or possibility) for using it as a means of instruction may have materialised later in the nineteenth century. The case of Astronomy, by contrast, is completely the opposite in that it was in the eighteenth century that the necessity of teaching seemed to be more apparent, considering the large number of textbooks (see Figures 3.2 and 3.3).
genuine innovation when compared to the other two dominant forms of economic organization: the firm and the market. Social or non-market production emerges from “the very core of our economic engine”, affecting first of all the key economic sector of “the production and exchange of information, and through it information-based goods, tools, services and capabilities”. Such a shift would suggest “a genuine limit on the extent of the market […] growing from within the very market that it limits in its most advanced loci” (2006, p. 19). Benkler sets out to describe “sus- tained productive enterprises that take the form of decentralized and non-market-based production, and explain why productivity and growth are consistent with a shift towards such modes of production” (2006, p. 34). Social production mobilizes the “life of the social”, that is, the productive power of social relations between free individuals who act “as human beings and as social beings rather than as market actors through the price system” (2006, p. 7). Thanks to the networked information economy, social production would have become directly “effective” (hence productive) as demonstrated by the success of “free software, distributed computing, and other forms of peer production [that] offer clear examples of large-scale, measurably effective sharing practices” (2006, p. 121).
Tras la aprobación de la LOMCE y del Real Decreto 126/2014, de 28 de febrero, por el que se establece el currículo básico de la Educación Primaria, se regula que para la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León en el segundo curso se destinan 2 horas y media semanales de la asignatura específica de Natural Sciences. Además, según el artículo 13 establecido en la Ley Orgánica 2/2006, de 3 de mayo para el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras, se indica que “las Administraciones educativas podrán establecer que una parte de las asignaturas del currículo se impartan en lenguas extranjeras sin que ello suponga modificación de los aspectos básicos del currículo regulados en el presente real decreto. En este caso, procurarán que a lo largo de la etapa el alumnado adquiera la terminología propia de las asignaturas en ambas lenguas”.
The need to include new concepts in the service life approaches continued in 1998 (Helene, 2003) when the concept of service life was divided into several parts. Helene (2003) presented the service life stage divided into four specific and overlapped parts. All these approaches have helped to improve the predictions of service life through deterministic or probabilistic models. However, the overlapping of their different stages has complicated the precision of the predictions because many chemical, physical or electro-chemical phenomena can have totally different behaviour in different stages of the service life. Therefore, an approach is needed with defined and not overlapped stages that could allow better service life predictions in any of its stages. In other words, we should not make predictions of service life if we do not know the expected behaviour of all the phenomena during the whole service life, which is practically impossible.
Las organizaciones policiales son la principal fuente de sufrimiento psíquico entre sus agentes, lo cual compromete la calidad de vida de estos profesionales. Este estudio, se propuso como objetivo, resumir la producción científica sobre calidad de vida de policías, a través de una revisión sistemática de estudios observacionales. Con este propósito, fueron utilizadas las bases de datos MEDLINE vía Pubmed, CINAHL y SCOPUS, así como artículos identificados por medio de la búsqueda manual. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó los siguientes descriptores: qualities of life, quality of life, life qualities, life quality; police, police force, police forces, police officers, officer- police, officers-police, police officer, military police; epidemiologic studies, exp case control studies, exp cohort studies, case control, cohort adj (study or studies), cohort analys, follow up adj (study or studies), observational adj (study or studies),
Pau Alsina, lecturer at the Faculty of Humanities and Language and Literature, and Co-ordinator, Artnodes space, co-ordinated the lectures in the programme of the Sónar, Festival of Advanced Music and Multimedia Art. [22.6.2005] Barcelonès Support Centre I Jornada sobre el MiDoc d’Humanitats. [22.6.2005] UOC, Tibidabo, 47 Meeting of IN3’s Scientific Committee. The following experts took part: Martin Carnoy, Professor of Economics at Stanford University in California; Cecilia Castaño, Professor of Applied Economics at the Complutense University of Madrid; Vinton Cerf, Vice President of WorldCom; Betty Collis, Professor of On-line Knowledge and Technology for Strategy at the University of Twente in Holland; Jerome A. Feldman, Professor of Computer Science at the University of California (Berkeley); Miguel Ángel Lagunas, lecturer at the Escola Superior d’Enginyeria de Telecomunicació of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia; Robin Mansell, Professor of New Media and the Internet at the London School of Economics and Political Science; William J. Mitchell, Professor of Architecture, Digital Art and Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Vicenç Navarro, Professor of Political and Social Sciences at the Pompeu Fabra University; and Emilio Ontiveros, Professor of Business Economics at the Autonomous University of Madrid. [30.6.2005] Barcelona
Second Life es una consecuencia de la Sociedad de la Información en la que vivimos, en la que la tecnología es capaz de adaptarse a nuestras necesidades; sin embargo, el desarrollo de las redes sociales virtuales, como Facebook o Twitter, que permiten a los usuarios conectarse y establecer relaciones entre sí en un (no) espacio que se encuentra entre la realidad y la virtualidad, ha afectado de forma notable a la popularidad de Second Life. Las redes sociales virtuales ofrecen a los usuarios una conexión satisfactoria entre la realidad y la virtualidad de los usuarios, un factor que no ha conseguido resolver Second Life, puesto que cuenta con la presencia de elementos reales en el metaverso y simultáneamente mantiene una, la falta de conexión entre lo que sucede en la virtualidad y las vidas de los residentes. A esto se ha unido la dificultad que presenta la competencia con otros mundos fantásticos, propuestos por videojuegos como World of Warcraft, en los cuales el objetivo de competir es un reclamo para jugadores de videojuegos ya experimentados.
come out of this conception. First of all, Aristotle increases the value of phenomenal reality and concrete situation whose variety he leads back to the variety of being: in fact the concept/term “being” is “used in various senses”. From the epistemological point of view, this attitude helps interpret complexity: in fact, many sciences correspond to the variety of reality. Especially from the pedagogical standpoint, Aristotle’s mind is appreciable, because it justifies one fundamental science (pedagogy) connected to many specific sciences (sciences of education). It is important to emphasise that this formulation allows to conform to the most recent epistemological paradigm without renouncing to consider pedagogy as the basic science securing unity to education. In fact, the paradigm of “sciences of education” exposes pedagogy to the risk of fragmentation. From this point of view, Aristotle’s ontology helps recognise that pedagogy is a rational science, even if it differs from the kind of rationality peculiar to natural sciences. Pedagogy is a practical science: the Aristotelian metaphysics leads to appreciate the complexity of human action; the Aristotelian ethics and psychology lead to appreciate the complexity of voluntary decision and human conscience without yielding to irrationality. Aristotle analyses passions, classifies virtues, appreciates emotions but always aiming at human responsibility, because –as he says– the human being is the “rational animal”. What does it mean? To ancient Greek “rationality” is lógos and this word means at the same time:
Centre, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant (BB/F017324/1), a Hans Rausing PhD Scholarship and COLCIENCIAS (Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación de Colombia). We thank the many researchers who generously con- tributed their data to the PREDICTS project; including The Nature Conservation Foundation, Ros Blanche, Zhi Ping Cao, Kristina Cockle, Emily Davis, Moisés Barbosa de Souza, Carsten F Dormann, Christo Fabricius, Colin Ferguson, Heleen Fermon, Toby Gardner, Eva Gaublomme, Marco S Gottschalk, Peter Hietz, Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia, Daniel L Kelly, Lee Hsiang Liow, Takashi Matsumoto, William McShea, Elder F Morato, Andreas Müller, Philip Nyeko, Tim O’Connor, Clint Otto, Simon Paradis, Marino Rodrigues, Watana Sakchoowong, Hari Sridhar, Susan Walker, Rachael Winfree, Timothy T Work, Torsten Wronski, Gregory Zimmerman and all the field assis- tants, parataxonomists and taxonomists who collected and identi- fied the animals, plants and fungi in the database. We thank all the many funding agencies and other organizations that have supported the original research that produced these data; these include Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Tembec, the University of Miami Beyond the Book Research Scholarship, the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Supplemental Award. We thank Technical Solutions and Informatics staff at the Natural History Museum, London, especially Srinivas Patlola, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott and Chris Sleep.
Critical Art Ensemble in collaboration with Beatriz Da Costa). This consists of a robotic installation produced as part of the GenTerra project (2001-2003). This machine contains ten closed samples of bacteria. Nine of them are unaltered, but one has been genetically modified by introducing human DNA. The spectator can decide whether to press a red button that activates the machine so that it randomly selects and opens one of the samples, like a game of Russian roulette. This artwork investigates fears derived from the coexistence of two living beings in the same space, drawing the attention to the idea of co- presence (Hauser, 2008). Although the exposed bacteria (including the genetically modified one) are harmless, this work helps us to understand the value of interactivity in Bio Art and the experience of the existent continuity of life (between spectator and work) beyond taxonomical frontiers. In interactions with life, we touch on everything that life implies, such as ethical standards (related to altering life), biological issues (material behaviour and environmental effects), philosophical concepts (such as the negotiation of artificial and natural), and social and ideological aspects (the fears of pests, monsters and chimeras, as explored by Alsina & Rennó, 2012: 179-190) that arise through the dialogue between nature-culture).
In this context, linear, reductionist, single- discipline, mechanistic thinking is not only hopelessly out of date; it is increasingly irrele- vant — even dangerous. Education purportedly prepares learners to take control of their life. However, those who ﬁ nd themselves only caring for their own thrivability cannot participate in the co-creation of ﬂ ourishing futures for all of humanity with the rest of life on this planet. The need to focus also on the thrivability of others and ways to provide convivial contexts for them to engage with life is increasingly a requisite survival skill. This frame evokes exploration of, and engagement with, the way in which learning, playing, talking, dancing and all aspects of life as art connect us to ourselves, to each other, to the more-than-human world and across time to past and future generations of all beings. These are the four intertwingled dimensions of systemic thrivability. Empathy Oriented Education engages learners across all four dimensions through dynamics that encourage consciously connecting, intertwingling and cultivating the bigger story of our individual and collective being and becoming. The quality and character of this story depends on the way in which each learner is empowered to author their life along these four dimensions. Such contextuality is a key leverage point in Empathy Oriented Education for thrivability. As suggested by Laszlo and Russell (2013), that foster empathy and serves thrivability would include these four integrated dimensions:
Further, the hypothesis that there exist regular interactions in constant numbers for each gene constitutes a generalization, even an extrapolation, without direct relation to experimental results. To suppose that in each gene two promoters are directly dependent on the host is already a hypothesis not founded on the general situation but only on some very specific cases. To further suppose that everything happens as if the genomic interactions functioned in a Boolean network is to put into operation a virtual machine, which is supposed to reproduce the succes- sion of live generations. It is above all, the duration to stabilize of the system (in number of generations) and its form (in number of attractors) which allows the establishment of the connection with actual life. For endosymbiosis, the Kauffman model with C=1 and K=2 would corre- spond well to what has been experimentally observed by Jeon in the amoeba. This suggests a similarity in the stabilization of each of the interactive systems.
Complexity, it should be mentioned from the outset, is not a fragmented domain. Instead, it is a cross-disciplinary ield made up by a number of sciences – namely, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, chaos, artiicial life, complex networks, and fractals. Therefore, it is also made up by numerous theories, such as catastrophe theory, turbulence, self-organization, luctua - tions, percolation, or bifurcations theory. As a consequence, the approaches are varied and manifold, and science, the humanities, and engineering are inner peers in the ield. As it has been pointed out, social systems are to be grasped in three scales that are methodologically distinguished but cons- titute a solid unit; these are natural social systems, human social systems, and artiicial social systems (Maldonado, 2009). Broadly said, a theory of organizations – which is one of the pretentions if not of the assets of management should cross, incorporate or encompass all three systems. So far, however, only social human systems are considered, whichfrom the logical and epistemological point of view, is a very expensive enterprise – holding here, in the backstage,the principle of Ockham’s razor. In contrast, the complex-minded approach to organizations demands and enables at the same time the integration of the three mentioned social systems.
One theme emerging from Internet research has been the use of the Internet to complement, rather than displace, both existing media and existing patterns of behaviour. Is the same true for the mobile? Another theme has been how Internet access at home has enabled more flexible working, and the increased permeability of the boundaries between work and home life. While flexibility may be positive, there is also a concern about work intensification and extended working hours. Are mobiles extending these trends and do they represent a qualitative shift in how people negotiate everyday life? The Oxford Internet Survey (OxIS: http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/?rq=oxis/index) indicates that people believe that the Internet saves time, while other surveys indicate that people are experiencing time pressure or a shortage of time. How do we explain such a paradox? How much is this to do with the speeding up of activities through the use of ICTs? One would expect that ICTs both ease and exacerbate time pressures. Preliminary research indicates that ICTs do both: ease as well as intensify time pressure. As Geoff Cooper (2001) put it: the mobile is a classic example of a device which both facilitates the intensification of demands made upon people and makes it possible to meet them.