C. Ovalle, S. Espinoza, V. Barahona, M. Gerding, A. Humphries, and A. del Pozo. 2015. Lucerne and other perennial legumes provide new options for rainfed livestock production in the Mediterranean-climate region of Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 42(3): 461-474. In dryland Mediterranean environments, the productivity of annual legumes is low during autumn and winter, with plant senescence typically beginning by the middle of spring because of low soil water availability. Therefore, the use of deep-rooted perennial legumes may provide an alternative to annual legumes in regions with a soil moisture deficit. We evaluated the germplasm of new perennial legumes with deep rooting systems in two field experiments in the interior drylands of central Chile. In experiment 1, sixteen genotypes of four perennial legume species, nine cultivars (cvs.) of Medicago sativa, two of Hedysarum coronarium, three of Lotus tenuis, and two of Lotus corniculatus were evaluated for three seasons (2012-2014). In experiment 2, eight additional genotypes from two perennial legume species (M. sativa and H. coronarium) were evaluated between 2013 and 2015. Additionally, sixteen cultivars and accessions of M. sativa were evaluated in raised beds, with nine from Australia, two from Spain, two from California and three of Andean origin. We evaluated plant survival, nodulation, plant height at the end of the winter period and temporal distribution of biomass production. The persistence of M. sativa cultivars was high (over 80% survival after three years), but only the lucerne produced high yields (8-11 Mg ha -1 in the third season). Significant differences for winter production
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for this calculation, the methodology recommends the method described by the IPCC (2006) for Nex estimations. Subsequently, the proportion of Nex that is deposited in housing, yards or pastures is calculated, and it is based on the number of days during the year in which the animals are confined. The Nex value in each stage is multiplied by the proportion of TAN (Table 2) to obtain the quantity of TAN deposited during each stage of manure management. The quantities of TAN available in each manure stage (solid and slurry) are multiplied by specific emission factors to obtain the NH 3 -N losses from volatilization. Table 2 shows the EFs and TAN for the primary livestock categories. Because the immobilization or loss of TAN reduces the potential for NH 3 -N emissions during storage and subsequent dispersion, the model takes into account the amount of TAN that is immobilized in organic material when the manure is managed as a solid. In addition, the method allows for an estimation of the quantity of TAN that is converted into N 2 O and NO and N 2 , by using emission factors for each gas. The third method is more precise than the second one and does not have any limitations, to the extent that it
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Diego I. Rodríguez, G. Anríquez, and J.L. Riveros. 2016. Food security and livestock: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean. Cien. Inv. Agr. 43(1):5-15. The main hurdle to achieving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean is the inability of many poor families to access the foods necessary for a healthy diet, in a context in which food prices and family incomes are fundamental determinants. Animal husbandry plays a key role in the food security of the region, providing products rich in high-quality proteins and micronutrients and is vital for millions of households that depend on livestock for their livelihoods to generate income and have access to basic services. Furthermore, the production and trade of livestock products contributes to the stabilization of the food supply, acting as a buffer during economic crises and disasters both at the individual and community levels. Small farm agriculture is especially important in this scenario, given that most of the production of foods of animal origin depends on this sector and that the majority of the 47 million people who suffer from hunger in our continent live in rural areas. In this complex scenario, a good understanding of the interrelations between food security and the livestock sector, both at the national and household level, is fundamental for the design and implementation of policies that strengthen family livestock production as an essential pillar in regional food security.
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In addition to cropping activities and migra- tion, many households keep livestock. Live- stock in Burkina Faso tends to be raised for multiple purposes. In the surveyed villages, sales of so-called recurrent production, includ- ing milk and wool, are extremely rare. House- holds derive income from livestock mainly through embodied production: an increase in weight or herd size. Other functions of live- stock, cattle in particular, include transporta- tion and traction. Livestock manure is an input in agricultural production. Most impor- tantly, livestock represents a capital asset, en- abling the farm household to meet unexpected expenditures, for example, when income is low due to a shock (Udo & Cornelissen, 1998). The self-insurance value of livestock is more limited in the case of correlated shocks, for example, drought, which aﬀect livestock as well as crop production (Dercon, 2002). Live- stock also functions as a portfolio investment option in the absence of other ways of storing wealth (Moll, 2005). Livestock production is a relatively high-return activity in Burkina Faso;
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This future Vision answers to the second study axe: Articulation between large textile companies and camelids livestock production and it is based on the need to create communication and dialogue between producers and textile companies so that they can obtain a development in the sector through all the value chain links and implant clear technical and quality criteria through an improvement of producers´ skills and the strengthen of the weakest chain link: the breeding.
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Abstract: Chile is an agricultural power, but also one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change and water shortage. About 50% of the irrigated agriculture land in Chile is in the central zone, thanks to its agricultural-climatic characteristics that provide an adequate water supply (100–4000 m 3 /s). However, the vulnerability scenario in this zone is high due to the seasonal availability of water resources. Therefore, opportunities to use non-conventional alternative sources (e.g., wastewater) become an appealing and feasible option due to the high population and animal density (>76%) in this part of the country. Moreover, the physicochemical characteristics of the municipal and livestock wastewater suggest that there are potential opportunities to recycle nutrients for agricultural production. In Chile, wastewater reuse opportunities are noted by the wide coverage of wastewater treatment programs, with municipal and intensified livestock production taking up most of the percentage (>99%). Nevertheless, more than 70% of wastewater treatment systems reach biological secondary treatment, which suggests reuse possibilities only for non-food crops. Therefore, this paper is focused on a preliminary analysis of the potential of reusing and recycling municipal and livestock wastewater for Chilean agriculture. There is some reuse work occurring in Chile, specifically in the use of municipal and livestock wastewater for cereal crops (animal feed), forests, and grasslands. However, aspects related to the long-term effects of these practices have not yet been evaluated. Therefore, municipal and livestock wastewater in Chile could be re-valued in agriculture, but the current quality and condition of treated wastewater do not ensure its safe use in food crops. In addition, state policies are needed to provide sustainability (circular and ethic economy) to water reusing/recycling in agriculture.
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Organic-mineral nutrient availability in soils cultivated with vegetables is essential for a satisfactory and economically viable production, including the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of the addition of livestock manure to the soil with and without potassium on watermelon (cv. Crimson Sweet) production in Paraiba, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a design of randomized blocks, with four replications, with a factorial arrangement 2 × 5 + 1, in relation to the absence and presence of potassium, five levels of livestock manure (0, 360; 1.080; 1800 and 2510 g hole -1 ) in
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Les unités productives de panela consti- tuent un système intégré verticalement dans lequel le producteur paysan parti- cipe à la culture de la canne, à sa transfor- mation et à la vente de la panela, ce qui lui permet d’avoir une vision du marché et des activités commercialement plus rentables. Cette situation est démontrée dans l’organisation de Systèmes agro- industriels localisés, basés sur la combi- naison d’un ensemble d’activités de production et de commercialisation, ajus- tables aux changements du marché, parti- cularité qui permet aux acteurs du Syal de faire preuve d’une plus grande faculté d’adaptation et d’une meilleure stabilité en des moments de crise que d’autres producteurs paysans. Le caractère de ver- ticalité de l’agro-industrie de la panela Tableau 2 . Possibilités de diversification productive à partir de la
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On the other hand, in academic research, it is possible to have increasing rates or volumes of knowledge production and increasing specialization of research outputs coming from e-Research projects. The limitation is nevertheless the focus of attention on a few research results, and this effect persists in e- Research (Schroeder, 2007). It is important to underline, however, that the competition of the attention space not only takes place within the academic community for the visibility of research results, but also at it has been mentioned previously, for competing for research funding and support. This later competition has an important effect in the direction that many research projects take. Competing for research funding implies some kind of adaptation to research policy agendas. This is specially the case of e-Research projects, which by its inter-institutional and interdisciplinary collaborative nature need for largely funded projects (Beaulieu & Wouters, 2009). One of the so-called advantages of agenda-driven research activities is that they serve the wider community, supporting societal challenges. However, there is a real risk that by focusing more on a winning grant-style programme research could be dramatically reduced or fragmented in largely isolated islands of knowledge. It is important to underline that while certain types of research can be strategically driven, others will require a researcher-oriented approach.
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La empresa Drone & Dreams Professional Production tendrá un estudio ubicado en el distrito de San Borja, donde además de mostrar parte de su trabajo a través de un portafolio, videos y fotografías, servirá para tener contacto directo con el cliente y poder explicar más a det alle el servicio que ofrecemos. En base a las encuestas los distritos con mayor ponderación son Lince, Jesús María y San Borja, ya que nos enfocamos en el segmento A y B, y por los resultados observamos que la mayoría de encuestados son de segmento B. Además dichos distritos pertenecen a las zonas 6 y 7.
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Viral agents such as Influenza A virus, Respiratory syncytial virus and Human metapneumovirus are some of the most frequent human respiratory pathogens and a concern for the public health. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) could be a potential reservoir of these pathogens, because their susceptibility to be inoculated by these microorganisms which has been mainly demonstrated in laboratory conditions. However, it is imperative to make diagnoses from samples obtained from animals raised as livestock, to confirm or ruled out a possible role of the guinea pig as a zoonotic vector. In countries such as Ecuador, where the annual production of these animals is considerably high, this type of studies could have greater relevance for public health. In the present investigation, eighty samples of nasopharyngeal washing of guinea pigs from the Paute canton in the province of Azuay were obtained. Diagnoses of the respiratory viruses Influenza A virus, Respiratory syncytial virus and Human metapneumovirus were made, through protocols known as One Step RT PCR and Two Step RT PCR. All the tests yield negative results for the three viruses analyzed and, therefore, the viruses were not isolated.
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Nakamura, T., 1977. Hydrogen production from water utilizing solar heat at high temperatures. Solar Energy 19, 467–475. Palumbo, R., Lede, J., Boutin, O., Ricart, E.E., Steinfeld, A., Moller, S., Weidenkaﬀ, A., Scholl, K.L., Fletcher, E.A., Bielicki, J., 1998. The production of Zn from ZnO in a high- temperature solar decomposition quench process—I. The scientiﬁc frameworkfor the process. Chem. Eng. Sci. 53, 2503–2517.
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You work for an operating company that produces, among other products, phthalic anhydride via the partial oxidation of o-xylene in a fixed-bed catalytic reactor. The plant produces approximately 75,000 tonne/y of high-purity (99.9 mol%) phthalic anhydride in a plant with a stream factor of approximately 93%. The phthalic anhydride produced from this plant is used primarily as a plasticizer. Our current customers are expecting an increase in demand for their product and have asked us to increase our production of phthalic anhydride.
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Human capital. The three communities are strengthened because they receive training from governmental, non-governmental and academic institutions, which are focused on promoting technologies for sustainable development for the livestock production activity, the conservation of natural resources, health, nutrition, etc. In Salto de Agua several producers became associated and founded a rural company of dairy products called “Quesería Pichichi”. This locality has advantage over the other groups since it has had greater access to institutional supports. Lisson et al. (2010) considers that one of the limiting factors for the development of technologies, innovations, access to different markets, as well as the improvement of agricultural and livestock practices is the lack of knowledge or training about these themes. CONAFOR (2016) documented how the concentration of institutional projects (governmental and non-governmental) drove strategies of environmental recovery, promoted the strengthening of capacities in areas such as local organization, commercialization and informal education through the exchange of experiences with peasants and professionals from other regions and even from other states of the Republic, which is considered a strategic advance of producers towards a profile of sustainable production.
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In order to accomplish our objectives an observational study on accidents, risk perception and uptake of safety practices was carried out in the District of Sarmiento, Province of Santa Fe, Argenti- na. This area has a total population of 1.563 inhabi- tants and its economy is based on livestock, espe- cially dairy production. The design was cross- sectional, the unit of interest was the rural worker, the study population the rural workers in Sarmiento District and the reference population the rural workers in the main dairy cattle area of Argentina. Sampling was at random and sample size was determined taking into account an absolute error of 5%, a 95% confidence level and an expected prevalence of 13%. This expected frequency was taken from pre- viously published data in Argentina (SRT 2005). The calculated n (122) was expanded to 125 providing for possible losses of sample units. Surveys were completed in personal interviews conducted by the authors. Respondents previously lectured on the purpose of work, emphasizing that the interest was not focused on the activities or attitudes of any particular person, but on the frequencies at the po- pulation level. The identity and address of the res- pondent were not included in the survey. ‘‘Case’’ was defined as a respondent who has suffered at least one accident during a specified period. The frequency was calculated as the number of cases in relation to total number of respondents. Accidents were classified according to the type of lesion(s), anatomical location(s), characteristics (run over, trapped, crash, etc.) and elements involved (animal, machinery, etc.). Days off work were computed as the frequency of respondents with at least one day of absence and the average days of absence from work. The periods under study were: a) the total number of years working in farming and b) the last 12 months preceding the survey.
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ABSTRACT. As the livestock industry expands rapidly across the globe, maintaining a sustainable environment through an efficient odour control system becomes very necessary. This is mostly because many livestock facilities produce several odorous gases, which are offensive and tend to evoke emotional response from any neighbourhood subjected to them. The conventional methods of waste air treatment are expensive for the current operation of livestock units. An alternative technique that might be affordable to the livestock farmer is biofiltration. Constant airflow is very important for optimum biofilter operation. Otherwise, anaerobic conditions will develop. Extensive research has been conducted to determine the airflow characteristics of different materials. The results obtained show that there is more resistance to airflow in vertical direction than in horizontal direction for most materials. This is because most materials tend to lie with their major axes horizontal when loaded from the top of a vessel. For biofilter operation, this observation implies that it would be more economical to move air horizontally than vertically. This paper will discuss the design and development of horizontal airflow biofilters fitted to a commercial swine facility for odour control. This paper will also highlight future biofiltration project.
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En este capítulo hemos desarrollado los principios básicos del sistema Lean Production o Toyota Production. Desde que Taylor y Ford instauraran la línea de producción y ensamblaje hasta el sistema creado por Taiichi Ohno siempre se ha intentado buscar una solución para diferentes problemas que han ido surgiendo, principalmente debido a la demanda de los clientes. En este caso centrándonos en el Toyota Production podemos ver que su filosofía es la de satisfacer las necesidades del cliente cumpliendo con sus objetivos, pero que eso no es suficiente. Necesitamos involucrar a toda la plantilla para conseguir una mejora continua, lo que va a provocar disminuir el coste del producto mientras seguimos cumpliendo con lo que el cliente exige.
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These two diseases are closely related as they are both caused by the presence of endophytic fungi which grow intercellularly within the host grasses in a mutually beneficial association. Ryegrass staggers is caused by the presence of Neotyphodium lolii (formerly Acremonium lolii) in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and fescue toxicosis by the presence of N. coenophialum in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). N. lolii produces at least three major groups of toxins: tremorgenic indole diterpenoids such as paxilline and lolitrem B; ergopeptine alkaloids such as ergovaline; and the insect herbivory repellent compound peramine. N. coenophialum does not produce significant amounts of the tremorgenic toxins but does produce the ergot alkaloids, peramine and high levels of lolines. Ryegrass staggers and fescue toxicosis are the best known of the endophyte related animal health and problems, occurring wherever either perennial ryegrass or tall fescue are predominant pasture species. However there are other well known problems including sleepy grass syndrome (USA) (3), drunken horse disease (China) (4) as well as less well defined problems associated with livestock grazing grasses native to Australia, New Zealand and South America infected with endophyte Neotyphodium or closely related (5; 6; 7; 8).
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There are two aspects for which the income/ productive diversification is considered an alternative for the members of a family (Yúnez and Taylor, 2001). The reasons why the households are diversified can be explained simply by two causes: the need (push factors) or the option (pull factors). In the first case the diversification takes place as a response to the crisis of the agricultural and livestock sector, the increase of agricultural prices, the decrease of income, the risk from climate changes, the high transaction costs, or as a strategy to combat extreme poverty. In the second case, the diversification is an option to gain access to new markets, specific markets, or as an economic strategy to complement the income. In face of these two situations mentioned before, the families in México adopt income strategies to afford the expenses of basic necessities; this implies that some of the members of the family could be employed or working in non-agricultural/livestock, or agricultural/livestock activities (Hazael, 2012). Pellens (2006) analyzes specifically agricultural diversification as a strategy to take advantage of the available resources in a better way; for this purpose, the restrictions and possibilities of the ecological environment are taken into account, and of ensuring the family diet now and in the future.
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In this paper, I develop a spatially explicit, multi-market, multi-product partial equilibrium framework to address the issues outlined above. The two main components of this framework are the regionally disaggregated price endogenous models for the agricultural and transportation fuel sectors of the U.S. and Brazil. Being a major supplier of corn, soybeans and wheat, which are likely to be affected by the above biofuel policies, and a competitor of the U.S. and Brazil in the global market I also integrate a regionally disaggregated model for the agricultural sector of Argentina including these three major crops. The model also includes an aggregate component for the food/feed and fuel commodity markets in China and a similar component for the Rest of the World (ROW), but unlike the U.S., Brazil and Argentina modules these additional model components include an aggregate demand and supply function for each of the three major agricultural commodities and transportation fuels. In the fuel sector component, following Chen et al. (2011), the model considers separate gasoline supply curves for U.S., Brazil, China, and the ROW. The main motivation is to capture the effects of biofuel policies on transportation fuel markets, and thus the demand for biofuels. The latter is derived from an explicitly specified driving demand behavior of consumers and the technological relationship between fuel consumption and miles/kilometers generation and substitution possibilities between alternative fuels. The choice of the fuel mix depends on the fuel economy, namely the price of each fuel type and miles/kilometers generated per unit amount of that fuel. Thus, the modeling system aims to analyze the role of trade policy distortions, the impact of biofuels blending mandates, and the implications of the U.S. and Brazil biofuel policies on land use changes, economic surplus and the total GHG emissions both at regional and aggregate level. A particular emphasis is given to the potential livestock intensification in Brazil, which would convert part of the pasture lands to cropland and expand the production of sugarcane and other major crops while simultaneously taking into account the effects on the domestic and foreign beef markets.
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