The internal consistency ofthe psychological aggression scale based on the maximum dyadic report was similar and comparable in magnitude to the reliability ofthe individual reports of perpetrators and victims; however, the internal consistency ofthe physical aggression scale based on the maximum dyadic report was lower in men than in women. Items 7 (Threw something), 9 (Twisted arm or hair), 17 (Pushed or Shoved) and 45 (Grabbed) presented a low item-total correlation, suggesting that these items are not well adapted to the total of items that make up the scale. The maximum dyadic report revealed potential partner agreement in the responses to these items, and a possible explanation of these results is that men and women may have problems identifying these acts either as perpetrators or as victims due to their impact or their meaning, or due to other factors, such as social desirability, obliviousness caused by greater tolerance or acceptance of certain less severe acts of physical aggression during relationship conflicts.
The extended use in the implementation ofthe International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by many nations, has led academic researchers and the regulators at a national and international level to prove the relevance of said standards for each country that implemented them, even considering the institutional differences in each of them that could condition the relevance ofthe same. Specifically, it is proven whether said standards improve the quality ofthe accounting information through the use of several expressions or proxy measures, which, in the last three decades, have been used more frequently not only to support the analyses, but also to improve the comparability ofthe results among the analyzed countries. Generally, the studies focus their attention on the application ofthe IFRS in strong economies and capital markets, such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the countries of Continental Europe, the countries with a greater number of reported studies. Even the relevance of said standards for emerging economies and regulated markets such as those in China has been evaluated. However, despite the fact that almost all Latin American and Caribbean countries have adopted IFRS as their regulatory accounting framework and their financial markets are in continuous development, there is still a lack of sufficient empirical evidence on the relevance of said standards under a multi-country analysis. For this reason, we propose verifying the quality ofthe financial report for the Latin American and Caribbean economies through themagnitudeof discretionary accruals during the periods of IFRS implementation.
While self-selection into exporting is overwhelmingly supported by the literature, there is no such consensus on the learning-by-exporting hypothesis. Many studies found no significant effect of exporting on productivity (Clerides, Lach, & Tybout, 1998; Ganotakis & Love, 2011; Monreal-Pérez et al., 2012). Others found increasing productivity before entering the export market but not afterwards (Bernard & Jensen, 1999; Clerides et al., 1998; Eliasson et al., 2012; Kim, Gopinath, & Kim, 2009; Love & Roper, 2015). Some cases do provide favorable evidence to the learning-by-exporting hypothesis. Such cases include the Taiwanese electronics industry (B. Y. Aw, Roberts, & Winston, 2007); Japanese firms (Kimura & Kiyota, 2006); the United Kingdom (Girma, Greenaway, & Kneller, 2004; Greenaway & Kneller, 2007; Love & Ganotakis, 2013); Slovenia (Damijan et al., 2010; De Loecker, 2007); Spanish manufacturing firms (Hanley & Monreal-Pérez, 2012); Indonesian manufacturing (Blalock & Gertler, 2004); Colombian manufacturing (Fernandes & Isgut, 2007). Evidence of learning by exporting was also found for Uruguayan firms that start exporting to less developed countries (Barboni, Ferrari, Melgarejo, & Peluffo, 2012).
These ships look more and more to cities, they are the reincarnation of skyscrap- ers. However, there is nothing naturalness. Actually, their moment of glory is when they break in Bacino San Marco, showing their arrogance, challenging millenary basilica, the bronze horses, the Palazzo Ducale (Settis, 2014). Fortunately, it is not happening now, after the action taken by UNESCO in January 2018 to ships of more than 55,000 tons. The solution is to cross Malamocco and to dock in the port of Mar- ghera, in Mestre and tourists being transferred to the city by bus (Cadena Ser, 2017). These cruises are like floating cities, 60 meters high, even more, higher that the «palazzi» ofthe Grand Canal. Actually, the average height ofthe buildings in Venice does not exceed 15 meters (Testa, 2011). For example, the Voyager ofthe seas is 63 meters high, 311 long and 47 wide. Because of that any visual perception is upset. Cruises come into the heart of Venice to appreciate its beauty. However they damage it and disturb the perception ofthe city (aesthetically and culturally), its context, its environment, to people in their home or the street, creating a shadowy effect like see- ing an eclipse (Settis, 2014). Cruise tourism is selfish and vague commitment.
(TS=((((3D OR “3 D” OR 3-D OR “3 dimension*” OR 3-dimension* OR “three* dimension*” OR three-d OR “three d” OR desktop* OR additive* OR freeform) NEAR/1 (print* OR bioprint* OR bio-print* OR “bio print*” OR fabricat* OR biofabricat* OR bio-fabricat OR “bio fabricat” OR manufactur* OR biomanufactur* OR bio-manufactur* OR “bio manufactur*”)) OR ((rapid) NEAR/1 (prototype* OR bioprototyp* OR bio-prototyp* OR “bio prototyp*”)) OR “layer by layer” OR layer-by-layer) NOT (stereoscopic* OR “oxidation product*” OR “streaming interactive” OR “non halogen” OR non-halogen OR “media access control” OR “multi-wafer 3D CAM cell” OR nanoweb OR “nano web” OR nano-web OR nanofiber* OR nanofibre* OR “nano fiber*” OR “nano fibre*” OR “nanometer fiber*” OR “nanometer fibre*” OR “nanometre fiber*” OR “nanometre fibre*” OR ((food* OR feed* OR liquid*) NEAR/2 (additive*)) OR “seed culture” OR antibacteria* OR 3-sigma OR “three sigma” OR ((rheolog*) NEAR/1 (additive*)) OR ((vibration) NEAR/1 (isolator*)) OR toilet OR paper OR transistor OR “solar cell” OR “light emitting” or diode OR spectophotom* OR spectroscop*)) AND (SO=“Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering” OR SO=“Biomaterials” OR SO=”Acta Biomaterialia” OR SO=“Artificial Cells Nanomedicine and Biotechnology” OR SO=”Biofabrication” OR SO=“Advanced Healthcare Materials” OR SO=“- Medical Image Analysis” OR SO=“European Cells & Materials” OR SO=“Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerati- ve Medicine” OR SO=“IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging” OR SO=“Clinical Oral Implants Research” OR SO=“IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering” OR SO=“Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation” OR SO=“Journal of Neural Engineering” OR SO=“Organogenesis” OR SO=“IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering” OR SO=“Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology” OR SO=“Annals of Biomedical Engineering” OR SO=“Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials” OR SO=“Journal ofthe
Clearly, labor market conditions by the time of this study were very different to current conditions, and in turn were SENA’s objectives and requirements. First, education coverage was poor: in 1964 27% of people 15 and older had no formal education, only 12% had completed primary and less than 2% secondary. In 1968 78% of people studying were enrolled in primary, 17% in secondary and only 1.8% in higher education. In addition, while 81% of enrollment in primary was in public schools, it was only 46% of enrollment in secondary. This fact, coupled with the low level of earning ofthe population, explains to a large extent the differences in enrollment in primary compared to secondary. Given the low levels of education ofthe population, the only schooling requirement demanded by the SENA was complete primary education. Notice that by the time of Puryear’s study, SENA’s programs represented a very interesting alternative to individuals who had completed primary education. First, it provided freely, basic tools for them to work and earn to cover their own expenses, and possibly, to acquire further formal education, which was less likely to be gotten for free. Second, the skills obtained at SENA were competitive relative to other alternatives available in the market, since by then, only a really small share ofthe population could have obtained higher education, or even completed secondary education.
The Middle East and North Africa observed clear decline. The number of tourists has dropped sharply in the March 2011 in the Middle East as reported by the World Tourism Organization. In 2010 reached 54.8 million visitors after an increase of 14.9%. In North Africa, the percentage declined to 9.9% with 16.9% in 2011 after witnessed a 6.5% increase in the previous year. Tourism activities fell by 41% in Syria, 24% in Lebanon and 16% in Jordan in the first seven months of 2011. Considering, that tourism is major contributor to the GDP in most of these countries. Monarchies did better than the autocrats, but from Bahrain to Jordan and Morocco, all were forced to make cessions and are still dealing with the Arab Spring fallout. The absolute rulers ofthe Gulf States including Qatar, the UAE and Saudi Arabia put down what little dissent they faced. But revolts elsewhere worried leaders, pushing them into external clashes, particularly in Yemen, to protect their power. There is greater tension between them, particularly Qatar and Saudi Arabia, and the wars have
Figure 5. Comparison ofthe observed tilt (blue and red) to predicted changes of metallicity/color caused by self-enrichment (top panels) and dynamical evolution (bottom panels). We consider separately the GC subsamples belonging to high-mass and low-mass host galaxies. The filled blue and red solid circles correspond to the mean GC metallicity/color in magnitude bins of 0.2 mag also shown in the bottom left panel of Figure 4. The colors (g − z) have been converted to metallicity [z/H] using the biquadratic transformation of Peng et al. (2006). In the top left panel, the open triangles indicate the individual peak positions for NGC 1399, the squares indicate M87, and the asterisks show M49. Top panels (a test of self-enrichment): the solid blue and red curves indicate quadratic fits to the KMM data points while the black curves are predictions from the self-enrichment model of Bailin & Harris (2009) for various sets of model parameters, as indicated in the plot legend. The reference model adopted by Bailin & Harris (2009) is indicated by the short-dashed curve. This particular model predicts self-enrichment to appear at an order ofmagnitude larger mass than is observed. The thin short-dashed and thin solid lines are a variation ofthe respective thick line models, assuming a constant mass loss of Δ = 3 × 10 5 M to have occurred for all clusters. Bottom panels (a test of dynamical evolution): the solid curves are quadratic fits to the observed color–magnitude data points. The long-dashed magenta curves indicate the expected color change due to dynamical evolution according to the predictions from Kruijssen & Lamers (2008). For the red peak at low-mass galaxies, the short-dashed line also shows a linear fit to the plotted data points.
The performance ofthe isodesmic reaction in the pKa calculations lies in a good cancellation ofthe errors originated mostly in the interactions between the solutes and the continuum solvent model. Taking into account that the total interaction solute- continuum is partitioned over the solvation spheres ofthe heavy atoms, two forms of error cancellation are distinguished. Firstly, the errors in the interaction ofthe group that donates the proton of AH cancel out with those ofthe group ofthe reference species RefH that accepts it, and likewise for the deprotonated groups ofthe conjugate bases A and B. Secondly, the errors in the solute-continuum interactions of those heavy atoms that do not modify their protonation state in the reaction cancel out between the conjugate acid base pairs AH/A and RefH/Ref. Therefore, it follows that the chemical structures ofthe studied acid A and the reference species RefH should be similar to maximize the cancellation of errors. In the ideal case the reference species is identical to the studied acid species, which ensures a p erfect cancellation of errors in the solute- continuum interaction. Considering the equations ofthe isodesmic reaction, the errors in the pKa predictions are expected to be lower when the free energy of proton exchange between the acid AH and the reference species RefH approaches to zero.
Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in Portugal. Previous studies reported that reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with Diabetes Mellitus is associated with decreased microvascular complications, including chronic kidney disease. However, few studies reported the relation between HbA1C ﬂuctuations and renal disease. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between ﬂuctuations in HbA1c and renal disease progression in diabetics treated with insulin therapy.
In order to see if there were any longer term changes in calcification rate pieces of coral skeleton that had been freshly waterpiked were suspended in seawater for at least 48 hours. Weight gain and loss were measured at normal seawater pH and at reduced pH by replacing some medium with seawater with dissolved CO 2 . Dried skeletons taken to Trent University, Canada, were used to determine the relationship between weight gain and loss across the pH range 8.2 - 6.0. For these experi- ments “Coralife” artificial seawater was used (for chemical analysis and chemistry see Atkin- son and Bingham, 1999). A modified balance which was closed to the outside air was used. For the lower rates of loss/gain time periods of 6-12 hours were used. At least two readings of pH and weight gain/loss were taken at the beginning and end of each time period. Rates were calculated using regression analysis. The pH was measured with an Omega PHB-212 Bench pH Meter accurate to three decimal places and calibrated daily with Omega buffers. Again the average ofthe readings at the begin- ning and end of each time period was recorded as the pH. Coral surface areas were estimated with aluminium foil (Marsh, 1970).
All these facts have motivated us to consider the effect of surface anisotropy on the magnetic properties of magne- tite nanoparticles. We believe that considering the surface anisotropy as a variable allows us to model different possible scenarios of magnetite nanoparticles embedded in a given matrix or coated by a specific layer. The layout ofthe article is as follows. In Sec. II, we introduce the model, the Hamil- tonian describing the interactions to be considered, some simulation details, and the observables to be computed. Nu- merical results and discussions are presented in Sec. III. This section provides the temperature dependence ofthe magne- tization and response functions over a wide range of values ofthe surface-to-core anisotropy ratio. Visualizations of some selected surface spin configurations are presented and discussed. Results are summarized in a proposal of magnetic phase diagram of magnetization and energy as functions of surface anisotropy. A brief discussion about the hysteretic behavior stressing on the core and surface contributions is also addressed. Conclusions are finally presented in Sec. IV.
Given this structure, to describe our dataset we present sample means and standard deviations ofthe main independent and dependent variables in each ofthe samples. Since we restrict the census data differently according to the dependent variable, Table 2 presents descriptive statistics for the two samples drawn from the National Census and Table 3 describes the School Census sample. Given that the underlying assumption covering our RD framework is that individuals or schools in municipalities with electricity coverage rates in 2000 just around 85% at both sides were practically identical, we divide our sample at this point and study observations that lie inside the optimal 5pp bandwidth and that were located in municipalities that did not comply the low HDI criterion. In other words, we compare priorized observational units which are located at the left ofthe cutoff with coverage rates between 80% and 85% with observational units at the right ofthe cutoff that have coverage rates between 85% and 90%. We also present results from a t-test for mean difference which allows us to prior identify correlations between program priorization status and educational outcomes.
textbooks are considered useful tools that nurture and organize the work of educators. In the same way, Ur (1998) points out that textbooks guide teachers in what they have done and what will be done. These perspectives shed light on the fact that textbooks can provide a solid basis for teachers, not only at a local, but also at a global extent. Hence, it becomes important to understand how to use these materials properly. Interestingly, one problematic regarding this topic emerged in this research. This issue was the inconsistency ofthe teachers’ discourse in terms ofthe use they gave to Think. On the one hand, teachers agreed that this coursebook provides a basis, structure and input for teaching, but on the other hand they were not certain about how to accommodate their teaching practices to this framework. In consecuence, it may be necessary to examine ‘how’, and ‘to what extent’ the textbook provides a framework for
established for the development ofthe questionnaire (Figure 1). A HRQoL specific questionnaire for PHPT should reflect theimpactof PHPT on patients, and should be able to quantify theimpactof physical and psycho- logical symptoms. The ability ofthe questionnaire to reflect theimpactof psychological symptoms was consid- ered a key issue, as these symptoms are more difficult to identify by the endocrinologist, especially in patients who declare not to have any symptoms. In addition, it was also considered important to develop a questionnaire that took into account the relationship between symptoms and their impact on different domains of a patient’s life (psycho- logical, social, physical, activities of daily living and en- ergy/vitality). Considering all these aspects, the starting point was the development of a specific PHPT HRQoL questionnaire that would provide physicians with a tool to gain knowledge on theimpactof PHPT on the patient’s daily life.
constant dynamic viscosity. The biofilm is viewed as a continuous phase. For sake of simplicity, we consider only one limiting substrate. Biofilm detachment is neglected here (slow flow) but this phenomena could be taken into account by adding the correct terms in the equations and following the methodology presented below. The transport ofthe substrate in the bulk fluid follows the classical diffusion-advection equation,
Les questions en relation aux transports des matériaux radioactifs sont d´actualité, due à l´incrément de la mobilité du matériel en relation au cycle de combustible nucléaire, au compromis avec l´environnement et la protection des personnes, ainsi que les normes légales régulatrices. L´impact radiologique associé à ce tipe de transport a été évalué par le biais du nouvel outil de traitement de données, qui peut être d´utilité et servir comme documentation complémentaire de celle puisé dans le cadre de la règlementation légale de transport. Ainsi, ayant connaissance du niveau de radiation a un mètre du transport et en choisissant la route, nous obtiendrons les impacts associés, tel que, la population affectée, la dose reçue par la personne la plus exposée, l´impact radiologique global, la dose reçue par la population durant le trajet et le possible détriment de leur santé. Comme conclusion on observe que les émissions de radiation ionisantes en provenance du transport de matériel radioactif par route en Espagne, n´est pas significatif à l´heure de généré des effets adverse pour la santé humaine et son impact radiologique peuvent être considéré comme méprisable.