In this sense, this study captures the complementarity between the two factors in a single construct called network market orientation. Until now, its study has been limited to consideration of the sum of the market orientations of indi- vidual ﬁrms (Siguaw et al., 1998; Beverland and Lindgreen, 2007; Chung et al., 2007; Hyvonen and Tuominen, 2007) or to the mere adaptation of the seminal conceptualisations of market orientation (behavioural approach: Elg, 2002, 2005; cultural approach: Evanschitzky, 2007). On the other hand, the study by Helfert et al. (2002), reference of our study, takes a step forward by permitting identiﬁcation of the basic activities that characterise market orientation in the context of a network. Speciﬁcally, the authors deﬁne four major activities of relationship management: (1) exchange of knowledge, with the aim of serving customers’ needs; (2) coordination, capturing the synchronisation of the relation- ships among the members though formal rules and informal inﬂuences; (3) conﬂict resolution, referring to extraordinary situations that may occur in long-lasting relationships and thus cannot be resolved with standardised activities; and (4) coupling, in relation to updating of activities and mech- anisms of the members of the network in order to better address market demand. This joint effort leads every mem- ber of the network to beneﬁt from access to an expanded intellectual capital that includes individual capital, organi- sational capital, and now also social capital.
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In addition, focusing on market orientation for edu- cational ser vices, Oplatka and Hemsley- Brown, (2007) state that market orientation has been lar- gely neglected in the educational marketing research genre, and call for this to readdressed in future re- search projects. For educational institutions, market orientation is suggested as a way of linking institu- tional objectives with the needs of students and em- ployers because it forces the institution to focus on customer identification ( Owlia and Aspinwall, 1997). A market-oriented university situates the success of universities in the context of their ability to proacti- vely meet the needs of the stakeholders : students, family, employers, government and citizens (( Nkam- nebe and Azikiwe 2008); Lindsay and Rogers, (1998)) argue that many higher institutions tend to adopt a sales orientation rather than a market orientation and consequently market orientation has been mis- construed by these educational institutions. To the same effect, Maringe and Gibbs, ( 2008) state that one of the new lessons universities is learning about business and commercial world today is how to de- velop a customer perspective. With the same mea- ning, Nicolescu, (2009) states that the use of the con- cept of consumer behavior and the study of the consumers` behavior, with the buying decision pro- cess, is one way to fulfill the marketing core goal.
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This section examines the second topic of relevance for the current research: the concept of market orientation (MO). Our interest is to develop this concept in relation to companies that are facing serious academic and managerial challenges related to instant or rapid internationalization. We have detected, from the literature analysis performed, that the MO concept and its consequences have been considered a relevant topic for study by marketing academics since the 1990s. A key factor in this interest was the introduction of Market Orientation as a research line by the Marketing Science Institute. The importance of MO in marketing science has been recognized as being at ―the heart of the theory and practice of marketing management and is believed to be the foundation for a firm‘s competitive strategy‖ (Appiha-Adu & Ranchhod, 1998 p. 197). The remainder of this section is structured as follows: first, a literature review on the concept of MO and its evolution is presented. Interestingly, although various research efforts have provided different conceptualizations for MO, most studies are based on Narver and Slater‘s and Kohli and Jaworski‘s conceptualizations (Green et al., 2015; Wren et al., 2000). Different views on MO (namely the cultural, behavioral and system- based perspectives) are presented (González & González, 2005; Helfert et al., 2002; Lafferty & Hult, 2001). Second, the measurement scales of MO are considered. The most widely used scales (MKTOR, developed by Narver and Slater (1990) and MARKOR, developed by Kohli et al. (1993)) are presented. Finally, the findings for the relationship between MO and performance are highlighted (Harris, 2001; He & Wei, 2011; Noble et al., 2002; Voss & Voss 2000).
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When we centre on the influence that network market orientation has on these advantages, Sher and Lee (2004) provide several arguments that back this relation. Firstly, Sher and Lee (2004) indicate that promoting information exchange, as it occurs in network market orientation, leads to employees facing similar decisions, which facilitates learning and allows them to respond to changes taking place in the workplace more quickly and with less costs. Secondly, and thanks to the mechanisms set up to manage relational knowledge, network members can identify ways of improving quality, reliability and speed with which information and knowledge are shared (Chen, Lin and Chang, 2009), meaning that they act more competitively in their markets and they maximise the returns deriving from these markets. Thirdly, establishing knowledge management, not at an individual level, but by considering the different agents making up the firm’s network, permits the firm to access valuable information about markets from different domains and perspectives, which has a positive effect on its competitiveness and on the strength of its actions (Sher and Lee, 2004). For instance, the firm can develop products of greater value thanks to it possessing more complete information about its customers. Besides, access to information about its suppliers allows the firm to select the best components in terms of quality and/or costs and the most qualified suppliers. Sher and Lee (2004) even indicate that the firm may obtain knowledge from establishing horizontal collaborations which enable it to use its competitors’ routines. The more available the information and the greater the diversity of its sources, the easier it is to develop a more distinguishable offer and/or at a lower cost than the competitors’ offer. All these elements can be considered elements that promote more lasting advantages because, as they are based on intimate relations, they are more difficult to manage, understand, copy or counteract (Day, 2000; Day and Van den Bulte, 2002; Dyer and Singh, 1998; Jarratt, 2004). Based on it, we propose that:
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The results of their paper disclosed that the firms which emphasized and performed market orientated activities had a better performance and competitive advantage than other firms. (Gronroos, C., 2000) investigated the relationship between market orientation, role of entrepreneurship and influence of the secondary unit of marketing with business performance in 600 medium and large manufacturing enterprises in Australia. The results showed that there was a slight relationship between market orientation and role of entrepreneurship with business performance. (Greene, WE, Walls, GD & Scbrest, LJ, 1994) presented an article entitled “the role of market orientation in the relationship between internal marketing and bank performance. According to the results, internal marketing had a positive effect on market orientation and in turn, market orientation had a positive effect on performance. Likewise, internal marketing had a positive effect on performance through the intermediary variable of market orientation indirectly. But no relationship was observed between internal marketing and performance directly. Moreover, each component of internal marketing had a positive effect on both components of market orientation. In an article entitled “exploring the effect of internal marketing on market orientation in service organizations”, (Gronroos, C., 2000) performed a field study in Bank Meli in Mashhad City by emphasizing the intermediary role of organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational commitment. According to the findings, there was a positive relationship between internal marketing and market orientation in Bank Meli. Also, there was a positive relationship between internal marketing and organizational commitment in Bank Meli as well as between internal marketing and organizational citizenship behaviors. In addition, there was a positive relationship between organizational commitment and market orientation and between organizational citizenship behaviors and market orientation in the above bank. (Gummesson, E., 1991) carried out a study entitled “evaluation of the effect of market orientation, innovation and customer loyalty on business performance (case study: Pol clothing group)”. Data analysis and testing of hypotheses indicated that increased level of innovation in Pol clothing group is the result of increased level of market orientation and this led to a better innovation performance in the firm. Increased loyalty of customers is resulted in the growth of innovative performance of the firm and finally the level of business performance is enhanced.
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providing responses within a given market structure; in contrast, “market-driving” refers to changing the rules of the competitive game, being able to alter them through the search for and implementation of new products, business models or value generating elements (Li et al. 2008; Monferrer 2011). In the same line, Narver et al. (2004) state that a market orientation should consider two intrinsic approaches in its dimensions: a reactive approach (associated with the “market driven” idea) with an emphasis on real markets; and a proactive approach (associated with the “market driving” idea) focusing on latent markets. The reactive aspect of market orientation is related to the generation, diffusion and response capacity of market information in relation to current products and markets, and addresses customers’ express needs (Atuahene-Gima 2005; Li et al. 2008). The proactive side of market orientation highlights the discovery of latent and/or emerging customer needs through market exploration and analysis to find new opportunities, hence recognising the value of renewing products or services.
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Visitor orientation variables, orientation to custody and technological innovation were measured using reflective scales with five position indicators (from 1, “completely disagree” to 5, “completely agree”). The visitor orientation scale was based on the proposal of Narver and Slater  although the indicators were adapted to a museum setting taking into account the works of Balabanis et al.,  and Caruana et al., [33,34]. Custodial orientation was created ad hoc, and includes two items reflecting the fact that the museum’s main aim is to maintain and preserve the collection and its desire to engage in projects to preserve cultural heritage. To measure technological innovation we used a four indicator reflective scale reflecting the museum’s degree of involvement and interest in adopting new resources and technologies to display works or for dealing with visitors.
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sustainable competitive advantage. From a proactive perspective of customer orientation, companies attempt to anticipate market requirements and also to embrace solutions that consumers are yet to envisage (Blocker et al., 2011; Narver et al., 2004). In the field of failure management, being aware of customers’ perceptions, pinpointing the causes of their dissatisfaction, as well as changes in likes and preferences is assumed to be important since these will prove a valuable source of information for improving all the company’s processes and products. Thus, a customer-oriented company is one that is concerned with value creation and is sensitive to new business opportunities which may emerge and to identify which it is necessary to draw on the right market intelligence and learning capacity (Kohli & Jaworski, 1990). This way of thinking, used in complaint management, is reflected in the aims and objectives of the complaint management system, which seeks constant improvement from the lessons learnt when dealing with complaints (Smith & Bolton, 1998, Homburg & Fürst, 2007, Santos-Vijande et al., 2013). It can thus be said that emphasizing the improvement aims of the complaint management system is a natural implication of a customer-oriented company, since it not only seeks to provide an efficient service for customers’ present and future requirements, but also to improve processes (Tax & Brown, 1998; Johnston, 2001), learn from mistakes and develop quality relationships with customers (Vos et al., 2008). Accordingly, it is hypothesized that:
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Dried physalis currently caters for a very specialised market, whereby organic and fair trade-certified products are much more important than in the mainstream market. It is very important for a new entrant to adhere to these schemes if they want to remain competitive, especially if they are targeting markets such as Swit- zerland.. Fairtrade certification can also help new entrants to over- come market entry barriers related to export financing, because Fairtrade importers must pre-finance 50% of the order.
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During the second oxidation 8-oxoG loses two electrons to produce 8-oxoG ox , Scheme 2. At this potential, 8-oxoG ox changes completely the orientation respect to the 8-oxoG, being more tilted and acquiring a horizontal orientation parallel to the AuNPs surface. This change in the orientation is proved by the Raman spectra (Fig. 4): the evolution of new bands peaked at 332 (sqz N7-C5-C6, bend C6-O, C8-O), 415 (bend C6-O, C8-O, C2-N10), 493 (sqz C5-C6-N1, C2-N3-C4), 684 (bend C6-O, C8-O), 807 (bend C2-N3- C4, C5-N7-C8), 828 (sqz C4-N9-C8, str C5-N7), 932 (bend N3-C4-N9, N7-C5-C6, C5- N7-C8, str N7-C8) and 1130 cm -1 (str C5-N7, sqz N3-C4-C5) and the higher intensity of other bands 790 (bend N9-H, str N7-C8), 1434 (str N7-C8) and 1718 cm -1 (N7-C8O- N9) are related to all the atoms of 8-oxoG ox that interact with the substrate, being the bands associated with the carbonyl groups proof of that. The vibration modes of carbonyl groups are observed in the Raman spectrum (332, 415, 684 and 1718 cm -1 ) because the carbonyl group strongly interacts with the AuNPs and, in this parallel orientation, C6-O and C8-O groups are close to the AuNPs surface. At potentials higher than +0.40 V the 8-oxoG ox hydrolysis takes places, the Raman bands related to the 8- oxoG ox disappear and, finally, only the electrode bands are observed.
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Several studies have previously speculated that sinking of elongated cells at low Reynolds number increases cell-cell contact probabilities, therefore favoring sexual reproduction in diatoms (Botte et al. 2013, Montresor et al. 2016, Scalco et al. 2016). However, experimental proof of such mechanism and field evidence of its occurrence in the natural environment have been lacking. Here we have experimentally demonstrated the existence of such coagulation mechanism during sinking of pennate diatoms in the laboratory and, to our knowledge, we have unambiguously provided its first direct observation in the sea. Importantly, this pairing mechanism is accompanied by a preferential vertical orientation which favors cell-cell alignment along the apical axis, an obligate requirement for sex. The conjecture of Botte et al. (Botte et al. 2013) is based on theoretical and experimental studies on dilute fibers suspensions settling at low Reynolds number in unstratified fluids, showing concentration instabilities leading to particle clustering from their collective hydrodynamic interactions (Koch & Shaqfeh 1989, Butler & Shaqfeh 2002, Metzger et al. 2005, 2007, Guazzelli & Hinch 2011). Nonetheless, most knowledge on the physics of coagulation emerges from experiments performed with inert particles of large sizes (10 3 to 10 4 µm). We have
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Griffin & Page (1993) & Barczark et al. (2009) have proven that there are high rates of failure associated with product innovation. Although the rate may vary according to the activity sec- tor and place where the innovation is carried out, between 60% and 80% of new products launched into the market do not attain the financial and commercial results expected. As observed by Clany & Krieg (2006), the studies developed by Ernest and Young, Nielsen BASES and Copernicus at the end of 2005 offer more pessimistic conclu- sions, declaring this percentage of failed innova- tions in consumer products in the United States and Europe is 95% and 90%, respectively.
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In this article, we present a leader-follower formation def- inition based on dual quaternions. Dual quaternions offer the most compact and computationally efficient screw transfor- mation formalism  and can be used as a representation to describe rigid body motions because they simultaneously describe positions and orientations with only eight parame- ters . Similar to homogeneous transformation matrices, they can describe a complete rigid motion with a single mathematical object. Hence, a sequence of rigid motions is represented by a sequence of dual quaternion multiplications. The formation definition proposed in this article represents the position and orientation of the leader with a dual quaternion and the relative position and orientation of each follower with respect to the leader with additional dual quaternions.
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The changes in orientation selectivity after adaptation reported here indicate a network mechanism that reorganizes responses across a broad range of orientations. At the level of single cells, hyperpolarization of neurons at or close to the adapting orientation (due to slow hyperpolarizing Ca2+- and Na+-activated potassium channels25 or to synaptic depression26) can cause suppression of responses on the near flank of the tuning curve. Facilitation of responses on the far flank, however, requires d nhibition27 and possibly amplification by means of local excitatory interactions28 in the cortex. The strength of these effects, which determines the magnitude of the change in preferred orientation, depends on the location of neurons in the orientation map. Neurons in an iso-orientation domain would be only weakly activated by intracortical inputs with orientations that differ from the domain's preferred orientation, whereas neurons located at or near pinwheel centres would receive strong local inputs from neurons of all orientations. Therefore, altering the efficacy of these inputs through adaptation is likely to induce more profound changes in the orientation preference of neurons at or near pinwheel centres. This suggests that adaptation-induced orientation plasticity in V1 is an emergent property of a local cortical network overlaid on a non-uniform orientation map. These data indicate the existence of a map of orientation plasticity, closely related to the map of orientation preference, in which pinwheel centres constitute foci of plasticity and the orientation gradient is a measure of the degree of plasticity across V1. One question ar ng from this is whether there are similar plasticity maps related to other functional maps, such as those for eye preference, spatial frequency, or direction22, 23, 24. There are several functional roles of a map of orientation plasticity. The map would allow dynamic short-term influences on neuronal responses at some locations while retaining invariant responses at other locations that would maintain a stable frame of reference. Specifically, preferential locations for adaptive changes may be a strategy that the visual cortex uses in the face of adaptation to the statistics of natural images29 to prevent a global change in the orientation preference of visual cortical neurons.
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layer for integration of all the resources and members participating in a given collaborative activity into a unified framework which is referred as the Collaborative Environment Integration Layer (CEIL). This layer is considered a necessary step for integrating with open standards all the collaborative resources or components into a tightly coupled collaborative environment which implements activity orientation. The proposal considers two architectural elements. The first element is the Collaborative Environment Description Language (CEDL), which is the formal language for describing all the elements and associated parameters relevant for modeling and managing a Collaborative Environment. The second one is the Collaborative Environment Management Interface (CEMI), which is the unified interface which provides uniform management and configuration of the collaborative components of an environment. This layer includes accurate descriptions of the virtual organizations associated to collaborative activity, including participants, roles, rights, hierarchies, etc, being able to model the variety of existing virtual organization models.
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The chapter has both theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical perspective, the study makes a dual contribution. On the one hand, it provides insights into the role of gender in corporate entrepreneurship. Although literature on individual entrepreneurship has extensively studied the role of women in entrepreneurial activity (Langowitz and Minniti, 2007), in the specific literature on corporate entrepreneurship there are few studies focusing on this issue. These studies explain how childhood and school experiences, gender roles and the organizational experiences within which females are socialized affect entrepreneurial activities (Fitzsimmons et al., 2014). For instance, a number of studies have examined the causes of the persistent disparity in the accumulation of human and economic capital, a significant factor contributing to the low number of female top managers at the helm of large companies (Grenfell, 2008). On the other hand, the results might contribute to the discussion on the role of internal or environmental factors in corporate entrepreneurship. Several theoretical models have outlined the importance of external conditioning factors in promoting corporate entrepreneurship activity. For instance, Guth and Ginsberg (1990) presented a model in which some environmental features (the competitive, technological, social and political environment) have a direct impact on corporate entrepreneurship. Later, Ireland et al. (2003) stressed the importance of having an entrepreneurial mindset and an entrepreneurial culture for managing resources strategically and for developing innovative projects in established companies. Ireland et al. (2009) present an integrative model of corporate entrepreneurship strategy, which includes two different types of antecedents: market-related aspects (competition intensity, rate of technological change, etc.) and individual entrepreneurial beliefs, attitudes and values. The results of our study contribute to this type of model by testing and showing empirically the significant and relevant effect that cultural values have when developing entrepreneurial activities in established companies.
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On the contrar y, Cainelli et al. (2011) found a nega- tive relation between environmental innovative strategies and employment, turnover and productiv- ity in ser vices firms. So, considering that eco-innova- tion policies in EU countries are a key par t of the sustainable development and the economic growth strategies (Burciu et al. 2010, Kemp and Oltra 2011, Berger et al 2001) and also that little studies regarding eco-innovation at ser vices have been done and one could understand that conclusions differ. Therefore, we think, according to different authors (e.g. Hipp and Grupp 2011), that the need to address different proactive environmental strategies depending on the type of industr y of the company is necessar y (there- fore, understanding the patterns that explain eco-in- novation orientation in ser vices firms and if the pre- vious studied variables that influence eco-innovation orientation in manufacturing industries are the same in ser vices industries is the objective of this work. This issue becomes impor tant on one hand regard- ing the policy making implications and, on the other hand, managerial implications considering that in- vestments in “greening” their innovative behavior are becoming a key strategic issue and providing firms with competitive advantages (Esty and Winston, 2009, Albino et al. 2009).
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He uses as an example Amazon that was a one-sided platform in the market of books and a multi-sided platform in other markets. That is why it is important to Rysman to focus on the strategies adopted by firms because multisidedness is an endogenous decision of firms. The main question is not to know if a market is a multi- sided one, virtually all markets might be multi-sided to some extent. What is relevant is to know how important multi-sided issues are. Evans argues in a similar way, he points out that, in the US newspaper industry, there are examples with high consumer fees and low level of advertising (The Economist), with a high level of advertising and low consumer fees (Vogue), or free for consumers but with the highest level of advertising (online newspapers), see Evans and Noel (2008), Evans et al. (2008) and Evans (2011). Those features are also common in social networks in which there are users who pay and have low levels of advertising (LinkedIn premium), or free users with advertising (Facebook). The same features are shared by Netflix (paid access without advertising) and by Youtube (free access but with advertising). There are others authors whose definitions highlight the link between groups and platforms, such as Kumar et al. (2010): Two different types of users may realize gains by interacting with one another through one or more platforms or mediators, or Amelio and Jullien (2012): The concept of two-sided market refers to a specific instance of networks where the services are used by two distinct groups of customers interacting. With this approach, we have other definitions proposed by Anderson and Coate (2005), Evans et al. (2008), Cabral (2011) or Ivaldi et al. (2011).
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We have learned that regulatory liberalizations are not necessarily defining events for market integration. Indeed, we should be careful to distinguish between the concepts of liberalization and integration. For example, a country might pass a law that seemingly drops all barriers to foreign participation in local capital markets. This is a liberalization – but it might not be an effective liberalization that results in market integration. Indeed, there are two possibilities in this example. First, the market might have been integrated before the regulatory liberalization. That is, foreigners might have had the ability to access the market through other means, such as country funds and depository receipts. Second, the liberalization might have little or no effect because either foreign investors do not believe the regulatory reforms will be long lasting or other market imperfections exist that keep them out of the market.
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The present study aimed at determining the infl uence of sexual orientation in human spatial learning and memory. Participants performed the Boxes Room, a virtual reality version of the Holeboard. In Experiment I, a reference memory task, the position of the hidden rewards remained constant during the whole experiment. In Experiment II, a working memory task, the position of rewards changed between blocks. Each block consisted of two trials: One trial for acquisition and another for retrieval. The results of Experiment I showed that heterosexual men performed better than homosexual men and heterosexual women. They found the rewarded boxes faster. Moreover, homosexual participants committed more errors than heterosexuals. Experiment II showed that working memory abilities are the same in groups of different sexual orientation. These results suggest that sexual orientation is related to spatial navigation abilities, but mostly in men, and limited to reference memory, which depends more on the function of the hippocampal system.
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