13 Abstract The possibility of manufacturing textured materials 14 and devices, with surface properties controlled from the de- 15 sign stage, instead of being the result of machining processes 16 or chemical attacks, is a key factor for the incorporation of 17 advanced functionalities to a wide set of micro- and nanosys- 18 tems. Recently developed high-precision additive manufactur- 19 ing technologies, together with the use of fractal models 20 linked to computer-aided design tools, allow for a precise 21 definition and control of final surface properties for a wide 22 set of applications, although the production of larger series 23 based on these resources is still an unsolved challenge. How- 24 ever, rapid prototypes, with controlled surface topography, 25 can be used as original masters for obtaining micromold 26 inserts for final large-scale series manufacture of replicas 27 using microinjection molding. In this study, an original pro- 28 cedure is presented, aimed at connecting rapid prototyping 29 with microinjection molding, for the mass production of two 30 different microtextured microsystems, linked to tissue engi- 31 neering tasks, using different thermoplastics as ultimate 32 materials.
10 Lee mas
ABSTRACT. This study focuses on an automated Substrate Pulse Batch (SPB) technique used for the mass cultivation of bacteria adapted to the degradation of a mixture composed of toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes (TEX). A small-scale prototype reactor was designed. A computer-based monitoring program was also developed. The key parameters to be monitored were handled by LabVIEW including, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and turbidity. Other parameters, such as biomass, ammonium or residual substrate concentrations needed offline measurements.
8 Lee mas
In addition to proving these results on the e¢ ciency for a market economy with mass production for both developed and underdeveloped countries, the model gives some comparative results between developed and underdeveloped countries. For simplicity I keep to the case when a combination of productivity …xed e¤ects pertaining to both sectors, including institutional e¤ects, are the reason for underdevelopment (Proposition 4). In this case a lagging country’s small scale sector is relatively more backward with respect to its large scale sector than a leading country’s small scale sector. This gives an explanation for the prevalence in underdeveloped countries of excluded and informal sectors, which form part of the small scale sector (independently for example of a tax avoidance or other explanations). Improvements in the overall small sector innovation technology can improve lagging country’s convergence in both sectors. The even further backwardness of lagging country’s small scale sector is re‡ected in a relatively lower innovation investment allocation as compared to its technological levels (public or private, Proposition 5). Innovation is a strong determinant of the income steady state. When market power is constant, innovation levels in both sectors hold the same proportion to income (Proposition 6). Finally, if the number of large scale production sectors in the leading country increases, the growth rate of its technological level rises, but the relative technological levels a , b , a in all other production sectors fall behind. If instead the number of large scale production sectors in the lagging country increases, then their relative technological level, as compared to the leading country, rises, while the relative level of the small scale sector remains constant (Proposition 7). Both of these statements refer to the impact of changes in material input availability for innovation, not to changes in externalities.
34 Lee mas
The artificial cultivation of shellfish in hatcheries has provoked great interest in marine microalgal biomass production (Ukeles, 1980). Production of this biomass is considered the major bottleneck in nursery culturing of molluscs (Persoone and Claus, 1980; De Pauw et al., 1983). The marine micro alga Isochrysis galbana Parke (Haptophyceae) is a naked flagellate that provides excellent nutrition for larvae (Ukeles, 1980) and is at present widely used in aquaculture (Walne, 1974; Bayne, 1976; Laing and Utting, 1980). Using batch cultures of I. galbana we have previously established some of the conditions for mass production, and this has enabled us to obtain maximum growth velocity and cellular density and to assess its biochemical variability (Fabregas et al., 1985a). Our experience with laboratory mass cultures may, therefore, enable us to establish some of these parameters for outdoor mass cultures.
11 Lee mas
The moral responsibility of architects became a political responsibility that led to the protests against the 14th Triennale in 1968, when students, artists and architects accused the organisation of being excessively enslaved to the market, in the very year that the exhibition was dedicated to mass production, and the most successful objects were the result of research that relied on advanced technologies, mechanisation and the maximisation of mass production as tools to express the same informal spaces pursued by the Radicals. De Pas, D’Urbino, Lomazzi with Blow, Zanuso with Lombrico, Bellini with Amanta, Magistretti with Selene and many others exhibited objects made of plastic, using technological processes that resolved the issues raised by the counterculture from within the advanced industrial system.
25 Lee mas
Microorganisms are potentially useful as food for human consumption, in the production of chemicals, in aquaculture and in the bioconversion of solar energy (Kharatyan, 1978; Goldman, 1979). The marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica (Prasinophyceae) is at present widely used in aquaculture (Walne, 1974; Bayne, 1976; Laing and Utting, 1980). If its growth response to a wide range of nutrient concentrations and salinity conditions in batch cultures were known we could establish some of the para-meters for a mass production which would enable us to obtain maximum growth velocity, cellular density and protein concentration. Several studies have revealed significant differences in the ability of various species or classes of microalgae to utilize nutrients at low concentrations. Such studies have provided much useful information on the adaptabilities of marine microalgae and have significant implications regarding competition between species under various conditions of limiting nutrients (Laws and Bannister, 1980). There is no doubt that many algae grow over a wide range of combinations of temperature, light and nutrient concentrations and yet maintain their elemental composition within more or less narrow limits. It is therefore clear that microalgae have mechanisms for regulating the uptake of each element and that these mechanisms serve to maintain composition and to achieve balanced growth (Stross and Pemrick, 1974).
9 Lee mas
than 1% of the total mass, using Spitzer IRAC and optical imaging. The Chandra and VLT/FORS2 optical data also reveal that ACT-CL J0102−4915 is undergoing a major merger between components with a mass ratio of approximately 2 to 1. The X-ray data show significant temperature variations from a low of 6.6 ± 0.7 keV at the merging low-entropy, high-metallicity, cool core to a high of 22 ± 6 keV. We also see a wake in the X-ray surface brightness and deprojected gas density caused by the passage of one cluster through the other. Archival radio data at 843 MHz reveal diffuse radio emission that, if associated with the cluster, indicates the presence of an intense double radio relic, hosted by the highest redshift cluster yet. ACT-CL J0102 − 4915 is possibly a high-redshift analog of the famous Bullet cluster. Such a massive cluster at this redshift is rare, although consistent with the standard ΛCDM cosmology in the lower part of its allowed mass range. Massive, high-redshift mergers like ACT-CL J0102−4915 are unlikely to be reproduced in the current generation of numerical N-body cosmological simulations.
18 Lee mas
It has been shown in simple neuronal systems, conformed by two excitatory neurons unidirec- tionally (sender-receiver) connected, that the receiver neuron can anticipate the sender spiking if an inhibitory neuron is connected bidirectionally to the receiver. Later, the same behavior was reproduced using neural networks although was computationally very costly. In this work we study synchronization in the Neural Mass model proposed by M. Breakspear, 2003 and observe that, under certain conditions, it does also display anticipated synchronization while being computationally more efficient than neural networks simulations.
58 Lee mas
During our age selection (described in Section 3.2) we found that some of the youngest dark matter halos exhibited rapid mass growth in the range of a factor of 10–1000 during one timestep (approximately 200 Myr). We believe this mass growth is unrealistic and is caused by misidentification of ownership of dark matter particles by the SUBFIND algorithm between neighboring sub-halos. The errant merger trees appear to normalize by merging with the mass theft victim after a couple of timesteps. This allows us to trust the results from our descendants that have had a few timesteps to normalize. Our selection method, that removes fast growing merger trees, computes the dark matter mass ratios between the z = 3.1 dark matter halo and its most massive predecessor and between the most massive z = 3.1 predecessor and its most massive predecessor. If either of these ratios is greater than 10, then we remove this merger tree from our catalogs. With this filtered set of dark matter halos we produce our models.
12 Lee mas
Storage of formaldehyde/water mixtures is tricky. At high temperatures, undesirable polymerization of formaldehyde is inhibited, but formic acid formation is favored. At low temperatures, acid formation is inhibited, but polymerization is favored. There are stabilizers which inhibit polymerization, but they are incompatible with resin formation. Methanol, at concentrations between 5 and 15 wt %, can also inhibit polymerizaton, but no separation equipment for methanol currently exists on site, and methanol above 1 wt % also causes defective resin production. With ≤1 wt% methanol, the storage tank contents must be maintained between 35°C and 45°C.
14 Lee mas
newborns, with the informed consent of their parents, ESI-MS–MS analysis was done using a Model while the others collected for general neonatal TSQ7000 triple-stage mass spectrometer (Thermo- screening were transferred to us with informed Quest, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with a Model LC10 consent. The same filter paper (Toyo Roshi, Tokyo, HPLC system and a Model SIL-10ADVP auto- Japan) was used in both cases. injector (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) , with some Retrospective analyses were done using newborn modifications. Using the autoinjector, derivatized blood samples of the patients; the samples were samples (13 ml) were injected at 1.9-min intervals stored in a freezer or refrigerator. into a flow (20 ml / min) of 50% aqueous acetonitrile. In our selective screening, clinical and laboratory The resolution on both mass spectrometers was tuned findings of patients were characterized by hypo- to 0.7 automatically. The data were collected in the glycemia, hyperammonemia, elevated creatinine multiple-channel acquisition mode for 1.2 min after phosphokinase levels, lactic acidemia, high levels of every sample injection. The modified scanning serum transaminases, consciousness disturbance, functions for the analysis of acylcarnitines and amino convulsions, sudden death, or acute life-threatening acids were performed in the order listed in Table 1 events in infancy. In some patients, blood samples and cycled. The tube lens voltage in each function were not collected during the acute events. was set to 90.0 V.
10 Lee mas
Stagnant conditions caused the highest mass concentra- tions in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia . Internal sources of particles were less relevant in South Korea than external, which were the industrial areas in inland China and the Gobi desert. However, anomalous meteorological factors favoured both long-range transport from external sources and local accumulation [223, 224]. Strong land-sea breeze led to accumulation and ageing of particles in Hong Kong, China . Dust aerosols from the Gobi Desert and the Loess Plateau are likely to propagate eastward but aerosols from the Taklamakan Desert propagate slowly westward  and both deserts were responsible for dust events over northern China . Transport patterns were obtained in Beijing . Potential sources of particulates recorded near the terminal of the Laohugou No. 12 Glacier in northwestern Qilian Shan were identified in the NW from the station due to industrial activities, urbanization, and residents’ emis- sions . Different air mass types were considered in Guangzhou, where transboundary transport played a critical role in the formation of PM 10 pollution events . Air mass pathways at New Delhi, India, revealed the difference in the levels of particulate matter during monsoon and winter air mass circulations . Long-range transport from the Thar Desert, Iran, and Pakistan prevailed in Agra in summer, whereas short trajectories from local areas revealed anthropogenic emissions in winter . Northern and central part of India contributed to high black carbon levels in Mumbai . Dust storms from the Middle East reached Rawalpindi, Pakistan . Similar kind of storm has been simulated over Iran . Some extreme soil dust events originated in major agricultural regions in Australia and not in deserts . In Europe, seven fingerprints of urban aerosols were identified in Helsinki, Finland, during 2006, where local or regional origin was considered . Several methods were
21 Lee mas
carriers. In both the first and second cases, the political "elites" will continue their parasitic existence. But if ideology disappears, then the masses are likely to continue to live as before, simply not receiving a fraction of the increased impact. If ideology develops, it will need to look for new ideologues who, oddly enough, will again be the elites, but not those who participate in the management of society, who are the creators of the official ideology, but those who remained on their own personal convictions or by chance aside from political life. They did not degrade under the influence of the general mood of consumption; they were not tempted by wealth and luxury which allowed them to preserve a true elitist essence. At the same time, this new elite, was not torn from society into a separate social institution, represents a certain internal force in the mass itself, which does not belong to it, but does not oppose it. In modern society, similar processes are observed in some countries: some people declare their position regarding morality, politics, economics, etc. using the Internet. They create their own ideology, and it is created by the forces, though not of the mass itself, but by those who are included in it and are perceived by the mass itself as part of it. Such an ideology is more enlightening than manipulative in nature: the mass is accustomed to traditional values, informed about the historical past, explaining how people got their rights and how they should dispose of them now. Thus, one could say that inside a bottomless, cold, dark, and desert ocean, the light of hope is born. But ideology is a distorted consciousness, and an ideologist, pursuing even good goals, will always look at the world from just one point of view, replacing one gloom with another.
7 Lee mas
Mass Customization permite a las empresas la conjugación de los beneficios económicos de la producción en masa (costos bajos, respuesta rápida) con los de adecuación a las necesidades específicas de los clientes (variedad y personalización). MC consigue costos bajos mediante economías de alcance – la aplicación de un proceso para producir una gran variedad de bienes y servicios más barato y rápidamente.
82 Lee mas
The primary goal of this work is to provide cosmologically un- biased tests of the scaling of the SZ observable with total mass. As described in Section 5.4, we have performed calibration tests on mock catalogs based on ray-traced N-body simulations for all halos above a given mass, as identified by the N-body clus- ter finder, without regard to whether the halos have undergone recent merger activity or contain significant structures along the line of sight. This approximately mimics the SZ selection, which is roughly uniform in mass at z 0.3. The verification exercise indicates no signs of bias to ∼2% for both the aperture mass and spherical mass ratio tests, under the simple assumptions adopted in that verification study. Similarly, we must include any SPT-detected clusters that may exhibit merger activity or contain known structures in the line of sight, as cutting them out risks introducing additional bias into the mean mass ratio tests. Nonetheless, identifying disturbed systems and significant line-of-sight structures is of some interest. For example, we note that the inner regions of the shear profiles (<R 500,SZ ) of SPT-CL
22 Lee mas
Tolerance to abiotic stress in plants has been connected with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause lipid peroxidation in cell membranes and DNA and protein damage (Gill and Tuteja, 2010). In our study, increasing alkalinity caused an increase in catalase and peroxidase activities, indicating that lisianthus responded to the stress by enhancing the activity of such enzymes to reduce the oxidative damage caused by ROS. Nonetheless, supplementary Ca was associated with a higher activity of catalase and peroxidase, probably reflecting its role as a signaling messenger (Reddy and Reddy, 2004; Schmitz-Eiberger et al., 2002) under stressful conditions, and providing a complementary mechanism for the tolerance of lisianthus to high alkalinity.
65 Lee mas
By the beginning of the 21st century, the industrial complex of Russia has been characterized by rather low growth rates. One of the main reasons for this position was the inefficient structure of industrial production – an explicit predominance of the extractive industries. So, if in 1990 the specific weight of the fuel industry was less than 7% in the structure under analysis, then in 2015 it already amounted to 37%, while the share of machine-building during the same time decreased by almost 2 times – from 28% to 12,4% .
6 Lee mas
to produce the AA from the acrolein. The Reactor 2 must operate at 280–320 ºC to maintain an AA production yield of 85%, approximately. It’s very important to cool rapidly the hot gaseous mixture exiting at the top of the Reactor 2 to avoid the occurrence of secondary reactions that could affect the AA production yield, and increase its explosive properties over the maximum permissible limit. In that respect, this gaseous stream is cooled from 300 °C to 70 °C in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger using cooling water. Once cooled, a two-phase (vapor-liquid) stream is obtained at the exchanger exit, which is sent then to an absorption (flash) tower operating under countercurrent conditions, to be washed using deionized water (solvent) at a feed flowrate of 2 540 kg/h. During this absorption operation, certain gaseous compounds, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen and propylene, as well as some traces of AA and acetic acid that were not absorbed by the solvent, are removed at the top and vented to the atmosphere. The pressure of the feed two-phase (vapor-liquid) stream is increased to 4.0 bar prior to enter the absorption tower via a pressure-regulating valve. The aqueous, relatively cold stream obtained at the column’s bottom, which contains AA at a mass concentration of 18 – 25%, is then sent to a liquid-liquid extraction column (extractor). The extractor is s tray column that uses di-isopropylether (DIE) as the solvent at a rate of 500 kg/h. The solvent is fed at the top of the extractor, while the aqueous mixture enters at the bottom, thus flowing countercurrent through the packed bed. A liquid mixture, containing mostly AA and acetic acid extracted by the solvent DIE, is obtained at the top of the extractor, while an aqueous stream is obtained at the bottom. The bottom stream is
9 Lee mas
In particular, one of the key issues that have not been tackled so far and it is very timely to perform is the environmental impact assessment of the bioethanol production in Argentina from a LCA perspective, such as it has been done in the cases of the Argentinean biodiesel production (Asal et al. 2006; Panichelli et al. 2009; Tomei and Upham 2009). The LCA approach will shed light on some of these problems, but not on all of them. For example it will be able to show improvement opportunities on greenhouse gases, acidification and eutrophication emissions, however land and water use and issues related to indirect land use changes and competition with food products do not fit well into the LCA framework. These last categories require a broader approach (Luo et al. 2009). The LCA studies conducted in Argentina on the bioethanol production have been incipient as can be confirmed from the review article by Chauhan et al. (2011). With regards to the LCA applied to the sugarcane-based ethanol, some relevant contributions appear in recent literature referred to production in other countries, for instance Australia (Renouf et al. 2011), Brazil (Cavalett et al. 2012; Luo et al. 2009; Pereira and Ortega 2010; Ometto et al. 2009; Seabra et al. 2011), Mexico (García et al. 2011) and Thailand (Nguyen et al. 2008). None of these studies are comparable enough to the case of Argentina as they analyze specific geographic situations and practices, however, some general trends can be derived from the results of these studies, which will be mentioned in the conclusions section.
414 Lee mas
The immense majority of the fruits of work in the current society take the shape of goods; that is, they are destined to sales. Goods have a value of use, given by their profit and value, determined by the work time socially needed for their production. In capitalism there is a tendency to reduce the value of goods, which has allowed access to appliances and cars by workers in the cities of the system. The contraction of the value of goods obeys to the development of the production means and methods. Money is a very specific good, resulting from the social relationships of production and exchange; it is a means to measure the value of goods and for the exchange of goods. Money is the general equivalent in the world of goods. With the development of production and the multiplication of the purchase and sales operations of goods, money tends to be dematerialized from any physical representation. Prices tend to coincide with the value; it is a trend because the capitalist seller always attempts to transfer the goods at high prices, taking advantage of situations of monopoly or exclusivity (brands, patents, marketing strategies, communication techniques, control of essential services such as water, electricity, gas, housing) in order to obtain over-profit, face the tendency towards a decrease in the value of goods, a drop in profit rates and crises. Given the value produced, the variations in prices only imply a redistribution of the value among social classes or capitalists. The prices of the monopoly have affected the purchasing power of wage earners and of non-monopolistic industrial sectors.
5 Lee mas