Medialiteracy provides tools to help students analyze messages critically. It “offers opportunities for learners to broaden their experience of media, and helps them develop creative skills in making their own media messages” (Rideout, 2012, p. 4). The intention of using critical medialiteracy as a pedagogical tool was to help students develop a critical view of media. This proposal included activities in which they had to analyze TV advertisements to understand how images, ideas, styles and language were constructed and presented to consumers. By means of discussion groups, writing and the use of artifacts, students debated issues such as social beliefs, ideologies, and stereotypes. They stated a position about the adverts and expressed their own decisions in regards to the credibility of the content of the messages. They also reflected about the structure of the advertisements scripts, including drawings, slogans and logos to offer a product. In addition, they analyzed the way advertisers select the information they want to show, or the strategies they use to hide messages. In sum, the lessons were designed to help students see the other side of the TV ads production and consequently analyze that it is possible to produce different ethical and more acceptable positions towards media messages. Also, a student-
As mentioned in the report Media in Europe: New questions for research and Policy (Alvares et. al. 2014), educational policies around the study of video ga- mes in the context of medialiteracy are almost non-existent within Europe. Most of the initiatives around the use of video games in educational contexts refer almost exclusively to game-based learning approaches: the use of video games as a tool at the service of curricular or extracurricular contents, or the creation of video games (coding). Previous studies have highlighted the difficulty identifying medialiteracy practices related to video games. The report Media Education in Four EU Countries (2013: 3), drawn up jointly by My Child Online Foundation and Kennisnet Foundation, affirms that "we have also not considered media education focusing on games —or using games— because hardly anything has been published on that topic". In our case, we consider videogames and digital gaming as new media. As we stated before, videogames are a part of the ecosystem of media around us (Dovey & Kennedy, 2006). Videogames as new media are defined as different technologies, means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society that mediate our com- munication and affect how we perceive and understand the world around us. Thus, ludoliteracy should necessarily include the main aspects of Media lite- racy. Game Literacy needs proposals oriented to a better understanding of digi- tal games as objects of study: reading/access; reflection/critical analysis on the technological, cultural, sociological and economic context of video games as media; and production practices.
Brackmann et al. (2016) assert that the application of unplugged CT activities should be evaluated in relation to cognitive development improvement to empirically con ﬁ rm that the CT incorporation into the basic education curriculum is necessary. Even though the combined approach of creativity, CT and collaboration is proposed, empirical studies are still scarce. What is needed is to infuse these skills into school curricula with evidence-based ﬁ ndings across different disciplines and grades, from preschool to higher education. Additionally, the current literature lacks in assuming connections among CT, collaboration, creativity and new medialiteracy skills. Characteristics of new medialiteracy skills are inherent elements of CSU and low-tech prototyping methods such as play, collective intelligence and simulation. Therefore, future research should focus on how new medialiteracy skills are developed through CSU and low-tech prototyping methods, how they can feed back into CT development and whether new medialiteracy skills can predict the successful CT, creativity and collaboration acquisition. Another interesting direction for future research is the area of learning styles. Kotsopoulos et al. (2017) state that many different types of projects support the different abilities, interests and learning styles of students. Future research can be oriented on this ﬁ eld by investigating whether learning styles can predict the engagement level, performance or even the success of students in CT and which learning styles model is the most appropriate to accompany this skill.
Abstract: This paper is result of a research Project PCI funded by AECID between University Carlos III of Madrid and University Cheikh Anta Diop. Our aim is to design and edit an e-learning platform characterized by a user inter- face adapted to the cultural heritage of Senegalese immigrant communities living in Madrid. This project, implemented by the NGO “Casa de Senegal” was developed using a qualitative methodology of participant observation and interviews with teachers and students of this center. As a result it has been devel- oped a map of icons typical of Wolof culture for use in representing the commands in the e-learning platform: e-Senegalaise. Platform created specifi- cally to provide a web environment for contextual learning in a Senegalese immigrant community. As a result it was found that Senegalese immigrants had digital and media skills enough to be able to act autonomously if possessed of a platform for medialiteracy. However, its competences are limited when try access to basic local news as strategy for his social integration. Local news such as training courses or social grants. A second conclusion is that access to local media plays an essential role for them as a factor of social inclusion as we find a greater integration between those with predominant local information. Keywords: medialiteracy; e-learning platform; digital literacy; cultural identi- ty interfaces; interculturality in media.
En general, no se ha analizado con demasiada frecuencia el concepto de competencia audiovisual. Son escasos los estudios que analizan el grado de conocimiento y comprensión de los elementos de los medios audiovisuales, especialmente entre los grupos más vulnerables de la sociedad, como los niños y los adolescentes. Paralelamente a la ola de transformaciones de la que somos testigos, las herramientas de comunicación para niños y adolescentes son actualmente aún más complejas, y se manifiestan en formatos diferentes que se actualizan continuamente. Por ello, a fin de crear programas de ocio constructivo que fomenten la comprensión lectora y de los medios, sería necesario determinar el nivel real de competencia, analizando científicamente tanto el contexto como el propio tema en cuestión. Como afirmaba Prensky en 2001, tras introducir el concepto de “nativo digital”. “los jóvenes interactúan con los medios con un bajo nivel de preparación, o sencillamente desprovistos del conocimiento necesario del poder audiovisual” (la traducción es nuestra). Esta afirmación la ha corroborado el propio Prensky en su informe “El uso de los medios por parte de los adolescentes. Informe Nielsen sobre los mitos y realidades de las tendencias mediáticas de los adolescente” (How teens use media. A Nielsen Report on the myths and realities of teen media trends, 2009). Sin duda alguna, la ciudadanía está experimentando la evolución hacia el digitalismo, pero carece de los conocimientos necesarios para dicha evolución.
This paper develops the concept of MediaLiteracy applied to audiovisual products in primary school children, with the aim of achieving our students a greater knowledge and critical attitude towards the incorporation of media in their lives, working traditional and digital media. The process of creating audiovisual products that we have developed in a school of the Community of Madrid, acquires a new dimension to work within the framework of the theory of multiple intelligences of Howard Gardner, and will allow us to observe how different intelligences are affected through the development and understanding of audiovisual works (Gardner, 2015).
número del concepto al que corresponde cada una de las definiciones. Quedará algún concepto sin definir». Los conceptos que se deben definir son: objetivo, memoria digital, YouTube, DVD, SMS, IPOD y REC. Dichos conceptos están vinculados a la tecnología y a algunas innovaciones aportadas por las nuevas tecnologías. En la pregunta 17 presentan dos imágenes idénticas en cuanto a la realidad representada y con variaciones formales en cuanto al tratamiento del color, de la luz, etc. El enunciado de la primera pregunta 17a es: «¿Crees que podemos obtener la imagen n. 2 aplicando algún tipo de tratamiento sobre la imagen?». Y el de la segunda pregunta 17b es: «Si la respuesta a la pregunta anterior ha sido afirmativa, qué tipo de procedimiento se ha utilizado para obtener este efecto? ». En este caso la persona debía demostrar unos conocimientos mínimos respecto a los recursos necesarios para el tratamiento digital de la imagen. También se presenta una imagen frontal de un reproductor de DVD. El enunciado de la pregunta 19 dice: «En este reproductor hay una película en DVD cargada. Señale el botón o los botones que debería pulsar para poner en marcha el aparato y poder ver la película». Además en la 23 se pregunta: «Desde un ordenador conectado a Internet se puede llamar a un teléfono fijo». La pregunta 24 tiene este enunciado: «Si hago un producto audiovisual y lo cuelgo en Internet, puedo utilizar legalmente cualquier imagen o música solo si no obtengo un beneficio económico». En la tabla 7 de la dimensión tecnología se exponen los porcentajes de las personas que alcanzan o superan la puntuación media de 7,5 puntos sobre los quince puntos que como máximo se pueden obtener en esta competencia.
signaling the criteria of the Code of Self-Regulation too general and open to different interpretations. There is also a general consensus among them in the sense that how the criteria should be reviewed from time to time because consumption patterns dizzying change as a result of impact technology. In the short and medium term, these experts are aware that the great problem is the downloaded audiovisual content and cast via the Internet, as their consumption cannot be controlled by the operators and broadcasters. Here, they suggest performance and supranational level of the European Union, in collaboration with televisions, through campaigns and educommunicative performances from television to promote social debate on television content quality, the protection of child consumption television and healthy use of the media. Similarly shape so complement, experts point out that the medialiteracy activities on content rating, aimed at parents, guardians, teachers, young people and children are essential to achieving the objectives sought with the rating (Fuente Cobo et al., 2015).
On the other hand, some scholars also believe that media messages are being processed at some level in a negative way. Media also promotes attitudes that affect health, safety, voting and consumerism (Considine & Haley, 1999; Cortes, 2000 and Duncan, D‘Ippolito, Macpherson, & Willson, 1996 as cited in McBrien, 2005). Thus the role of the teacher is essential to show learners medialiteracy skills. The main objective when teaching through media is not simply critical awareness and understanding, it is critical autonomy (Mastermann, 1985, as cited in Schwarz, 2005, p.11) as a way to familiarize their minds with media messages. In this manner, Potter (2010) proposes a set of seven specific skills: analysis, evaluation, grouping, induction, deduction, synthesis, and abstraction; as well as five sets of knowledge structures: media effects, media content, media industries, real world, and the self (p.680).
Media Education is the term recommended recently by the EU Par- liament to refer to medialiteracy. In 2008, the European Parliament stated the need for media education to be part of all curricula, at every level of primary and secondary education, introducing a subject called Media Education in schools (European Parliament Report 2008/2129 (INI). It remains to be seen whether this recommendation will be ob- served, but it is quite clear that there has been a consensus for decades that the main arena for digital literacy should be formal education (Gutiérrez & Tyner, 2012) and there are good reasons for including it curricular content (Campuzano, 1992; Masterman, 1993; Ferrer & Alca- ntud, 1995; De Pablos, 1996; Mena et al., 1996; García-Valcarcel, 2003; Fuentes, 2007). Now we will look at how it has been introduced in some European countries 2 .
The concept of digital literacy in a broad sense is a way of thinking but it can also be understood as complementary to the concept of media education and even synonymous with medialiteracy. Digital literacy as medialiteracy aims to develop both critical understanding of and active participation in the media. Digital and medialiteracy is about developing people’s critical and creative abilities. Using a computer requires diverse and complex previous knowledge. It also introduces the individual and humanity to new contexts, which demands mental, intellectual, profound and complex changes. In essence, digital literacy is a complicated process that consists of acquiring a new tekne, ability of art or craft. Creativity and culture become essential raw materials for the knowledge economy.
The evolution of the concept of literacy was the result of the transition from an oral culture to a written one. This study examined the major trends multiliteracy early twenty-first century. Documentary analysis and bibliometric method were combined to analyze the evolution of literacy through documents that establish its foundation guidelines and the scientific production behavior per year in the first decade of the XXI century. MediaLiteracy and Information literacy have an important place above the rest of expression. The multimedia literacy is little addressed in the literature, as a process of training competences on reception and production of messages, from the convergence of languages and media. The notion of Media and Information Literacy (AMI) is the main trend that integrates the various literacies that promote active participation in the construction and transformation of the individual and society.
With diSessa’s emphasis on the importance of the representational form as well as the social context of use, he calls into question accounts of new medialiteracy that treats computational media as a “text.” Livingstone (2004) argues that if using the Web represents something new, rather than an extension of textual practice, more research is necessary that will “investigate the emerging skills and practices of new media users as they meaningfully appropriate ICT into their lives” (10). In this paper, I have laid out an argument that in light of theories of literacy concerning both “old” and “new” media, there is good reason to suspect that the work involved in the production of MySpace profiles involves a new form of literacy practices, and that those practices, to some extent, are dependent on a particular representational form. Understanding it further would require a look at the social practices that shape how people create and maintain their profiles and also a look at the roles that code, the multiple forms of media found on the web, and MySpace itself play in enabling certain practices and constraining others. A social perspective of literacy helps show that a part of problem in this framing of copying and pasting as a literacy practice is that it does not neatly fit within common educational practices. From the perspective of the social niche of traditional schooling, to copy and paste is to plagiarize, unless there is careful attribution of sources. Therefore from the perspective of being “media literate,” in the way that many use the phrase, copying and pasting is antithetical to a literate practice. But, on the other hand, from other social niches, such as software development, copying and pasting is routine and is a fundamental part of everyday practice. Understanding when, why, and how to re-use code are among core competencies. The question for us is in what social niches might copying and pasting in the process of re-using a diverse array of media be considered the sign of a deep shift in how people engage with one another?
Unlike previous research into the crossroads where teens, media and cultural practices converge, the present study did not aim to measure the level of teens’ Internet or digital skills. Many studies have already done this both in Europe and the US with high-level research outputs in terms of skill levels, international comparisons, etc. (e.g. Livingstone; Ha- ddon, 2009). These studies were particularly important for mapping the territory and orienting the corresponding me- dia literacy actions. As the main questions of the present re- search were ‘What are teens doing with media and how did they learn to do it?’, the study focused on obtaining a better understanding and analysing how teens engage in, develop and share transmedia skills in informal learning settings. The main output of this part of the research was an exhaustive map of transmedia skills especially designed for orienting future interventions in the context of (trans)medialiteracy actions. Consequently, the team activated the production of a series of didactic activities to take up and apply these skills inside the classroom (Teacher’s Kit).
This research analyzes the notion that the main international organizations of multilateral character have on the concept of educommunication (medialiteracy), by means of the correlational extract and analysis of content of interpretative base of 2.648 information units from 12 organizations, both regional and transcontinental, including the United Nations, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Arab League, the International Organization of la Francophonie, the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries and the Organization of Ibero-American States, African Union, European Union, League of Arab States, Commonwealth of Independent States, Organization of American States, Commonwealth of Latin American and Caribbean States, Union of South American Nations, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf and Pacific Islands Forum. Regarding the main results, it is evident that 83% of the organizations analyzed, except in the Community of Portuguese Language Countries and in the African Union, the convergence of the educational and communicative context, is specifically presented under the terminology “media education”, which influences the formulation of domestic policies through the proposal of incentives and restrictions that affect decision making at the governmental level, alluding to the continuous change and the dynamic construction of identity.
So far 120 teachers have participated in a net-based course, which means they have to act as students on the net. The course certifies them as net teachers. It involves their using and learning the communication and learning platforms; making homepages; using web evaluation; using smart boards; making power point presentations; producing web based learning materials; searching, using and evaluating information sources on the internet; adapting and using programs for physically impaired, and training in acting as a distance education tutor. Evaluation is performed after the course is finished. The course gets an overall positive assessment, particularly those parts which focus on information literacy and technology literacy. This distance certification course gives the participants a good opportunity to develop all necessary literacies. Fifty teachers can be considered to be very experienced distance educators, and for those teachers we provide just in time support.
Letter knowledge: Knowledge of the alphabet letters is a strong predictor of short- and long-term reading success. However, its influence on later reading is not about knowing the letter names, per se. Rather, the learning of letter names mediates the ability to remember the sounds associated with the letters. Once again, there is a reciprocal relationship between skills: Letter knowledge plays an influential role in the development of phonological awareness, and higher levels of letter knowledge are associated with children’s abilities to detect and manipulate phonemes. For example, the child who knows the letter ‘b’ is likely to remember the sound of /b/. Consequently, letter knowledge may reflect a greater underlying knowledge and familiarity with literacy related skills such as language and print.
Arrieta and Montes (2011) study the importance of digital literacy and the use of ICT in Colombia and the benefits that students can obtain from them. They define the term “Digital literacy” in several ways keeping in mind the perception of different authors. One of the definitions provided is that digital literacy is the ability a person has to read, produce, recognize the meanings and information provided by a site, and added to that, for a digital literate it is necessary to produce information and to develop strategies to develop the skills previously mentioned according to Gee (2007). In an additional definition, Howard (2010) states that digital literacies are enriched when the use of different web tools like wikis, social networking, and other different sites allow people to interact effectively. Moreover, the authors that developed this research also agree on the benefits that students obtain when integrating ICT tools to digital literacy and cite several sources that allow us to conclude that teachers must be aware of the students’ abilities when managing these tools and at the same time, in their role as leaders of a group of learners, must integrate these web tools into their classes and are advised to learn how to design sessions in which students gain interest to learn through them. As in this study, the project presented in this document intends to improve the digital literacy in young learners by using different tools that will allow them to develop language skills, in this specific case, speaking skills that in the future will empower the students and communicate successfully either with digital tools or in face to face interactions.
Tunnels et al. described seven basic elements in a literature based program as follows: reading as a natural activity for children; when they have access to books at home and they habitually read at the school, this activity start being a usual activity. Texts used in this approach are natural or authentic material. It means that graded books are not used in this type instruction. Use neurological impress method, it was a system created by Rod Heckelman in 1969 to help poor readers to read fluently with the help of a teacher; it is described as a system of unison reading where the teacher and the student read aloud simultaneously, at a rapid rate. Reading aloud, teacher is committed to read aloud to her children daily; this is a key element to promote children literacy growth. During reading aloud teacher is a model of reading for her students and being read to is an essential element of natural readers. Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) is the time in which students have the possibility to select their favorites, reread them without any interruption. Teacher modeling, during this time teacher read a book using gestures, varied intonations and enjoyment. Emphasis on changing attitudes, this element refers to enjoyment and the joy for reading that the child develops through the process of reading, they express their like to read.
Thus, the main purpose of this project was to provide students of grade 203 at Prado Veraniego School with tools that allowed them to improve their literacy skills through the implementation of the Balanced Literacy Approach, which had repercussions on the proper development of the PEI of the school, by preparing students to achieve the goals stated in that document. Also, taking into account that the main problem of the students was related to the literacy skill, the development of strategies which helped them to overcome that problem, gave them the chance to achieve a better proficiency in the English language and in their academic life. Furthermore, this project also aimed at helping students reach the objectives established by the Ministerio de Educación Nacional (MEN., 2006) which include: The recognition of basic vocabulary related to the topics: Family, places, games, and others, the understanding of short stories written in English and the exteriorization of thoughts and ideas using the English language, among others. For those reasons, this research was not only valuable for the students and the school but also for the country and the pedagogical community.