Azokh Cave, as already stated, is situated in the Caucasus, a region which is considered to be an important pathway and refuge area between Africa, Europe and Asia, and thus a significant migratory route for hominins and other fauna during the Pleistocene. Therefore, the site with its palaeontological, paleobotanical, anthropological and archaeological assemblages is key for understanding the presence and evolution of different animal species in this region and also the environmental and ecological context of their subsistence there during the Pleistocene. This is an important factor, especially when taking into account that there are, as yet, very few sites with such a complete stratigraphic sequence and with similar chronologies in the region. Moreover, as the results of past and present excavations show, Azokh Cave was an important settlement area for humans from Pleistocene through Holocene times. According to these studies, the cave was occupied by three hominin species (H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens) all evidenced by fossil remains. Because of erosive processes it is impossible to see the MiddletoUpperPalaeolithic transition in Azokh; however, the presence of these hominin species together with associated archaeological assemblages (although in H. sapiens and associated artefacts are of modern chronologies, see chapter 6), for now, make Azokh a unique site in Armenia and Nagorno Karabagh and one of the few in the Caucasus to have hosted different hominin species. Therefore, further characterisation and contextualisation of the Azokh Cave site based on the study of lithic assemblages can provide new insights on hominin presence and behavioural and occupational patterns in this region.
- Vanguard Cave. Situada al este del Peñón a orillas del mar. Está colmatada por una serie de depósitos de arenas con 17 m. de potencia. Está siendo excavada por el Gibraltar Caves Project desde 1995 hasta hoy. En las primeras excavaciones las zonas de intervenciones fueron tres: Upper Area, Middle Area y Alcove Area. El material recuperado son un conjunto faunístico y varios conjuntos líticos con un total (n=1440) piezas (Upper Area (n=1089); Middle Area (n= 343); Alcove Area (n=8) en un contexto de hogares en las tres áreas. Las ocupaciones de Vanguard Cave según Barton et al. (2012) fueron esporádicas no más de un par de días.
The palaeolithic archaeological sites of El Calvero de la Higuera are located in the Eastern part of the Central Iberian Range, in the karstic system of Pinilla del Valle (Madrid). The archaeo-palae- ontological record recovered so far is providing detailed insights into the occupation and activ- ity of Neanderthals in the center of the Iberian Peninsula during the Upper Pleistocene and its environmental conditions (e.g. Huguet et al., 2010; Márquez et al., 2013; Laplana et al., 2016). From the data available, possible traces of anthropic fire at the site is what archaeologists consider to be among the most interesting information. The oc- currence of fire at middle-palaeolithic sites is not unusual but its identification is not straightforward since the evidence (e.g. charcoals, thermoaltered sediment and in the best cases, ashes) is usually scarce, ambiguous or poorly preserved. The anal- ysis of the spatial distribution of two types of local limestone blocks forming circles at certain levels of the site tentatively suggests the possible existence of hearths. Beyond that, unequivocal fire evidence is really scarce and its identification based exclu- sively on macroscopic (visual) observations is fairly difficult.
We infer that the basal unconformity and hiatus in the sedimentary sequences prove that surface of the basin was at higher level than sea surface when sedimen- tation occurred, while successive strata suggest sedimen- tation during transgression. Differences between the measured stratigraphy and the sea-level curve of Haq et al. (1988) are inferred due to the crustal movement in the studied region. Fluctuations in the sea level and cor- related vertical movement of the basin surface can be classified into nine types (Figure3; Table 1): a) approxi- mately stable (little change); b) constantly rising; c) Rise to radically fall around 6 Ma; d) radically rise around 5.5 Ma; e) gently falling after 5.5 Ma; f) Rise to radically fall around 4.5 Ma; g) Rise and then fall around 4.5 Ma; h) Rise around 4.5 Ma; and i) Rise around 4 Ma.
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ISBN: 978-3-540-70623-6 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York
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Los Tres Cerros 1 archaeological site is located in Victoria department, Entre Ríos province, and it is a mound with a complex occupational history. The abundance and fragmentation of the ceramic record recovered from this site, led to apply the refitting strategy in order to reconstruct the vessels’ life history and identify human practices and natural agents that took part in the site configuration. From a ceramic sample of the whole recovered in grid 1, 43 reassemblies were made, joining sherds from the same level, as well as from different levels. Similar technical choices (i.e., grog addition, application of pigment and rhythmic groove) were identified at different stages of the process of the minimum number of vessels (MNV= 49). Vessels exposed to fire were identified, possibly used for cooking, and also pieces that were likely used to serve. Finally, hypothesis regarding the record’s integrity were proposed, and at least for the upper levels of the stratigraphic sequence, an occupation event that was not largely disturbed after discarding was inferred.
Debido a su sensibilidad a los cambios del medio en que viven, los ostrácodos son organismos muy útiles para la reconstruc- ción de las condiciones ecológicas de épocas pasadas. Factores abióticos como temperatu- ra, salinidad, profundidad, turbidez, turbu- lencia, naturaleza del sustrato y aporte de nutrientes, entre otros y bióticos, como las Ostracods from Río Salí Formation (Upper Miocene), near to
Arequipa basin has been studied by different authors, such as Jenks (1848), Wells (1953), Benavides (1962), Vargas (1970), Leon (1981) and Vicente (1981). These authors refer to the layers of the Chocolate Formation (Lower Jurassic) in Arequipa, as a succession of andesitic and sedimentary rocks, containing Sinemurian ammoni- tes. There are geological investigations in localities of Tacna made by Wilson & Gar- cia (1962), Jaen & Ortiz (1963), Salinas (1987), among others; whose produce the first geological maps of the zone.
Recursos humanos heterogéneos. Unos 500 profesores de español imparten clases en el territorio gabonés. La mayoría recibe la formación inicial en la Escue- la Normal Superior, tras pasar unas oposiciones. Otros están reclutados directa- mente por el Ministerio de Educación Nacional. Pero, después de cinco años de servicio, pueden completar su formación pedagógica en la ENS. Esta institución forma cada año a una cuarentena de profesores. Es una cifra todavía baja respec- to a las necesidades del terreno. La formación continuada está organizada por el IPN (con una veintena de consejeros pedagógicos) y por el IGS (una decena de inspectores pedagógicos).
So, together with the men of Gondor ruled by Aragorn, the Rohirrim are the other mortal heroes that mirror some sort of medievalism. In fact, according to Carmine Costabile (2016), both Aragorn and Théoden would share the Middle Ages literary topos of “the premonition of death”, since it can be equally traced in several works from this historical period, such as The Song of Roland, The Romance of Tristan and Iseult, and also later in Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur (67). By means of the men of Rohan and their King, Tolkien reveals his erudition and passion for the Anglo-Saxon tradition. So, for example, when Théoden is slain on the battlefield, he mentions one aspect that could be located in the Latin comitatus or the Germanic heroic ethos, i.e. when he states to Meriadoc Brandybuck one of the hobbit members of the Fellowship of the Ring these last words: “Farewell, Master Holbytla! […] My body is broken. I go to my fathers. And even in their mighty company I shall not now be ashamed […] A grim morn, and a glad day, and a golden sunset!” (1976, 875-876).
Por este roce la casa participa de la naturaleza de su árbol acompañante, recibe su ímpetu y junto al mismo árbol se hace escalable. En el proyecto para el St. Hilda’s College unos carteles colocados en la fachada por la dirección del colegio avisan a quienes pasan cerca del edificio sobre la prohibición de escalarlo. Es una prohibición que se declara contra un deseo que la casa y su árbol centenario encienden juntos. También en el pabellón de Upper Lawn ocurre algo parecido: el árbol rozado hace a la casa escalable, accesible, le da rigurosamente una medi- da; refiere cómo la construcción humana es el resultado de un apilamiento y de un propósito que sólo el árbol sabe medir en su verdadero tamaño.
Within an ongoing research whose objective is the analysis of the structure of dental patterns and various factors in population studies of the region, different metric and non-metric variables were studied in 200 plaster casts from the Children’s odontology Hospital specialized in children “Dr. A. Bollini “, from the city of La Plata, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina; through the system of universal use called AsUDAs (Arizona state University Dental Anthropology system). The variables studied are: shovel, double shovel, interruption groove, tuberculum dentale, mesial ridge, distal accesory ridge, Bushman canine, Uto- Azteca premolar, marginal accessory cusp, accessory crests of the Carabelli´s trait, hypocone, paracone, parastyle, metaconule, dens evaginatus and rotation of central incisors. During the analysis of the sample, a type of rotation of upper central incisors not described in the AsUDAs system was observed in four molds. The objective of this paper is to propose new categories for the trait mentioned above and, in this way, achieve a more detailed description of it.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of age, gender and dominance on upper limb functional capacity and develop reference values on Functional performance test for upper extremity, Brazilian version of TEMPA (Test d’Evaluation de la performance des Membres supérieurs dês Personnes Agées), and verify the relationship between hand and digital dexterity and arm functional capacity. Participated in the study 281 individuals, aging more than 40 years old. Manual dexterity and finger dexterity were assessed with Box and Blocks Test (BBT) and Nine Hole Peg Test, respectively. ANOVA evaluated the effects of age in men and women and effects of gender and laterality. Pearson`s correlation evaluated the relation between dexterity and upper limb function. In 70 to 79 years strata and the strata older than 80 TEMPA tasks have shown a decline compared to the younger strata. No significant differences were see between 40-49, 50-59 e 60-69 years old strata for any task. Decline in digital dexterity in women and in hand dexterity in man was correlated with decrease in upper limb function. The knowledge on effects of aging on upper limb function and dexterity will help differentiate between normal and pathological aging in upper extremity performance.
Tethering of spinal cord in lumbar and sacral regions is a more frequent entity than in upper spinal cord. It is associated with congenital anomalies with typically stable symptoms for many years and microsurgical de-tethering is traditionally described as the standard treatment. However, cervical spine cord tethering is infrequent in adults; it usually affects young people and it can be caused by congenital anomalies, fibrous adhesions, and trauma. Cervical cord tethering secondary to a previous intradural surgery is also possible.[7,8]
A low perceived competence may affect the proper development of physical education lessons; hence, it is necessary to have valid and reliable instruments to measure this variable. In this study, it is described the adaptation and validation to the Spanish language of the questionnaire by Scrabis-Fletcher y Silverman (2010) to assess the perception of competence in schoolchildren of Primary Education. The sample was 780 schoolchildren from 27 randomly selected schools of Albacete (Spain), 389 boys and 391 girls, age 10-13 years (average=11.08 and SD=0.43). Exploratory analysis of the items and internal consistence study through Cronbach's Alpha were performed, using Multilevel package 2.4. The constructs structure was analyzed through factorial confirmatory analysis (FCA), using Lavaan package 0.5-11. The consistence of the instrument has been high (Cronbach's Alpha: 0.74). There is a high correlation between all items, even those from different factors. As a conclusion, two questionnaires of 2 and 3 factors, using 7 and 14 items respectively, were established and the instrument was validated to the Spanish context.