Migrant women

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The Effect of Arrival Conditions on the Reproduction of Migrant Women

The Effect of Arrival Conditions on the Reproduction of Migrant Women

haviour once the disruption caused by mi- grating had been overcome. The incomplete data recorded by the synthetic cohort indica- tor for the different profiles of migrant women suggest that the number of children registe- red did not seem to be affected by age at migration or the period of stay in their repro- ductive stage. This would mean that immi- grant women who arrived when their repro- ductive stage had already started prioritise their previous ideal of children over the con- text where they settle. From this observed behaviour it can be concluded that this first generation of migrants are not undergoing a process of assimilation to the reproductive behaviour of the host society, as would be expected according to the classical theory of assimilation.
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43 Lee mas

GENDERING MIGRATION, LIVELIHOOD AND ENTITLEMENTS: MIGRANT WOMEN IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES

GENDERING MIGRATION, LIVELIHOOD AND ENTITLEMENTS: MIGRANT WOMEN IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES

Second, coinciding, if not underlying these migratory changes, is a North American neoliberal agenda which emphasizes an extensive deregulation of the labour market, a downsizing, decentralizing and erosion of the wel- fare state, and privatization of services. Together, these measures create the potential for a post-Marshallian citizenship in which social provision no longer seriously seeks to bridge the chasm between formal rights and substantive access to resources among the poor. In Europe, scholars note that proliferating legal citizenship sta- tuses, which correspond with stratified entitlements, are a dominant government strategy to limit costs, while at the same time preserving the welfare state for a core constituency of full-status citizens (Kofman 2002). Such formal stratifications are present in North America, as evidenced in Canada’s LCP, in growing numbers of tem- porary workers in both countries, and in US welfare reform restricting entitlement for new immigrants. However, despite this, formally sanctioned exclusionary or stratified citizenship statuses have not been adopted as extensively in North America as in Europe. Erosion of social services and assistance as part of an attempt to reduce government responsibility for poverty among both native- and foreign-born, the growing income inequality that follows from the adoption of labour market deregulation as a principal strategy to fight unem- ployment, non-recognition of foreign credentials (especially in Canada) and persisting systems of gender and racial stratification that affect all citizens are more central in understanding migrant women’s disadvantages with respect to livelihoods and entitlements in these two countries.
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Mujeres migrantes en Chile: significaciones sobre su rol de madre y la crianza de hijos / Migrant women in Chile: notions about their mother’s role and children´'s upbringing

Mujeres migrantes en Chile: significaciones sobre su rol de madre y la crianza de hijos / Migrant women in Chile: notions about their mother’s role and children´'s upbringing

Since 1990 in Chile, there has been an increase in the immigrant populations from Latin America and the Caribbean Basin, which have inserted themselves in various social spaces including public daycare centers among others. This article addresses the notions derived by pre-school educators, professionals and technicians, about the children’s upbringing and the mother’s role of migrant women. These perceptions influence the migrants’ positioning more on the inside or the outside of Chilean society.

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				La mujer en la economía informal: sus características y la legitimidad en el contexto intergeneracional

← Volver a los detalles del artículo La mujer en la economía informal: sus características y la legitimidad en el contexto intergeneracional

in search of better opportunities, which in turn drastically affects the family dynamics. Women earlier had a subdued status in their in-laws’ home and were subjected solely to the duties of household. They were not allowed to take independent decisions and their outdoor employment did not always get support from their household members. But now due to the shift from a joint family to a nuclear family setup, the power equation and the role of women in their family appears to be changing. The migrant women were filling in the role of co-providers in their homes, mostly working as domestic helps. According to Banerjee & Raju (2009), stereotypical constructions of women’s place in the household continue to influence migrant women’s emplo- yment pattern in urban areas. Though valid, this does not seem to be the sole reason for the overwhelming emplo- yment of women as domestic helps. Low skill levels and unavailability of jobs in manufacturing, construction, etc. are other reasons for the particular pattern of employment in informal sector. Reciprocally, nowadays women’s place in the household as an equal is also shaped by other factors such as an altered family structure (as a result of migration) and necessity of earning a livelihood which is well-unders- tood by their family members.
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9 Lee mas

Configurations of Peruvian Female Migration  in Iquique, Chile, in the 21st Century

Configurations of Peruvian Female Migration in Iquique, Chile, in the 21st Century

tination stand out. Thus, for example, Tapia and Ramos (2013) have stud- ied the role of religious services such as the Chilean Catholic Migration Institute as an institution of reception and support in the labor insertion of Peruvian and Bolivian women in Iquique. The networks formed between individuals and institutions constitute a channel of access to resources in material, labor or information terms. They also influence the structuring, growth and composition of the community in Chile (Tapia and Ramos, 2013: 248). The fact that Tarapacá is near to the south of Peru allows Peru- vian migrant women some flexibility in generating strategies for the social reproduction of their families (and their own migrant experience) through the circularity of their migration. The constant return to the country of origin remains a plausible option depending on the degree of success of the migratory project. The need for this flexibility is reflected in labor deci- sions. Migrant workers tend to accept precarious jobs, or those articulated
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40 Lee mas

The fertility of Latin American and Caribbean women in Spain: adaptation, maintenance or interruption?

The fertility of Latin American and Caribbean women in Spain: adaptation, maintenance or interruption?

Secondly, the findings reveal a significant interaction between fertility and migration also regarding the effect of the time of arrival. The fertili- ty of Latin American migrants drops at the time of migration and during the first years of residence in Spain, which is consistent with hypothesis 1. There is a subsequent recovery in fertility. The diverging reproductive behaviour of the different age cohorts upon arrival reveals the influence of the interruption effect and recovery on the reproductive calendar, especia- lly among those migrants that arrived in the middle of their reproductive cycle. The extent of these tendencies depends on the region of origin and age upon arrival. This hiatus in the reproductive process and in starting a family within the lifecycle due to migration is consistent with prior results both for the sum of migrants in Spain (Devolder & Bueno, 2011; del Rey & Grande, 2017) and, for example, for migrant women in Sweden (Ander- son, 2004), or for Hispanic migrants in the US (Parrado, 2011).
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Deportation of Central American women victims of trafficking

Deportation of Central American women victims of trafficking

In view of reinforcing the anonymity of the stories told by the respondents no data that allowed the identification of the places where they work nor their bosses was gathered. Many of the respondents did not have a nega- tive opinion of their bosses; however, they did complain about the short number of days off and long working hours. Three women were retained against their will under coercion, intimidation or physical violence. Their bosses, which in at least one case, were related with international criminal organizations involved in drug trafficking, forced them to take drugs in order to break them and kept them locked. However, the in most of the stories the bosses were described as businessmen, who occasionally were investigated by the police out of suspicion of hiring underage girls, drugs, scandals proper to this immoral activity, etc., but the respondents did not relate them to criminal groups. Moreover, their economic solvency gave them certain status and respectability. These bosses did not make them take drugs, nor kept them in captivity against their will. Albeit, they did not let the women look for a job at difference places and nagged them to serve a large number of clients. The establishments that people with less resources attended only hired undocumented migrant women. On the contrary, the most luxurious establishments, attended by clients with higher incomes, generally bosses hired both native and undocumented migrant women.
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23 Lee mas

Promoting Gender Equality through the Visibility of Women: The Empowering Women Project

Promoting Gender Equality through the Visibility of Women: The Empowering Women Project

Other manifestations of sexism are no that visible, but they still avoid gender equality to be achieved. Some of these more discrete, but still harmful, sexist issues are the undervaluation of women’s role, sexual objectivization, gender pay gap, gender stereotypes and roles, sexist language, etc. This situation calls for action at any level of society, and education is not an exception in this respect. In order to achieve real equality of opportunities between women and man, a process of re-education is necessary, since people have been educated in a patriarchal society which ideals or behaviors with sexisms ingrained. Regarding the new generations different standards and ideals should be incorporated, so that students become aware and reject gender discrimination from a very early age. Here is were coeducation comes into question as it is the best option to fight and to avoid gender discrimination (Rosàs 2001; Subirats 2010a, 2010b; Suberviola 2012; Fernández González & González 2015; Venegas & Heras 2016).
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71 Lee mas

Violence against women during the partition of India: Interpreting women and their bodies in the context of ethnic genocide

Violence against women during the partition of India: Interpreting women and their bodies in the context of ethnic genocide

streets or in places of religious worship, and finally, rape. Moreover, it must be asserted that every violent act served as a metaphor that was “an indicator of the place that women’s sexuality occupie[d] in an all-male, patriarchal arrangement of gender relations, between and within religious or ethnic communities” (Menon and Bhasin 1998: 41). The violent acts on women’s bodies were not targeted at them as individuals. In fact, women’s mutilated and raped bodies were a way to send out a threat to the men of the religious group to which the women belonged. A woman’s body became a site where one group tried to prove its religious supremacy over the other. Jisha Menon in The Performance of Nationalism: India, Pakistan, and the Memory of Partition explains the relevance of the female body in communal conflict. She states (2013: 121): “The female body served as the terrain through which to exchange dramatic acts of violence. The gendered violence of the Partition thus positioned women between symbolic abstraction and embodiment.” Moreover, when one interprets the symbolic meanings behind various violent acts, one can claim that branding a woman’s body with symbols of the other country or religious group implies that the woman has been tainted by the sinful religious Other. Branding becomes a permanent reminder for the woman, whose shame at losing her honour remains forever ingrained on her body. Also, the parading of naked women at places of worship is a double-edged attack; it is the simultaneous humiliation of one’s religion and of women, who are meant to safeguard the purity of that religion. Amputating breasts, burning vaginas and ripping out wombs serve an even more sinister purpose. For Menon and Bhasin (1998: 44), these acts “desexualise a woman and negate her as wife and mother; no longer a nurturer.” In a culture that continues to see women as only fit to be mothers and caretakers in their husbands’ households, amputating women’s sexual organs essentially makes their very existence inconsequential.
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16 Lee mas

WOMEN IN CONTEMPORARY DEMOCRATIZATION

WOMEN IN CONTEMPORARY DEMOCRATIZATION

Women’s invisibility in the world of institutional politics is particularly striking in contexts where women’s political mobilization contributed to the demise of authoritarianism. Yet the new wave of democratization has not, by any means, had a feminizing effect on the parliaments, cabinets and public administrations of the new democracies. In fact, if anything the converse seems to hold, especially if the countries of East and Central Europe are included in the picture. Deeply entrenched barriers exclude women from meaningful participation in political parties, where they are habitually relegated to “women’s wings” performing “cheer-leading” roles. Globally, the figures for female representation in national and local polities have been remarkably consistent and, with the exception of the Scandinavian countries, low. The masculine construction of political authority makes it extremely difficult for women to be elected into office without some form of electoral engineering— such as through quota systems or reserved seats (Goetz, 1998). A number of remedies have been suggested for this anomaly—the greater equalization of paid and unpaid work between men and women; modifications in the working conditions of politicians to accommodate parenting and family life; and affirmative action (e.g. quotas or reserved seats) to boost the election of women in the face of the “boys’ club” prejudices of parties and electorates (Phillips, 1992:71). The importance that is currently attached to the third remedy, some have argued, may in fact reflect a sad but realistic assessment of how long it will take to alter the first two. It may also be a case of dealing with the symptoms rather than tackling the underlying causes (Phillips, 1992). Besides the issues of political equality and democratic justice, very often the argument for increasing women’s representation in decision-making bodies also hinges on an implicit assumption that women can, more effectively than men, contribute to the formulation of “woman-friendly” policies because they are somehow better able to represent women’s interests. But, as we will see below, this is a controversial assumption. Questions continue to be raised about whom these women in positions of authority represent, and how such a diverse group as “women” can find meaningful representation in the polity in the absence of procedures for establishing what the group wants or thinks (Phillips, 1993; Molyneux, 1998a). Questions have also been raised as to why the growing presence of women in politics is not translating into substantive change in the content of policies that can impact positively on the lives of ordinary women.
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Follow up consisted of a visit every 6-9 months until March, 2004. At each visit, a short follow up questionnaire and a cervical scrape for cytological evaluation and HPV testing were obtained. Follow up ended in March, 2004, or upon diagnosis of cer- vical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) III, whichever occurred first. Cervical colposcopic was performed in all women who had repeated cytological diagno- ses of low grade SIL or cytological evidence of HSIL. Colposcopically guided cervical biopsies were per- formed for women with cytological or colposcopic evidence of HSIL. Women with confirmed CIN III diagnosis underwent adequate treatment. HPV status was not known during the follow up and did not influence clinical management.
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11 Lee mas

The Talent of Mature Women

The Talent of Mature Women

1.8 Gertrude B. Elion (New York, USA, January 23 1918- North Carolina, USA, February 21 1999) has gone down in history as one of the most important scientists in the field of medicine. Her research in different disciplines had outstanding results: she synthesized the first treatment for leukemia and the first immunodepressant used in human transplantation, and her work laid down the foundations that led to the development of AZT, a drug used in the treatment of AIDS. Just like many other women working as scientists. she managed to do this in what was definitely a man's world, in which her achievements were overlooked or frowned upon. In 1988, when she was 78 years old, she got the Nobel Prize for Medicine, a late recognition for a woman who had no other choice but to face the prejudice of her day. She remained involved in the dissemination of scientific knowledge until the time of her death. In her own words "in a certain sense a circle has closed since my days as a teacher have led me to get involved in old age in sharing my experience in research with new generations of scientists." Her commitment and effort paid off with the best kind of reward: effective treatments for millions of patients around the world. Her modesty is all the more remarkable when one thinks of the determination she must have had to succeed in a difficult and sometimes hostile environment.
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9 Lee mas

Screening-a report

Screening-a report

One consists of evaluating their importance for public health, which often means the health of a population group. One public health target is the total number of years gained, which will be the result of a population group regularly attending screening tests. For instance, mammographic screening every other year for breast cancer in women between 50 and 69 will mean a total gain over a 36-year period of 3,232 years of life (present value) as compared with a situation in which no mammographic screening for breast cancer is carried out. (National Board of Health, Denmark, 1997a, page 18) The other way of calculating the benefit to society consists of evaluating whether the screening programme is worthwhile. For example, economic calculations have shown that the cost of detecting and treating a small, curable cancerous lump in the breast is less than the cost would be if such patients were later struck by chronic cancer disease, with all the therapeutic and nursing costs entailed. (Bjurstam, 1996, page 117) These financial calculations are also factored in when scheduling the frequency of examinations. If, for example, breast cancer screening was done every year
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119 Lee mas

Your history, my narrative: uncovering me through you

Your history, my narrative: uncovering me through you

The question of the implied or intended audience is especially relevant to these books. For they all are edited, structured, produced and translated, in a word, textualized for potential western readers. But the books have not been published in Arabic at all; Atiya and Shaaban translated the interviews and published them in English. Mernissi originally wrote her book in French, which was later translated for English readers by Mary Jo Lakeland. The way in which each individual book is textualized is examined later. For now, I want to argue that the fact that these books were published in English and French make them more ethnographic material than simply life stories of Arab women. I use the term «ethnographic» not in the sense that the interviewed women are taken by Atiya, Mernissi or Shaaban to be the «savage», «primitive» or «tribal» «others» who are the subjects of many ethnographic studies. The authors/editors intention cannot be said to be the same as that of a western ethnographer who merely seeks the knowledge of an «other», usually perceived as «inferior», for private or public reasons, or both. For besides wishing to display some kind of an alternative knowledge to western readers, the editors of these anthologies also aim, as their first objective so they claim, to allow a public «voice» for the women who have been unrepresented or underrepresented. An English or French reader is still bound to read the interviewed women as «exotic others», however, and thus read their stories ethnographically.
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24 Lee mas

Who are the women?

Who are the women?

Este documento esta divido en tres capítulos: el primer capítulo contiene información sobre ¿ Qué es la danza?, elementos de la danza, Street Dance, Danza Urbana, y sus diferentes estilos, el segundo capítulo contiene: la relación danza-teatro en el campo del genero urbano rescatando artistas como Isadora Duncan, Pinna Bush, grupos que han hecho danza teatro, a nivel nacional como Proyecto Urban Dance, Ensby, Dunkan, D-three, y otros que se están proyectando como A4 Urban, ex participantes del concurso la pista del canal caracol, Hush crew, Anvar, y a nivel internacional U4ria, 8 Flavhaz, Cookies, Jabba Wokees, que han generado en mi ese interés por su propuestas , y mi relación con la obra de Aristófanes; en el tercer capítulo todo mi proceso de creación para llevar a escena la adaptación en danza urbana de asamblea de mujeres de Aristófanes who are the women? (Quienes son las mujeres), y mi componente pedagógico.
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62 Lee mas

Contested Discourses on Migrant Connectivity: Migrant Users and Corporations of Mobile Phone and Money Transfer Services in Catalonia  An interdisciplinary approach

Contested Discourses on Migrant Connectivity: Migrant Users and Corporations of Mobile Phone and Money Transfer Services in Catalonia An interdisciplinary approach

Indeed there are diverse new institutional actors avid to manage migrants’ flows of money such as governments, international financial institutions and private corporations (Guarnizo, 2003; Orozco, 2000). This means that remittances have long transcended the intimate sphere of the transnational family to become part of global markets’ money flows, as expressed by Guarnizo: “the volume and stability of migrant monetary remittances worldwide have transformed this intimate transaction into one of the most important private transactions in the global economy” (2003, pp.671-672, emphasis added). While volume and stability of migrants’ remittances have lasted in time, the ways through which this occurs have changed dramatically due to the diversification of channels, including electronic money transfers that have gradually substituted hand deliveries (Orozco, 2002, pp.53-54). Thus remittances have acquired, more than ever, an unprecedented speed, becoming a practice of “technologically mediated diasporas” (Gajjala, 2006, p.179), from the moment migrants take advantage of digital flows of money to allocate their economic resources almost in real time. This is the case for various practices that may or may not involve users’ direct use of digital interfaces. As we will see in Chapter 8, migrants interviewed preferred using money transfer agencies or banks. Agencies require filling in a paper form with information on the sender and the beneficiary, handing it in together with an identity card and the amount of money to be sent to the agency employee, and get a tracking number code. Nowadays, new options for money transfer are available online, to be accessible through computers and mobile devices, 31
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425 Lee mas

Le « Je » migrant: développement de la CCI en FLE

Le « Je » migrant: développement de la CCI en FLE

Ce mémoire présente une étude qualitative de recherche-action dont l’objectif consiste à améliorer la qualité des relations interpersonnelles d’un groupe d’élèves lors des échanges à l’oral en FLE dans le cadre de l’altérité et du développement initial de la compétence communicative- interculturelle (CCI). Les participants à cette étude ont été 27 élèves, âgés entre 8 et 11 ans, appartenant au cours CM1 dans la salle 401 de l’école La Candelaria I.E.D., à Bogotá (Colombie). La collecte des données a été guidée par la triangulation des sources à l’aide de notes de terrain, enregistrements des performances et artefacts, ainsi que par la triangulation temporelle. En outre, une intervention en trois étapes autour de la thématique de l’immigration et du sujet migrant a été mise en place afin d’assurer l’évolution de la qualité des relations interpersonnelles. L’analyse des données a suivi une méthode itérative et contrastive en deux étapes afin de présenter les résultats, lesquels ont montré une amélioration des relations variant en fonction des composantes de la CCI. Les conclusions et les limitations de l’étude sont présentées à la fin.
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105 Lee mas

Pathways to citizenship: Generational reproduction of mother’s legal status

Pathways to citizenship: Generational reproduction of mother’s legal status

Globalization and migration poses new challenges for understanding citizenship from a transnational perspective, making us question the classic framing of citizenship (Walzer, 1983, 1989; Miller, 1995, 2000). Nowadays there is a gap between the lived experience of citizens and migrant families and nation-state policies that differentiate rights and entitlements on the basis of citizenship status. In the Portuguese case-study of a recent project 1 , some of the interviewees, especially migrant women from Portuguese speaking African countries, revealed a particular concern about the repercussions of their legal status in their children‟s lives. The overall objective of this paper is to explore how policies and laws shape mother‟s experiences and give a glimpse on the complex picture of citizenship rights, focusing on the effects of mother‟s legal status on their children. The analysis starts from the debates around the concept of citizenship, followed by a discussion about constrains that migrant mothers face to fulfill their socially prescribed expectations of motherhood and how their legal status marginalizes them. We should take into account that they are already subjected to other obstacles regarding gender equality. Next, we give a picture of the complex pathways to citizenship, presenting the stories of several mothers and their mixed status families, their experiences and restrictions on access to citizenship rights. Finally, the data highlighted some interesting research pathways that are being developed in a PhD project 2 , namely the discussion about how generational reproduction of legal status can affect migrant‟s children in the different forms of their development, namely in the transitions to adulthood.
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15 Lee mas

Le « Je » migrant: développement de la CCI en FLE

Le « Je » migrant: développement de la CCI en FLE

Ce mémoire présente une étude qualitative de recherche-action dont l’objectif consiste à améliorer la qualité des relations interpersonnelles d’un groupe d’élèves lors des échanges à l’oral en FLE dans le cadre de l’altérité et du développement initial de la compétence communicative- interculturelle (CCI). Les participants à cette étude ont été 27 élèves, âgés entre 8 et 11 ans, appartenant au cours CM1 dans la salle 401 de l’école La Candelaria I.E.D., à Bogotá (Colombie). La collecte des données a été guidée par la triangulation des sources à l’aide de notes de terrain, enregistrements des performances et artefacts, ainsi que par la triangulation temporelle. En outre, une intervention en trois étapes autour de la thématique de l’immigration et du sujet migrant a été mise en place afin d’assurer l’évolution de la qualité des relations interpersonnelles. L’analyse des données a suivi une méthode itérative et contrastive en deux étapes afin de présenter les résultats, lesquels ont montré une amélioration des relations variant en fonction des composantes de la CCI. Les conclusions et les limitations de l’étude sont présentées à la fin.
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105 Lee mas

Migración extra-continental en la frontera sur mexicana

Migración extra-continental en la frontera sur mexicana

Abstract— In the following article we briefly expose the problem in the new trend of the flow in Extra-continental Migration from the Africans and Asians countries in the Mexican southern border, the busiest routes they traveled during their journey on their way as irregular migrants to reach their destination, the dangers to which they are exposed during their trajectory and, at the same time, to carry out an analysis of the main causes of their migration, as well as the profiles of these migrants, on the other side, it includes the effects that the government of Mexico entails, the obligations it must, as a country, guarantee the integrity of each migrant person, as well as their human rights and individual guarantees.
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