MDE has been successfully adopted in the production of software for several domains. As the models that need to be handled in MDE grow in scale, it becomes necessary to design scalable algorithms for model transformation (MT) as well as suitable frameworks for storing and retrieving models efficiently. One way to cope with scalability is to exploit the wide availability of distributed clusters in the Cloud for the parallel execution of MT. However, because of the dense interconnectivity of models and the complexity of transformation logic, the efficient use of these solutions in distributed model processing and persistence is not trivial.
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Our DSL for specifying platform-independent MTCs was at the core of our framework. Our DSL was defined from the meta- model presented in section 2.2. Product line architects can cre- ate MTC specification scripts using our DSL. A text editor was thus provided having syntax colouring, code completion, valida- tion, quick fixes and several other features. List 1 presents a fragment of the MTC specification script built for the collection manager example, capturing the domain2architecture model- to-model transformation stage (line 1). This script was analogous to the model fragments shown in Section 2.2. Here, a source model, domainModel , was transformed into a kernel model by using transformation rule domain2kernel (line 2) and a GUI model by using transformation rule domain2gui (line 4). The model-oriented variation point, createBubble (line 3), was a condition for executing these transformation rules.
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With XAP, we can define as many distributed tuple spaces as needed. In our ap- proach, we have two of them, one for storing the input model and the other one for the output model. The global view of the approach is presented in Figure 1. Different execution threads, which may come from different machines, can be reading the input model from the first tuple spaces at the same time. Likewise, several threads can be creating the output model together. By having the model transformation implemented in several machines, we can make the most of the processing capacity of all of them because they can be creating different parts of the output model at the same time.
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Abstract. Domain experts may use novel tools that allow them to de- sign and model their systems in a notation very close to the domain problem. However, the use of tools for the statistical analysis of stochas- tic systems requires software engineers to carefully specify such systems in low level and specific languages. In this work we line up both sce- narios, specific domain modeling and statistical analysis. Specifically, we have extended the e-Motions system, a framework to develop real-time domain-specific languages where the behavior is specified in a natural way by in-place transformation rules, to support the statistical analysis of systems defined using it. We discuss how restricted e-Motions sys- tems are used to produce Maude corresponding specifications, using a model transformation from e-Motions to Maude, which comply with the restrictions of the VeStA tool, and which can therefore be used to per- form statistical analysis on the stochastic systems thus generated. We illustrate our approach with a very simple messaging distributed system.
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We will illustrate our proposal by using an example based on a simplified ver- sion of the well-known Class to Relational model transformation . Figure 3 shows both metamodels of this transformation. An UML class diagram consists of classes which contain one or more attributes. Each attribute has a type that is a primitive datatype. Every class, attribute and primitive data type is gene- ralized into an abstract UML model element which contains a name and a kind (persistent or not persistent). On the other side, a RDBMS model consists of tables which contains one or more columns. Each column has a type, and every RDBMS model element is generalized into an abstract RDBMS model element. The transformation describes how persistent classes of a simple UML class diagram are mapped to tables of a RDBMS model with the same name and kind. Attributes of the persistent class map to columns of the table. The type of the column is a string representation of the primitive data type associated to the attribute.
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The main contribution of the developed research work is a proposed methodology for adapting mashup-type user interfaces, which are described, or can be described, from component-based architectures. This adaptation is done at run-time and its behaviour is not immutable, but rather, is capable of carrying out different adaptation operations when faced with similar input situations. This dynamic characteristic is achieved mainly by using model transformation mechanisms and mediation services (i.e., component tra- ding techniques). The two main disciplines of the Software Engineering involved in this research are Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) and Component-Based Software Deve- lopment (CBSD). The concrete contributions of this work are listed below:
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This three-level structure is giving a precise answer to the initial question. There is a clear boundary between Requirements and Analysis, and this boundary is allowing us moving from the “why” to the “what”. Precise modelling techniques to face this Requirements Modelling phase are required, as well as precise transformation techniques to go from the resulting requirements model, to the Conceptual Schema that will represent it properly. Considering the emerging fashion of Model Transformation techniques, especially within the context of the MDA proposal, this view provides a concise strategy to be followed to elaborate sound and efficient Software Production Processes. Their aim will be to provide a clear path –as automated as possible- from requirements to the software product, through the intermediate role played by the Conceptual Schema. In this advanced context, Analysis is not anymore related only to an independent Conceptual Modeling step. It must be also linked to the source Requirements Modeling activities and their proper alignment with all the other relevant software production process artefacts.
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In this paper, we analyzed if it matter which compo- nent is replaced for the constant term, in the intercept model, in the sense on numerical stability. By numeri- cal examples, in section: Four examples to evaluate de correlation criterion in the intercept model we showed that the intercept model can be used to reduce the ill- conditioning problem. In addition, evidence was given that the choice of which component is replaced for the constant term is crucial in the sense on numerical stabi- lity. Moreover, we computed the correlation criterion and we determined that this criterion does not work for the intercept model, that is, the choose of which compo- nent should be replaced for a constant term, cannot be performed according with the correlation criterion. We recommend practitioners directly construct each possi- ble intercept model matrix and choose the best one ac- cording to maxVIF, MVIF and CN criterion.
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C’est durant la période qui va de la fin des années 40 jusqu’à la première crise du pétrole en 1973 que se produit la grande transformation de l’économie baléare. En effet, les presque trente ans qui s’écoulent entre 1945 et 1973 redéfinissent le modèle de croissance économique insulaire. A partir de 1960, on peut parler d’un véritable décollage économique, favorisé et stimulé par la progression spectaculaire de l’économie européenne. La rente de situation des îles est déterminante, bien que ce ne soit pas le seul élément explicatif: ce ne seront plus, désormais, les marchandises conventionnelles provenant de la campagne ou des ateliers urbains qui favoriseront le changement, ce sera l’industrie des étrangers -selon l’expression visionnaire du majorquin Bartomeu Amengual, secrétaire de la Chambre de Commerce, Industrie et Navigation de Barcelone de 1902 à 1957- qui sera à l’origine du phénomène. L’Europe se remettait alors des conséquences de la guerre. L’amélioration de son niveau de vie ainsi qu’une législation adéquate ont permis qu’un contingent important de la population ouvrière puissent profiter de vacances dans un autre pays que le leur. C’est ainsi qu’a commencé à se créer une demande touristique en direction des pays méditerranéens, où le coût de la vie relativement bas offrait des avantages comparatifs à l’industrie des loisirs. La réponse des Baléares dans les années soixante a été rapide et mérite d’être étudiée avec attention par les historiens de l’économie; cependant l’hypothèse de départ, d’après les données disponibles, semble sensée: des villes industrielles et agricoles importantes et des entrepreneurs avisés d’origine modeste et de provenance diverse, posèrent les fondations d’une infrastructure qui, construite hâtivement et de façon anarchique, devint en peu d’années le principal attrait touristique de la Méditerranée et une source intarissable de main d’oeuvre provenant d’autres latitudes. La progression, en ce qui concerne l’Europe, commence vers le milieu des années cinquantes, puisque les flux de passagers en provenance du continent vers les Baleáres par voie aérienne étaient déjà substantiels par rapport à ceux transportés par voie maritime. Mais d’autres mesures ont aidé à couronner cette phase. Dans ce sens, le triennat 1956-1959 conduit à un point d’inflexion puisque, durant cette période, les démarches concernant les visas et la douane ont été simplifiées et/ou supprimées, et on a assisté en même temps à la libération des devises, à la modification des taux de change et à la stabilisation des prix, des facteurs qui ont répercuté favorablement sur l’arrivée du tourisme étranger.
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The elementary signals are reviewed in Chapter 1 and several examples are presented. The intent of this chapter is to enable the reader to express any waveform in terms of the unit step function, and subsequently the derivation of the Laplace transform of it. Chapters 2 through 4 are devoted to Laplace transformation and circuit analysis using this transform. Chapter 5 discusses the state variable method, and Chapter 6 the impulse response. Chapters 7 and 8 are devoted to Fourier series and transform respectively. Chapter 9 introduces discrete-time signals and the Z transform. Considerable time was spent on Chapter 10 to present the Discrete Fourier transform and FFT with the simplest possible explanations. Chapter 11 contains a thorough discussion to analog and digital filters analysis and design procedures. As mentioned above, Appendix A is an introduction to MATLAB. Appendix B contains a review of complex numbers, and Appendix C discusses matrices. New to the Second Edition
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as far as possible. This will be the highest EU contribution to the fight against the loss of global biodiversity and Climate Change. Green infrastructures are forests, rivers, coastal areas, parks, ecological corridors and other natural or semi-natural elements essential for the provision of ecosystem services (European Commission 2011). They must configure a continuous network of urban and territorial green areas, hierarchical and connected by natural elements (mainly rivers) or artificial (eco-bridges). These ecological structures are already a reality in several cities around the world, such as the Green and blue Brussels network, the green network of Hamburg, the green London Grid, the biodiversity network proposed for the city of Chicago and its region, the Biotope area of Berlin, the transformation of Green gray infrastructures of the city of Portland, the green Ring of Ontario, the Green Rings of the city of Cologne, the Green Ring of Ottawa, or the Green
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More evident in Johnson’s later work, the Cuban presence in Jacksonville from the 1870s through the 1930s also included working-class émigrés, whose surnames and professional activities reflect the demographic heterogeneity of the island. These “garden-variety Cubans” (or their descendants) would come to assimilate as “white” southerners (e.g., Anglicizing last names or claiming Menorcan descent) or else be assigned such designations in city directories as “(c),” “A,” or “*” (for “colored,” “African,” or nonwhite). A smaller group of powerful self-identifying white Cubans −e.g., José Alejandro Huau, Enrique Fritot, Gabriel [Hidalgo] Gato, and Eduardo Triay, who colluded in the transformation of Jacksonville into a “New South”-style town at the turn of the twentieth century− might also be considered relevant to the revision of Jacksonville cubanía in Along This Way (cf. Helmick). While proposing a reading of Cuban presence and performance in Johnson’s work, within the theoretical framework of transculturation −introduced in the foundational essay Contrapunteo cubano del tabaco y el azúcar (1940) by the eminent Cuban writer Fernando Ortiz−, we will also suggest that the author’s treatment of migration, cubanía, and cultural contact anticipates and reinforces Ortiz’s paradigm in much of its complexity.
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In this research you evaluate the behavior microestructural that presents the steel AISI - SAE 4140 to the subjected being to an austempering at 450ºC. The influence is shown from the time of maintenance to the transformation temperature about the change in the mechanism of nucleación of the ferrite bainítica. One observes the step of a behavior metaestable (martensita and bainita) to one stable (ferrite and carbides) .
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The other type of classiﬁcation is to classify them by the type of model used to forecast. As we mentioned before, several techniques and approaches exist in order to model time series. For example, some take into account signal components such as trend or seasonality, others model the signal as a correlation with itself or other variables, and more advanced techniques, such as state space models, are able to adapt over time in order to capture the variation of forecasting parameters. From this range of various techniques, we diﬀerentiate between classic statistical methods such as Exponential Smooth- ing, Autoregressive (AR) or Moving Averages (MA), and other more trendy approaches like Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) neural networks or Struc- tural Time Series models (STS) each of which will be covered in detail in the next sections.
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The results of the Bayesian estimation closely follow those obtained in previous empirical studies on road safety analysis. Moreover, the prediction analysis yields good results. The methodology has thus proved to be successful in providing a quick, simple and effective model selection strategy, which could easily be sophisticated and generalized with some additional but feasible computational cost (e.g. considering three input models in the explanatory variable selection procedure instead of just TIMs). The application to DRAG-type models provides an interesting alternative to the algorithm implemented in the TRIO software. The use of Bayesian techniques is directed to a better approximation to the true data generating process. These points will be further studied.
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This research is the result of almost seven years of work. While the goal of this research has not changed over these years, the approach has varied as consequence of the intermediate results that were attained. The different outcomes and results reported in this thesis have followed an iterative development approach. In each iteration, certain functionalities, deemed as priority and core, were developed and then the outcome was validated in a controlled environment, which in turn, provided feedback to improve and extend these results in the next iterations. Each of the results that will be presented along this thesis had its own path and a different number of versions. For instance, the Maturity Assessment Tool (R1) that will be presented in Chapter II had a total of four versions. The Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Process Kit (R2) had three iterations. The modelling of the different SaaS pricing strategies (R4) and the methodology for the definition of the SaaS business model (R3) were released twice and three times respectively. These results (R2, R3, and R4) are presented in Chapter III. All tools have been validated in real use cases and their report can be found in Chapter IV. For simplification purposes, only the last versions of each of the main results are reported in this thesis.
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dent with the transformation of visual representation introduced by collage in 1912. As pointed out by Clement Green- berg in his essay “Collage” in Art and Culture: Critical Essays (Boston: Beacon Press, 1961), Picasso and Braque incor- porated, for the first time, extraneous materials into the surface of a picture in search for “sculptural results by strictly nonsculptural means.” In turn, Cub- ist collage gave way to what Greenberg refers to as the “new sculpture” or “con- struction-sculpture” that revolutionized the medium—from its materials to the techniques and compositional methods:
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This article presents a proposal of transcendence of the traditional companies to changing organizations based on the human development to the interior of the company. That taken like fundamental pillars direction, human management and being competitions integrated with diverse elements that can pass on, understand and receive ideas, thoughts and feelings, any means, generating the individual development that by means of synergy allows the enterprise transformation.
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In relation to the field study campaigns deployed, they were very significant in reaching a deeper understanding of the degree to which organizations are supporting their decisions vis-à-vis the information obtained from data analysis and their willingness to improve accordingly. In general terms, none of the companies managed to reach the highest level of maturity, which highlights that much remains to be done and the relevance of the model to help them continue to evolve. Likewise, addressing and strengthening one of the dimensions will have repercussions on the others, allowing them to be balanced. However, the findings reveal that data quality issues are the single biggest challenge facing organizations. Similarly, it can be seen that in general the data continues to be poorly analyzed, reactive and not very audacious, mainly concentrated in the upper management and middle managers and very scarce at operational levels. Despite this, the decision-making dimension achieved the highest average maturity score, which highlights that these organizations have, to some extent, been able to take advantage of their available data to support their decisions.
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implement variable features that crosscut several modular units by using aspects. These aspects modify the internal behavior of components following invasive composition. This work is defined at the implementation level using the programming languages AspectJ . However, the use of AspectJ makes their aspects dependent on the linking context (i.e., the component), and thus, they are not reusable. The Flexible-PLA Model also defines variants by using the concepts of aspect-oriented, but at an architecture-level. These variants specify their pointcuts and weaving operators outside the variants, thus they are reusable. And the most important advantage, Flexible-PLA takes an step forward providing an MDD support to PLAs by generating AspectJ code from Flexible-PLA models as a result of a model-to- code transformation.
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