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Microenterprises in India : a multidimensional analysis

Microenterprises in India : a multidimensional analysis

We start our analysis with data from the sixth Economic Census conducted in 2013-14, which is the most comprehensive recent source of information on the scale and social profile of entrepreneurship in India. Firstly, we note that the overall scale of operation across all enterprises in the non-agricultural sector remains small. Figure 1 depicts the share of a particular size class in total enterprises enumerated in the major states. At the all-India level, 55 per cent of all enterprises operated with only one working owner and no paid or unpaid workers. Another 32 per cent operated with only two to three total workers (paid and unpaid). There is, however, some variation in the scale of operation across states. At one end, states such as West Bengal and Assam tend to have a greater than average share of the smallest size classes. In such states, nearly 90 per cent of all enterprises fall within the two smallest size classes. At the other end, Delhi and Gujarat, tend to have slightly larger firms. Albeit, here too, the two or three smallest size classes account for the vast majority of firms. Note also, that the scale of operation, at least by this measure, does not conform completely to the standard thinking on economic geography in India. Karnataka and Bihar are barely distinguishable by the measure. And Jharkhand has a greater proportion of larger firms than does Kerala.
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Multidimensional analysis for hyperspectral imaging systems A time, space and wavelength approach

Multidimensional analysis for hyperspectral imaging systems A time, space and wavelength approach

In this thesis, a novel pixel wise, affine image-degradation model for push-broom hy- perspectral cameras (PBHCs) is proposed by considering an optoelectronic approach, and thereby generating an accurate mathematical representation of the hyperspectral acquisition process. The image-degradation model is linear and the parameters asso- ciated to the striping noise (SN) are assumed to be spatially uncorrelated, spectrally independent, and decoupled from camera’s spectral response. The applicability of these assumptions was verified by an experimental characterization of the hyperspec- tral cameras in our disposal. Further, the spatial, spectral, and temporal information are assumed to be highly redundant due to the high spectral resolution and the fast temporal scanning of modern PBHCs. In this manner, and based on the proposed observation model, two novel multidimensional striping noise compensation (SNC) al- gorithms for PBHCs have been developed, the multidimensional neural network (NN) and moment matching (MM) algorithms. The algorithms simultaneously exploit the spatial and temporal information contained in a target scene as well as the spectral information contained at adjacent spectral images. The ability of the algorithms to estimate and compensate for the SN parameters, subject to the restrictions of the in- put radiation, was demonstrated mathematically. An additional algorithm has been included to relax the assumption of spectral redundancy, reducing the loss of spectral resolution in the hypercube. The applicability of the multidimensional SNC algo- rithms was successfully tested on real hyperspectral data acquired using a laboratory prototype, achieving compensated images remarkably good compared to their unidi- mensional versions. The experimental setup, based on both Photonfocus Hurricane and Xeva Xenics hyperspectral cameras, has been implemented to acquire data in the range of 400-1000 [nm] and 900-1700 [nm], respectively. It is worth mentioning that both cameras present distinctive noise patterns in terms of spectral structure. Fur- ther, a mobile platform was used to simulate and synchronize the scanning procedure of the cameras and a uniform tungsten lamp is installed to ensure an equal spectral
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Multidimensional analysis of the interaction between the organization, management pratices and performance in construction

Multidimensional analysis of the interaction between the organization, management pratices and performance in construction

construction projects can be understood as a physical human-made system with variable complexity and containing many related elements that influence performance, such as management and human relationships (Aramo-Immonen & Vanharanta, 2009; Schalcher, 2010), most research has mainly been focused on the relationship between management practices and project performance or the relationships between social networks and project performance. Therefore, if each relationship is considered separately the assessment of the system ruling project performance may lead to errors. Consequently, these studies do not explain the causes of differences in performance experienced by each company in their projects based on management practices and social network issues, which limits the ability to generate overall improvements in the performance of construction projects because their system performance is derived from the relationships among the constituent parts and their interactions and interrelationships (Ackoff, 1971). A holistic analysis including simultaneously those three variables is required to propose project performance improvement from a systemic approach.
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TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

loading on Factor 1 in the three-factor solution also load on this factor in the four- factor solution. This is the case of indefinite pronouns, synthetic and analytic negation, first person pronouns, to-infinitives, possibility and necessity modals, existential there, private and public verbs, suasive verbs, demonstratives, adverbs, WH-clauses, adverbs and clausal coordination, all of which are positive features. However, some other features, such as copular be (or. be as main verb) and perfect aspect, load more strongly on other factors, even if they keep loading on Factor 1 also. This is happening because additional factors usually reveal new underlying constructs that cannot be seen in a solution with fewer factors. In this case we can see that both perfect aspect and be as main verb are now loading on the different ends of Factor 4. The former is clustering with time adverbs, past tense, and seem and appear, that are features that did not load on any of the three factors in the previous analysis. On the other hand, copular be has formed a group with present tense and phrasal coordination, both of which were loading earlier on Factor 3. We could say thus that Factor 4 has taken a part of the underlying construct in a dimension from a previous factor solution on the negative pole (i.e. some of the negative features from Factor 3 in the three-factor solution, which were interpreted as conveying an informal, ‘spontaneous’ kind of discourse), while uncovering a new construct on the positive end, formed by features that suggest a narrative dimension (except for seem and appear, which is tricky to explain in this group as most occurrences actually correspond to present rather than past tense forms 37 , but which, on the other hand, does not have much weight on the factor, with a loading of .36). Rather than “elaborated vs. spontaneous”, thus, the two poles of Factor 4 suggest a “narrative vs. non-narrative” opposition, similar to Biber’s (1988) Dimension 2.
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Register variation in William Godwin: a multidimensional analysis

Register variation in William Godwin: a multidimensional analysis

Throughout history, the analysis of language has changed. Before, the following approaches were the common analytical tools: either a historical approach by means of analysing the difference with two or more competing forms in terms of absolute differences, or a sociolinguistic approach taking into account the use of linguistic forms regarding to varieties (Biber and Finegan 1989, 487). One of the most well-known types of variation in a language is the one of register which is closely related to style but they are not the same. Register would be used, in occasions, in an excessive broad sense, implicating the features that are recognised for the latter term. Style would be related to “the relationships between speakers and their interlocutors or audiences: the dimensions of intimacy/distance, casualness/formality, deference/dominance, peremptoriness/politeness, attention/inattention, and perhaps others” (Zwicky and Zwicky 1982, 214). Register, despite its similitude, implies "variation in the form of linguistic expressions according to the formality of the social context of use" (Paolillo 2000, 215). In Lee's words, register is a term used with "lexico-grammatical and discoursal-semantic patterns associated with situations (i.e., linguistic patterns)" (Lee 2001, 46). Of course, a way to investigate register is by means of its “patterns of variation. Register variation is inherent in human language: a single speaker will make systematic choices in pronunciation, morphology, word choice, and grammar reflecting a range of non- linguistic factors.” (Biber and Conrad 2001, 4). In this paper, register is used in a situational approach, which implies that extra-linguistic factors, with these systematic choices, apply due to the nature of the books selected, focused on a specific target audience with a specific purpose in communication.
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El Genocidio en Rwanda: un análisis multidimensional.

El Genocidio en Rwanda: un análisis multidimensional.

addition, it was made a review of primary and secondary information sources genocide in Rwanda. Primary sources consist of information about the Mission of the United Nations Assistance for Rwanda (UNAMIR), the Security Council resolutions, the reports of the Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN), the research reports of the United Nations, and economic data from the World Bank (WB). In complementation, secondary sources are evaluated critically on a historical overview of Rwanda from 1885 to 1994. Thus, the development of the monograph is divided into three chapters. The chapter discusses the theoretical approaches and instruments on the understanding and resolution of violent conflicts. The second chapter makes a theoretical and empirical analysis of the case study. Finally, the third chapter is focused on a critical analysis of the instruments of resolution of violent conflicts. Therefore, this paper allowed noting multidimensional analysis focused on systemic, political, economic, social and cultural factors demonstrate the performance limitations of the instruments of resolution of violent conflicts.
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Una aproximación multidimensional al término deporte

Una aproximación multidimensional al término deporte

Tras su aparente simplicidad, el término deporte esconde una enorme complejidad social y cultural (Almeida, 2001; García-Ferrando, 1990, 2006; García-Ferrando & Llopis, 2011; Isidori, 2011, 2013; Parlebas, 2001). Para Coca (1993) existen tantas reflexiones, trabajos y dudas sobre el término deporte, que es necesario abordar el debate con innumerables definiciones que representen de la mejor manera tal elenco. Así pues, estando plenamente de acuerdo con esta postura, el objetivo del presente artículo reside en realizar una aproximación multidimensional que nos acerque a su significado a partir de diferentes perspectivas de análisis.
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Escalamiento multidimensional aplicado en publicidad

Escalamiento multidimensional aplicado en publicidad

La configuración multidimensional lograda con la descomposición de la matriz  no es única y siempre un paso importante en las aplicaciones es evaluar la bondad de la misma. Para ello se define una función objetivo que produzca un único número que muestre cuán bien se ajustan los datos a la configuración, es decir que indique cuán cerca se encuentra la confi- guración resultante de los datos originales. La bondad de ajuste es una consideración impor- tante también en la decisión de cuántas dimensiones son apropiadas para construir la nueva configuración. Una medida del ajuste ampliamente usada en MDS es el “stress”, definida como:
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Medición acústica multidimensional de jadeo

Medición acústica multidimensional de jadeo

El Capítulo 3 contiene los valores de correlación entre los jueces para estas alteraciones, además de las tablas de resultados de las medidas para Grado, Aspereza y Jadeo, donde numérica[r]

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La pobreza en España desde una perspectiva multidimensional

La pobreza en España desde una perspectiva multidimensional

En cuanto al método de agregación, aunque se presentan los resultados de otros indicadores habituales, se opta fundamentalmente por la utilización de la tasa de po- breza multidimensional ajustada, indicador propuesto por Alkire y Foster (2007 y 2011a) que considera simultáneamente tanto la incidencia (¿cuántos pobres hay?) como la intensidad del fenómeno (¿cuán pobres son?), a diferencia de las medidas utilizadas en otros trabajos similares que sólo captan la incidencia [Ayala et al. (2011), Ayllón et al. (2007), Pérez-Mayo (2008)] o la incidencia y la intensidad de forma separada [García et al. (2008), Herrero et al. (2013)]. Además este indicador es descomponible lo que permite enriquecer los resultados globales con información sobre la contribución a la pobreza total de cada una de las dimensiones y subpo- blaciones. Por otra parte, permite la consideración de dimensiones tanto cualitati- vas como cuantitativas en la conformación del indicador agregado de pobreza.
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Pobreza multidimensional de la infancia en Colombia

Pobreza multidimensional de la infancia en Colombia

Colombia, al igual que la mayoría de países latinoamericanos, sufre en la actualidad de repercusiones sociales y económicas provenientes negativamente de la pobreza infantil y busca constantemente la erradicación de este fenómeno. Prueba de ello es la ratificación por parte del gobierno colombiano en el año 2007, del Convenio 182 de la OIT sobre la Prohibición de las Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil y la Acción Inmediata para su Eliminación. Sin embargo, estos planes implementados por el gobierno no han sido suficientes ya que no han sido aplicados teniendo en cuenta factores influyentes en la pobreza infantil y su respectivo impacto. Considerando este panorama, el análisis que a continuación presento busca indagar los componentes de la pobreza infantil y su dimensión a partir de los datos de la Encuesta Demografía y Salud realizada por Profamilia creando a su vez un Indicador de Pobreza Multidimensional para la infancia en Colombia. Para el análisis se emplea el método de Alkire y Foster como referencia, basado en matrices de privaciones.
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Pobreza multidimensional em Aracaju

Pobreza multidimensional em Aracaju

A identificação da pobreza é realizada com duas linhas (dual cutoff) de corte, a primeira trata-se do nível de carência em cada indicador e a segunda relacionada ao nível de pobreza (ALKIRE E SANTOS, 2009). O primeiro corte indica se a família em estudo sofre privação em determinado indicador, como por exemplo no indicador agua canalizada, a pessoa estará privada caso não tenha água canalizada em pelo menos um cômodo, caso contrário a pessoa não estará privada, o segundo corte delimita o número mínimo de privações, que uma pessoa deve sofre simultaneamente para ser considerada pobre multidimensional.
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TALLER DE MEDICIÓN DE LA POBREZA MULTIDIMENSIONAL

TALLER DE MEDICIÓN DE LA POBREZA MULTIDIMENSIONAL

En esta sesión se discutirán las decisiones normativas que están detrás de la creación de un IPM - principalmente, la determinación de un propósito para la medida y las decisiones sobre otros parámetros clave, como las dimensiones, indicadores, umbrales de privación, ponderadores y línea de pobreza multidimensional.

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Bloofi : Multidimensional Bloom Filters

Bloofi : Multidimensional Bloom Filters

Bloom filters are probabilistic data structures commonly used for approximate membership problems in many areas of Computer Science (networking, distributed systems, databases, etc.). With the increase in data size and distribution of data, problems arise where a large number of Bloom filters are available, and all them need to be searched for potential matches. As an example, in a federated cloud environment, each cloud provider could encode the information using Bloom filters and share the Bloom filters with a central coordinator. The problem of interest is not only whether a given element is in any of the sets represented by the Bloom filters, but which of the existing sets contain the given element. This problem cannot be solved by just constructing a Bloom filter on the union of all the sets. Instead, we effectively have a multidimensional Bloom filter problem: given an element, we wish to receive a list of candidate sets where the element might be.
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La calidad de vida: Anlisis multidimensional

La calidad de vida: Anlisis multidimensional

Existen tópicos que se consideran sustantivos para evaluar una vida como poseedora de calidad objetiva; éstos son fundamentalmente la satisfacción de aspectos básicos como lo planteó Maslow en su pirámide que por jerarquías de ne- cesidades indica que conforme se satisfacen las necesidades básicas, los humanos desarrollan necesidades y deseos más altos. Se postula la existencia de necesidades de orden alto que se satisfacen a manera externa de autorrealización y autoestima, y social y de orden bajo, como son las necesi- dades fi siológicas y de seguridad, satisfechas internamente. Es por ello que se trata de una categoría multidimensional que combate el concepto del ser humano lineal, uniforme y que obliga a desplegar la creatividad para aprehender la diversidad humana; su percepción depende en gran parte de la concepción del mundo que tiene el sujeto en particular, la interpretación y valoración que le da a lo que tiene, vive y espera.
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Introduccin al anlisis multidimensional no-mtrico

Introduccin al anlisis multidimensional no-mtrico

Según la tabla 3, si queremos que las distancias sean una función monó- tona de las disimilaridades hemos de mover los puntos (3,2), (5,3) y (3,1) según nos indican las disparidades; ell[r]

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Estimación de la pobreza multidimensional en campamentos

Estimación de la pobreza multidimensional en campamentos

gos están un 1,7%, 7,7% y 5,9% por sobre los ni- veles nacionales respectivamente. Sin embargo, las región del Bío Bío está entre un 15,2% y un 22% por debajo de los niveles de pobreza mul- tidimensional en campamentos, mientras que la región de Los Lagos esta entre un 7.1% y un 12.9% por debajo de estos. La región de la Arau- canía, que a nivel nacional es la más pobre mul- tidimensionalmente, a nivel de campamentos esta solo entre un 1,4% y 5% por sobre el nivel de pobreza multidimensional en campamentos. Esta brecha entre los resultados a nivel nacio- nal y a nivel de campamentos, desagregados por región, aclara las diferencias entre los ho- gares pobres y entre los campamentos a través las regiones. Asimismo, los resultados exponen la existencia de pobreza en regiones donde esta se ve invisibilizada por otras estimacio- nes, como es el caso en las regiones del norte. Las razones o causas de estas diferencias son inciertas, con la información expuesta solo po- demos aseverar que los niveles de pobreza en campamentos varían mucho entre regiones y estos niveles no siguen la tendencia expuesta por estimaciones anteriores. Sin embargo, si se puede especular que una causa escondida de esta diferencia es el espacio temporal que cu- bren las encuestas. Esto último se refiere a que las estimaciones de pobreza a nivel nacional utilizan una encuesta dos años más antigua que las estimaciones a nivel de campamen- tos, por lo que es posible que durante esos dos años los niveles de pobreza hayan cambiado fuertemente.
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HAMBO. Hábitat Multidimensional Bolonia

HAMBO. Hábitat Multidimensional Bolonia

Fuente: (Elaboración Propia).. 80 Esta cuarta y última plancha toma una de las edificaciones del proyecto, el edificio #8, para explicar el desarrollo de la escala “vivienda”[r]

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Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional (IPM)

Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional (IPM)

En el segundo semestre del 2014, se firmó una carta de entendimiento entre el Presidente de la República, la Segunda Vicepresidenta de la República, la Asociación Horizonte Positivo, la Iniciativa para el Desarrollo Humano y la Pobreza, de la Universidad de Oxford (OPHI por las siglas en inglés de Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative) y el Ministro de Desarrollo Humano e Inclusión Social, donde se establece la incorporación de Costa Rica como parte de la Red de Pares para la Pobreza Multidimensional y se sientan las bases para iniciar un proceso de cooperación para el desarrollo del IPM. Es así como se solicita al Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos desarrollar la herramienta, como una forma transparente de garantizar la objetividad técnica, conceptual y metodológica. El proceso de desarrollo del IPM se puede sintetizar en cuatro etapas:
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Analysis and visualization of multidimensional cancer genomics data

Analysis and visualization of multidimensional cancer genomics data

The overall distribution of probabilities of these two groups of genes is roughly bimodal in both driver lists, which allowed us to choose these symmetric cutoff values (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. S2) such as 0.3 and 0.7 for LoF and Act genes, respectively. Other cutoffs may be used for the datasets under analysis depend- ing on how strict a classification the user wants for their list of cancer drivers. Interestingly, we classified three CGC Dom genes as LoF (‘Dom?’ in Fig. 2). The genes in question are NOTCH1, NPM1 and CEBPA. All three have been implicated in leukemia (Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, 2013; Liu et al., 2013; Ohlsson et al., 2014) and both NOTCH1 and NPM1 are anno- tated in the CGC as partners of translocation events in leukemia. NOTCH1 has been described as an oncogene as well as a tumor suppressor. Its actual role may depend on the tumor type (Licciulli et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2013; Vogelstein et al., 2013). Equally, CEBPA and NPM1 have been characterized as tumor suppressors in the literature (Halmos et al., 2002; Sportoletti et al., 2008). We cannot be certain of the functional impact of the translocation on the function of the product of the fused gene. It may associate to a new promoter and change its expression accordingly, or it may be truncated as a result of the fusion and thus function as an LoF. For this reason, we had previously excluded all CGC Dom genes that are solely associated to translocation events in the Census. The plot in Figure 2 shows those genes labeled as DomT, and their
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