One of the outstanding features observed in Figure 2 is the large number of municipalities that do not have any web production. There are sixty-seven Galician municipalities that satisfy this condition, but this situation becomes more worrying when all of them are of rural character and they represent a quarter of all rural municipalities. On the other hand, the small number of municipalities with high visibility on the Internet for all web production is also noteworthy. Only six municipalities were located with an average visibility of less than one million in Alexa, of which five are of rural character. This does not mean that rural municipalities have a greater number of highly visible sites on the Internet, but in these cases, these rural municipalities have little website production but high levels of visibility on the Internet. In the urban areas, despite having more web production, few have very high visibility (public administration, higher education, electronic journalism, etc.). However most have reduced visibility, which explains the substantial descent in the average values of Alexa and the small number of urban municipalities with high visibility websites on the Internet.
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The results are consistent with the idea that resources matter for education at the primary level. In municipalities that belong to states where corruption in educational funds prevails, the average scores for standardized tests are around 0.4 standard deviations lower. These results are reasonably robust to a placebo test on private schools. Moreover, these municipalities affected by corruption in its state governments also have lower approval rates. In contrast, the evidence for secondary is not conclusive yet, it shows positive, null and negative effects across different grades that could be explained by the existence of a selection effect at the end of primary school where bad students leave the system or go to private schools. Additionally, it could be that there is a difference in what the tests evaluate between primary and secondary and how it relates to previous accumulation of knowledge.
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Funds transferred from central governments to local governments are best used to provide access to capital for local investments in projects with large upfront costs or to fund programs with large recurrent costs, like public education. For most cities around the world, however, fiscal transfers also cover a large share of their operating budgets—a situation that often produces inefficiencies in service provision and limits the benefits of decentralization. Many different types of transfers can be found internationally, and each category of fiscal transfer carries unique public policy challenges. At the most general level, transfers include: (1) intergovernmental grants that are transferred directly to municipalities as cash; (2) non-grant transfers that take the form of an asset or an in-kind service; and (3) agency payments to reimburse municipalities for expenditures incurred on behalf of other levels of government. Shared taxes may also be considered a form of intergovernmental transfer, but this paper will focus on the policy challenges related to intergovernmental grants. The most basic distinction in the realm of intergovernmental grants is between conditional and unconditional grants. A conditional transfer is earmarked for specific types of expenditure by municipalities and must be spent in accordance with prescribed goals and processes. An unconditional transfer has no such conditions attached, although it must be spent in accordance with existing standards and requirements for all public expenditures. iii Whether transfers are conditional or unconditional, often, in developed and in developing countries, challenges arise when insufficient attention is paid to the ability of local authorities to comply with grant provisions, and transfers are often not fully utilized because the institutional capacity is lacking within local governments offices.
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B UILD ON THE PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE OF SUCCESSFUL MUNICIPALITIES . Some municipali- ties and states have done much better than others on measures of efficiency and effec- tiveness through more judicious use of their own resources. The better performing munic- ipalities have invested more adequately in upgrading and rationalizing the school infra- structure, instituted services of transportation for children, improved the quality of teach- ers and provided them with greater administrative and pedagogical support. The report, "Brazil Municipal Education: Resources, Incentives, and Results" (2002) provides evi- dence that such measures have led to an improvement in the learning and well being of the children. At the same time, there are numerous municipalities that lack a coherent educational policy, where the educational system remains highly politicized and clien- telistic, and in which learning outcomes remain low. It is a policy imperative in Brazil today to bring up the lagging municipalities to par with the municipalities that have suc- cessfully overcome the same constraints to improvement. A model based on identifying the behavior of "positive deviants" (or "high outliers") that has been used internationally in a wide range of cases could be applied to municipal and even state education systems. In fact, there is well-documented evidence of the success in Brazil itself of an approach that takes a more dynamic view of decentralization. Such a view puts a high value on the importance of establishing feedback loops for the flow of information across and within sub-national entities and community organizations. The examples include the activities of the "priority action zones" (ZAPs) that form part of the federal Fundescola program, and a range of programs in the health and education sectors in Ceará.
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Royalties and Transfers from the Central Government : The inclusion of transfers and royalties per capita as potential determinants or controls lead to some interesting results. Both were found to be positively and significantly associated with the Fiscal Capabilities index. In other words, they do not appear to produce a ´fiscal laziness´ impact on municipalities, as much of the global decentralization literature finds elsewhere, and as some of the earlier decentralization literature in Colombia had found. This apparently surprising result may be due to the fact that the 2001 constitutional reform created some incentives in favor of local fiscal effort, built in the allocation rules of transfers among subnational entities. First, transfers for education and health are now proportional to actual enrollments and services (they were proportional before to potential users), so that a municipality that improves enrollment by raising more local taxes will get latter on higher transfers. Second, a small fraction of transfers is now allocated directly in proportion to a measure of local tax effort. As a consequence, as Sanchez and Pachón observe, municipal taxes have been raising fast since these changes were instituted. It is less clear why royalties could stimulate local fiscal effort, though the coefficient is smaller. It might be that municipalities perceive these revenues as temporary and use them to build capabilities to collect other taxes.
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The flipped classroom model is based on a set of theories, including constructivism, active learning, and peer-assisted learning . This pedagogical approach may incorporate a large array of out-of- class activities, and in-class activities may include a wide range of approaches, such as role-play, debates, quizzes, and group presentations, amongst many others . In the flipped classroom, the instructor becomes a kind of guide and facilitator, indicating the way to go while taking care not to lead the way, motivating students in their own knowledge construction, letting them lead the way, following and supporting, and constantly and carefully monitoring their learning outcomes . The instructor should try to use multiple approaches as opposed to a single model; these may include group discussion, mini-lectures for review, and gamification .
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DE is not just a term with different interpretations; it is also referred to under a range of different terms (Bourn 2015). In the European Development Education Monitoring Report ‒ «DE Watch», it is recognised three different DE approaches: the first is awareness raising, which entails the dissemination of information about development issues; in the second, it is identified DE as Global Education, and it is entailed stimulating critical understanding of a globally interdependent world, promoting coresponsibility and participation to improve global justice and sustainability and, in the third approach, it is considered DE as an enhancement of life skills. It focuses on the learning process and on improving the necessary competences to lead a fulfilling life in the complex and dynamic world society (Krause 2010). Within this framework, the term Global Learning has arisen over the last decade and has been used in the application of DE pedagogy in schools (Bourn 2014). The sum of the second and third approaches is known as Global Citizenship Education or Fifth Generation approach. It is based on a lifelong learning perspective (UNESCO 2014c, 2015), and is described as a learning process to ensure people’s critical and active participation in the global society, involving them in the development of their capacities, and actively participating in their human, personal and collective development. «It has a political dimension and aims to raise awareness about inequalities in the distribution of wealth and power, as well as the causes and consequences of this inequality» (Argibay, Celorio & Celorio, 2009, p. 37). It is also tackled the leading role of citizens in modifying existing situations, ensuring everyone’s universal human rights are respected.
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The following journals were present the day of the workshop: Canadian and International Education; Comparative Education (Taylor & Francis); Comparative Education Review; Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education; Foro de Educación; In- ternational Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives; International Review of Education; Journal of European Education: Issues and Studies; Journal of Supranational Policies of Education; Revista Española de Educación Comparada; Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Comparada; and SARE: Southern African Review of Education. As it can be appreciated, most participants belong to CIE societies. In general, those journals do not face major budgetary issues because they get income from membership and subscriptions. This is particularly important for journals that migrated from print-only publication to a combination of print and elec- tronic, or electronic-only publication. Journals that keep print publication face, however, ongoing increases in the costs of materials and publishing. On the other side, journals that are published by UNESCO units, centers, or institutes (Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education e Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft / International Review of Education, among others) are constantly pushed to become financially self-sufficient due to budgetary constraints that UNESCO faces. The discussion did not explore how those publications do to become autonomous. An interesting case is Foro de Educación, an independent journal whose editor teaches at the Universidad de Valladolid in Spain. Since this is a particular initiative that does not necessarily count on institutional support, the journal could face some logistic and budgetary obstacles in order to consolidate.
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In contrast, Oaxaca and the western part of what was then the State of Mexico experienced a stronger insurgent presence up to the negotiated end of the conflict, and rebel leaders leveraged this strength to access political power at the local level. Militias in these areas were weak or lacking by the end of the conflict and the official fiscal structure was in disarray, given the rebels’ reluctance (or incapacity) to organize a permanent system of extraction. Once in office, creating new taxes rates or increasing existing ones was contrary to the political agenda of former rebels, further undermining the fiscal capacity of the areas. The new political leadership relied for support on the network of rural poor mobilized during the rebellion. In the municipalities that later became the state of Guerrero, for instance, Juan Alvarez allied with the peasants to displace the colonial elite as the dominant group. 23 These leaders were thus typically against taxes inherited from the colonial period and did not mind draining federal coffers to finance their clientelistic networks (Hern´ andez Jaimes 2006, 210). Tensions between the mobilized new political class and the traditional economic elite also led to unwillingness of economic elites to cooperate with state building.
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The first paper considers the impact on the institutional culture and pedagogy necessary to implement the changes indicated by the so called Budapest Agenda, while introducing the concept of the entrepreneurial school as a prerequisite for change as well as a strategy for designing appropriate teacher professional development. Deepening a close connected subject, the second paper starts with the baseline goal of improving EE and training as set out by the European Commission, highlighting the challenges that are faced in fostering an entrepreneurial attitude within educational institutions, namely the need to support teachers through training programs that pursue a long-term policy commitment simultaneously creative and well- conceived. A good pedagogical appointment is presented by the third paper that focuses on explaining how individual differences and alternative assessment techniques could be used by entrepreneurial teachers to implement entrepreneurial teaching.
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After embracing Theosophy under the tutelage of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, a Russian mystic, Besant embarked on her mission of propagating theosophical ideals and reached the shores of India in 1893. However, in India Hinduism fascinated her to such an extent that she devoted herself towards the cause of «uplift» of Hinduism. She toured throughout the length and breadth of India and lectured intensely on the lofty ideals of Hinduism. She believed that Hinduism was in a decadent state and emphasised on the need for its revival. Besant was of the opinion that absence of religious education in government schools and colleges and teaching of Christianity in missionary educational institutions was responsible for religious neutrality and scepticism among Hindu youths and hence the fallen state of Hinduism. To remedy this state, she propagated the idea that religious education of Hindu youths should become an integral part of their education. In order to concretise her ideas on religious education of Hindu youths Besant established a college and school for religious education of Hindu youths in the holy city of Benares in the then North Western Provinces of British India, in 1898 2 . Besant is widely known in India for her political
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The three types of citizenship education have a differing emphasis in their goals and are connected with differing pedagogical and didactical practices. Methodically, the adaptive type emphasizes the transfer of values and the regulation of behavior; the individualizing type independent learning and developing critical thinking, and the critical democratic type cooperative learning and developing critical thinking through inquiry and dialogue (Leenders & Veugelers, 2006). Westheimer and Kahne (2004) found a similar three- split (see also Westheimer, 2008 and Johnson & Morris, 2010). They identify a personally responsible citizen, a participating citizen and a citizen who strives for social justice. These studies show that developing citizenship is not a linear process from passive to active, but that citizenship can have different meanings and socio-political orientations.
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The current renaissance of research on the role of emotions in humans life run mainly by neuroscience indicates that empathy, as a state of co-experiencing with others, is not only the most significant way of communicating with others, but also understanding others and learning. In accordance with classic, but revalidated views, empathy played an important role at the early stages of child development and as we tended to think we gradually refrain from emotional communication when socialisation occurs. As it is observed by the latest neuroscientific research, emotional communication is a basic and dominant form of interhuman communication and interaction with environment during lifetime. First of all, neuroscience redefines emotions and their role in human life as the main drives for action. Anthony Damasio, in Descartes’s error (Damasio 2008), claimed that “the reasoning system evolved as an extension of an automatic emotional system with emotions playing diverse roles in the reasoning process”. It denotes that emotions play a central role in cognition, communication and communication with others. Attention, perception and memory are directed by emotions. They also influence reasoning and decisions (Winkielman et al. 2007, Damasio 2008).
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Indeed, our results indicate that medium-poverty municipal- ities were more likely to participate in the Program than high- poverty ones. We also found that poverty levels were unrelated to the amounts of money received and negatively correlated with the number of projects awarded. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, there are signiﬁcant partisan biases in the implementation of the 31 Program. PAN municipalities were more likely to participate in the Program than those ruled by other political parties. Municipalities with greater PAN elec- toral support were also more likely to participate and to re- ceive more projects. We found no evidence of the PAN targeting municipalities where political competition is tight; rather, the Program seems to be used to reward and mobilize core voters in PAN strongholds. Taken together, these results cast doubt on the ability of this kind of policy to target the communities where Mexico’s scarce public resources are most needed. Of course, the ﬁnding that medium poverty level municipalities are the most beneﬁted by the Program may be compatible with poor individuals in those municipalities increasing their welfare as a result of public good provision, but the political biases found are incompatible with sound pol- icy in a democratic setting.
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El propósito de este estudio fue desarrollar una versión griega del Achievement Motivation in Physical Education Test (AMPET) que podrían aplicarse a entornos griegos educativos. La conversión de AMPET fue probado a través de análisis factorial confirmatorio y el uso de la medida del α de Cronbach. El análisis se basó en los datos recogidos a partir de dos pruebas diferentes de toma de datos. En la primera sesión, 41 estudiantes de entre 13-21 años, hicieron la prueba y, el mismo grupo de estudiantes, la repitieron después de dos semanas con el fin de poner a prueba la fiabilidad. La versión final de AMPET griego (después de algunas modificaciones que se realizaron sobre la base de las dos sesiones de prueba piloto) se administró a 1333 estudiantes de entre 12-16. Los resultados de CFA mostraron que no había evidencia para rechazar estructura de Nishida de factores motivo de aprendizaje y que puede ser reducido a un modelo más económico que describe adecuadamente el motivo de aprendizaje en la educación física
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Our third dependent variable measures the number of projects awarded to a particular municipality. To assess whether our previous results hold if we focus on this count variable instead of the amounts awarded, Models 5 and 6 in TABLE 2 present estimates from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression ( ZINB ). As in our previous Heckman model, we use migration index and poverty (with a quadratic term) to predict program non-participation before estimating the count model. 12 Model 5, which is the zero inflation equation, indicates that the probability of not being awarded a project decreases with migration but increases with poverty. In turn, the count equation in Model 6 indicates that increasing poverty levels lead to fewer projects awarded, significant at the 1 percent level, with population size, coverage of public services, and year effects controlled for. As a robustness check, we also estimated a standard negative binomial model and our
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Introduction: Emotional intelligence is a very important issue in education that is separated by cognitive intelligence in the primary education classrooms of the Spanish educational system. A lot of studies show that being emotionally competent makes students acquire greater self-esteem and greater cognitive development. Moreover, the current Educational law focuses exclusively on cognitive intelligence, obviating any type of emotion. Aim: What is intended is to expand the vocabulary in the students, which is experienced in the benefit of cooperation and work intragroup and intergroup relations, as well as development and empathy, work life and well-being. Methods: In the present study, it has been decided to work on the development of the emotional intelligence through two activities which have a playful nature. Conclusions: Given the studies that we have done so far on emotional intelligence, we believe that educating emotionally in all areas is important for the complete and integral development of the student body.
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The heart of the Rio 2016 project is the Barra Zone where nearly 50% of athletes would compete and includes the 90 hectare Olympic Park with ten Olympic venues. There are three existing venues: Rio Olympic Arena and Maria Lenk Aquatic Centre, built for the Pan-American Games, as well as the velodrome which would be extensively upgraded to Olympic standard. In addition, by adapting and expanding permanent facilities at the Olympic Training Centre, Rio 2016 would provide a further 6 venues and one temporary venue for hockey.
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In this process of antiracist education teachers should reflect on their practices and how those practices reflect what happens in the larger society around issues of race. Weinberg (1992) borrows from Dubois when he refers to the limitations of educational reform, marked by the fact that teachers have not been educated about race and racism, in the contrary, that they have been taught to follow the mainstream’s racist discourse, which makes them reproduce racist beliefs in their classrooms and schools. Educational reform has not been possible do to the misconceptions and ignorance about ethnic and racial groups that teachers acquire from the wider society. These misconceptions are promoted by the mainstream and they are not challenged, in the contrary, reinforced, because they maintain a social, economic and political system that benefits them (Weinberg, 1992).
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In this paper, we analyze the most relevant relationships between budgetary stability, the Municipal Financing System (SFM) and social expenditure policies, as fundamental pieces to define the level of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that can be assigned to Spanish municipalities. We have started from the budgets of the 9,500 municipalities and other local Spanish entities, presented to the Court of Auditors in 2014, and available on the website of the Ministry of Finance. Based on this information, we developed a database (more than 1,500,000 records, big data, treated by data mining techniques) to per- form an analysis of the most significant factors explaining the relationship between budgetary stability, financial sufficiency and sustainability of welfare policies. Based on the above and the level of budgetary expenditures in the Basic Public Services programs (AG1) and the Social Promotion Protection Actions program (AG2), we propose two indicators to measure the level of CSR attributable to each municipality. The main findings of our research are summarized in three conclusions: that municipalities with budget deficits prioritize the reduction of their debt with financial institutions while diluting payment to suppliers; That the relations between the income and expenditure policies of each municipality have a direct impact on their level of CSR; And that, using a logit probability model, the hypothesis according to which the RSC of the municipalities can be explained by the size of their population and the way in which they are financed is confirmed.
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