Natural protected areas

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Planning and management of mobility in natural protected areas

Planning and management of mobility in natural protected areas

normally tackled by active (source attenuation) and passive (barriers construction) measures according to zoning limits depending upon local land use (Presta and Ricci, 2003). The lithosphere is potentially attacked in its two main components: soil (erosion due to modification of morphology and dispersion of aggressive essences by vehicles) and subsoil (modification of stratigraphy, sediments, mineralogy, paleontology, hydrogeology, etc. due to transport infrastructures intrusion). Moreover, the mechanical pressure on lithosphere is producing vibrations, again resulting in disturbing normal human activities and habitats of animals and plants: the mitigation of these effects is based on structural measures on generating infrastructures and receiving buildings. The hydrosphere is potentially threated superficially (natural inundation favored by transport infrastructures and contamination of water courses) or deeply (variation of water level due to dredging, accidental and continuous contamination). The biosphere is potentially attacked by mobility effects by various impacts: soil subtraction, fragmentation and solation of biotopes (ecological corridors interruption), polluting essences dispersion. Finally, the natural landscape may be treated in its natural and anthropic components as well as in cultural and historical heritages by the intrusive presence of punctual (e.g. parking and stations) and linear (e.g. roads, railways, and ropeways) infrastructures. In the following analysis the relevance assessment of impacts has been further developed only for the most frequently aggressive factors against natural protected areas under normal operational conditions of surface transport systems: air pollution and noise.
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Land use modelling and the role of stakeholders in natural protected areas: the case of Doñana national park, Spain

Land use modelling and the role of stakeholders in natural protected areas: the case of Doñana national park, Spain

This initial phase was also fundamental in order to establish a successful flow of communication with other researchers working in Doñana, such as the members of the social-ecological systems laboratory at the Madrid Autonomous University (UAM) and participate in their workshops in Donana. In this way we able to learn from existing participatory processes in the same territory and take advantage of areas where information required by the UAM research group overlapped our own, such as in the establishment of the model study area. There was a wide group of participants with local people, ecologists, visitors, religious tourists etc. in which we could identify several key topics that persistently emerged among stakeholders (such as the importance of Doñana's surface water supply), as well as perceptions about future. Several workshops with experts in land use modelling (RIKS) were also carried out to draw on a wide range of experiences about the modelling process. The flows of communication between stakeholders observed during this first stage were very useful in order to progress to the next stage in which it was decided which stakeholders to invite and how best to organise the working groups, in every case stemming from the need to find consensus among them.
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The geography of high value biodiversity areas for terrestrial vertebrates in Western Europe and their coverage by protected area networks

The geography of high value biodiversity areas for terrestrial vertebrates in Western Europe and their coverage by protected area networks

There is some overlap in the coverage of both WDPA and NATURA 2000 networks (Fig. 1); however, we found that WDPA is more densely represented in Central and Northern Europe and NATURA 2000 in the Mediterranean basin. So, both networks are complementary to some extent in protect- ing Western European biodiversity, which makes conserva- tion e ff orts easier. Although WDPA intends to be the most comprehensive global spatial dataset on marine and terres- trial protected areas available, it does not cover Great Britain, and, additionally, our results showed gaps of ≥ 13.3 % of the HVBA cells for the various taxonomic groups (see Table 1). These figures are consistent with the results of Rodrigues et al. (2004), who concluded that WDPA is far from accom- plishing its conservation goals. Also, Chape et al. (2003), Catullo et al. (2008) and Gallo et al. (2009) support that WDPA is not adequate for biological conservation purposes. NATURA 2000 includes a higher number of HVBA cells for all taxa than WDPA because it spreads over more cells, and therefore this result is expected by chance (Table 1). This agrees with previous studies that found that this network best represented vertebrate species across various European areas (Rey Benayas et al., 2006; Mart´ınez et al., 2006; Ara´ujo et al., 2007; Gaston et al., 2008). However, coverage by natural protected areas does not completely guaranty the enhance- ment of the conservation status of particular species at par- ticular sites (Rey Benayas and de la Monta˜na, 2003). Further, although NATURA 2000 has a greater coverage than WDPA, the degree of protection of NATURA 2000 may be actually lower than other types of protected areas as a wide range of human activities are allowed in the former.
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Escenarios de cambio climático (CMIP-5) para tres áreas naturales protegidas en el Eje Neovolcánico Transversal

Escenarios de cambio climático (CMIP-5) para tres áreas naturales protegidas en el Eje Neovolcánico Transversal

Due to climate change, precipitation and temperature patterns will cause significant changes in the ecosystems of the world. The tool used to simulate future climate is the Global Circulation Models (GCM), which are used to generate future climate scenarios. The objective of this study was to estimate climate scenarios for 2045-2069 for the Pico de Orizaba natural protected areas (ANP), Nevado de Toluca and Volcán Nevado de Colima. The monthly climatic layers at 1 km 2 were used for the present and future of the CRNMCM5 and GDFL_CM3 MCG with

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Análisis geomático espacial del cambio de uso del suelo en Huimanguillo, Tabasco (2000-2010-2030)

Análisis geomático espacial del cambio de uso del suelo en Huimanguillo, Tabasco (2000-2010-2030)

Since the 1960s, there is a clear tendency in Mexico to transform forests into agricultural lands where rain-fed crops are prevalent (Rosete-Vergés et al., 2014). This is particularly important, because the conversion of rain forests into agricultural areas entails the elimination of carbon sink that contributes to global climate change (Zheng et al., 2013). Land conversion in Mexican territory, particularly due to deforestation, has different causes, according to the region, which are most directly linked to environmental and socioeconomic factors and to public policies (Masera, 1996).
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Participation in protected areas: a social network case study in Catalonia, Spain

Participation in protected areas: a social network case study in Catalonia, Spain

Local participation in governance of protected areas is considered to be important to natural resource management and biodiversity conservation (Dudley 2008, Borrini-Feyerabend et al. 2013). Participation has been defined by Wesselink et al. (2011) as any type of inclusion of nonstate actors, both members of the public or organized stakeholders, in any stage of governmental policy making. Several studies have emphasized the need for participation in governmental decisions (Fiorino 1990, Fischer 1993, Blackstock and Richards 2007, Reed 2008, Wesselink et al. 2011). Various reasons for these have been identified: participation assures more legitimate decisions, thus enhancing public credibility in governments; it reduces potential conflicts between different stakeholders; it increases the variety of information that contributes to better decisions; and it counters the power of incumbent interests by allowing all those affected by a decision to influence the associated decision process. Before the 1980s, communities tended to be excluded from public decision making, or their participation was even regarded as counterproductive to natural resource management (Ruíz-Mallén et al. 2013). This approach was challenged by studies that stressed the inclusion of local people in natural resource governance (Hutton et al. 2005). The rights and need for local participation in decision making into protected areas was articulated at successive world congresses on national parks and protected areas, particularly the third in 1982 and the fourth in 1992 (McNeely 1992), as well as in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD 1992). Recently, active stakeholder participation has been recognized as a key factor of effective area protection in the Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) of the CBD (Dudley 2008) and in the 2020 biodiversity strategy (European Union 2011).
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Estimating social carrying capacity in protected Mediterranean mountain areas. Methodological orientation

Estimating social carrying capacity in protected Mediterranean mountain areas. Methodological orientation

study), with a relatively low participation by women (28% vs. 47%). 50% of the visitors were university educated and 81% were in employment (vs. 74.2%), but the numbers of pensioners (2.3% vs. 11.9%) and students (2.6% vs. 10.0%) were very low. These differences reflect the social environment of the recreational activities in Mediterranean societies, and the fact that such active, outdoor activities have only recently been widely adopted, hence the scant presence of retired persons. On the other hand, the low number of women doesn’t match with the Spanish eco tourist profile (Muñoz, 2008: 294). As regards the visitors’ origins, the data obtained for users’ profiles in Sierra de las Nieves corresponds to the prevailing pattern in natural parks in Andalusia (Hidalgo, 2009), with most visitors arriving from nearby urban areas. Figure 1 shows the location of this natural park with respect to the potential demand for its recreational activities. The metropolitan areas of Sevilla, Algeciras and Málaga-Costa del Sol, all at a distance of about two hours by car, depending on the access point (see Fig. 1) provide a potential user population of around one million in the first and third cases, and of 300,000 in the second. Analysis of the survey results shows that the relationship between road access, the respondents’ place of origin and their distribution among the three selected survey points corresponds to a proximity model. These three areas account for 94% of the respondents, with a clear predominance of those from Málaga (75%). This population, therefore, is mainly a nearby one, which is in accordance with the characteristics observed in other protected natural areas, both in Spain as a whole (Ruiz & Galdós, 2007) and in Andalusia (Hidalgo, 2009). This finding is also in line with Wöran & Arnberger (2012) regarding the prevalence of users from the same country, although the latter study did not report the proximity of visitors’ area of origin or the duration of their visit. In both studies, visitors predominantly arrived in their own vehicles (98.5% vs. 97%), which suggests proximity. Results for the duration of the visit, however, were unequal; in our study, 90% of the respondents were on a day trip (vs. 46.1% for Wöran & Arnberger). Our assessment of these data is that, in contrast to the universal nature of its biodiversity values, the spatial context of this natural park as a tourist destination is very limited.
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& Dudík 2008, Soria-Auzaa et al. 2010). Our study predicted the spatial distribution of A. perutilis at a fine local scale (1:10 000), based on presence/absence data as well as topograph- ic variables measured in situ. This hierarchical approach allowed us to integrate information from different spatial scales to show how topographic heterogeneity at a very fine scale affects the distribution of A. perutilis in a local scale inside the studied forest fragments. Our analysis reveals that the available habitat for A. perutilis is significantly smaller than the extension of the fragment and much smaller than the extension of the currently protected areas. Our results have important implications for the conservation of A. perutilis, and likely for other threatened Andean tree species, if they are similarly restricted in distribution by topographic heterogeneity.
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Para descargar el documento haz clic AQUI

Para descargar el documento haz clic AQUI

This expression and Fig. 2.5 show in a simplified way how these major factors affect a terrestrial ecosystem and resulting effects. Of prime importance for the organisms and the ecosystem is the climate, in terms of its physical and chemical components. Light as a component of the physical climate is necessary for organisms, in particular plants. Further, the energy coning from light and expressed in temperature or heat is fundamental as a rate regulator of all biological activities. A part of the physical climate is also water. With its double importance through its physiological action and its function as a carrier of substances in the plants, as well as in the whole ecosystem. There is also a chemical dimension to the climate. The air contains not only gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, but also acids such as carbonic and sulfuric acid. The soil contains mineral or nutrient elements essential to the organisms. Over time there are also changes as a consequence of Man's actions or from natural causes. The topography or slope determines the incoming radiation to the ecosystems and also affects the ways water passes through the ecosystem. In addition, there are mechanical factors acting in and on the ecosystem: wind, fire, grazing and Man's activities, such as harvesting in fields and forests. Finally, time is an essential factor, sometimes forgotten. It is always a question of the time perspective in which different factors should be considered - short term vs. long term.
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Incentivizing biodiversity conservation in artisanal fishing communities through territorial user rights and business model innovation

Incentivizing biodiversity conservation in artisanal fishing communities through territorial user rights and business model innovation

Resumen: Los derechos de uso territorial en las pesquer´ıas est´ an siendo promovidos para mejorar la sustentabilidad de las pesquer´ıas a peque˜ na escala. Utilizando a Chile como estudio de caso, dise˜ namos un programa con base en el mercado para mejorar el sustento de los pescadores a la vez que se incentiva el establecimiento y la aplicaci´ on de ´ areas de reserva sin pesca dentro de ´ areas manejadas por reg´ımenes de derechos de uso territorial. Usamos una estrategia de dise˜ no antropoc´ entrico basada en condiciones expl´ıcitas del lugar (es decir, altos niveles de gobernanza, participaci´ on y empoderamiento) para dise˜ nar un programa que tenga el apoyo y la aceptaci´ on necesarios por parte de los pescadores locales y que resulte en beneficios para la biodiversidad a escala de paisaje. La infraestructura transaccional debe ser lo suficientemente compleja para capturar estos beneficios durante su creaci´ on, pero lo suficientemente simple para que el programa pueda subir de escala y sea atractivo para los financiadores potenciales. Los beneficios creados deben ser un bien transable, y los cambios conductuales deseados deben verificarse dentro de un contexto transaccional. La demanda debe generarse para los beneficios de biodiversidad creados para
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Annual Report for Year 2012 and Plan for Year 2013 (4 pages maximum)

Annual Report for Year 2012 and Plan for Year 2013 (4 pages maximum)

The CWI plans to use existing unspent voluntary contributions from some member states and further involve NGOs and private sector for funds generating. It is planned to increase synergy with UNEP/Carpathian Convention and its Protocols, strategies and action plans, with Carpathian Network of Protected Areas, WWF-DCP, Wetlands International and other partners; Ramsar budget is used for specific activities because in the region there are EU (but not the most developed) and non-EU countries (countries in transition) and external funding is substantial part of the budget in the economic crisis. Financial self-sufficiency can be expected from 2015.
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areas en rboles: recurso pedaggico en la educacin fsica en el medio 
	natural

areas en rboles: recurso pedaggico en la educacin fsica en el medio natural

Una de estas experiencias que emergen como referentes, en relación al uso de las telas aéreas en el entorno natural, se encuentra en la compañía francesa Herborescence (2017), la cual tienen como una de sus finalidades crear un espacio de intercambio y reflexión sobre el ser humano y la conciencia del mismo en el medio natural, a través de la técnica aérea en los árboles. De una manera poético- idílica pretenden la “reunión” con los árboles con los que tantas historias se han inventado y con los que convivimos diariamente ofreciéndonos muchas posibilidades pedagógicas. Uno de los proyectos realizados con buenos resultados, se llevó a cabo con alumnos de sexto de primaria, a lo largo de un año, en el que las prácticas artísticas estaban relacionadas con la naturaleza y cuyo medio creativo fue el árbol. La propuesta artística se centró en la experimentación creativa en relación con la naturaleza; la meta de los estudiantes era encontrar la realización personal, a la vez que la integración de un enfoque colectivo. Se desarrollan modos multidisciplinares y modos diferentes de expresión, para responder al proceso de creación de los estudiantes. Estas técnicas se desarrollaron para acompañar la expresión de su imaginación y promover el acto de la creación.
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Diseño de una estrategia empresarial basada en el CRM para mejorar el servicio al cliente en Apromar Ltda

Diseño de una estrategia empresarial basada en el CRM para mejorar el servicio al cliente en Apromar Ltda

protected int id_cliente; protected String des_cliente; protected String dir_cliente; protected int tel_cliente; protected int ext_cliente; protected String jefe_cliente; protected String punto_cliente; protected String email_cliente;

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Problems of Regional Development of Protected Areas in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Problems of Regional Development of Protected Areas in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

We can observe the long-standing popularity of the ideas of acclimation, re- acclimation, and rewilding (Tsarev, Pavlov, 2017, Chibilev et at., 2015, Perion et al, 2019). However, it should be borne in mind that ecosystems of the Far North have abnormally low resilience, low speed of recovery in the conditions of technogenesis, which is accompanied by a rapid loss of biological and landscape diversity in the areas of gas and oil production. In this respect, the problem of acclimation in the YNAO PAs requires a selective approach. For example, the main population of muskox is kept in the open-air complex located in “conservation zone” of the Polar Ural Natural Park, which already contradicts the very concept of a ”conservation zone”: an exemplary zone aimed at the conservation of indigenous fauna and flora species, and where any introduction of alien species is unacceptable. According to some researchers (39–48), no human intervention should be allowed in the “conservation natural areas”. In this respect, the whole program for muskox acclimation in the “conservation zone” of the Polar Ural Natural Park, which is being implemented in the Okrug since 1997, is in urgent need of bringing to compliance with the environmental legislation of the Russian Federation and YNAO: we believe that in this case, the “conservation zone” should be demarkated from the area of the muskox acclimation program.
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The three years of monitoring at perma- nent transects in this study provide a basis for future trend analysis and evaluation of management practices. Hughes et al. (2010) advocates long term monitoring of important taxonomic groups as well as identification of mechanisms and feedbacks in order to detect indicators of phase shifts. He also encourages agencies involved in research and management of reefs to take a proactive integrative approach through education of grassroots constituencies, enhancing access to existing information and expertise and strengthening regulations associ- ated with harvesting important species from these communities. This approach is beginning to be implemented in Grenada through the work of the Grenada Government Fisheries Division and the Moliniere-Beausejour Marine Protected Area Stakeholder Group.
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Las áreas protegidas como una contribución al desarrollo sustentable: Caso del bosque protector Sumaco, Ecuador

Las áreas protegidas como una contribución al desarrollo sustentable: Caso del bosque protector Sumaco, Ecuador

Abstract: The official classification of slopes is strongly related with a modern, intensive agriculture, which in many cases is against the ecological conditions and economic and social practices in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. A proposition of soil classification is offered, adapted to these conditions. 6.7 % of the Protected Forest Sumaco (PFS) actually conforms to requirements described by law. The hypothesis that the creation of the Protected Areas would limit agricultural activities was rejected, which contradicts what is specified by the Law. The National Park Sumaco has stayed unalterable during this period, while the National Park Napo-Galleras has experienced a deforestation of its area (1.8%). On the other hand, the Forest Patrimony of the State has diminished its forest cover in a total of 14.8%. The PFS peak of deforestation observed was of 55.8% the year 1997. However, a recovery of the forest cover and a setback of agricultural activities for the year 2005 is unquestionable (33.1%).
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Designation of supplementary protected areas in the Valle de Cauca, Colombia

Designation of supplementary protected areas in the Valle de Cauca, Colombia

Consequently, according to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (2005), should the drastic growth in the number of protected areas worldwide, having occurred within the past 43 years, be considered with caution, not only because of the high employment of ad-hoc reserve design approaches that have lead to a lack in overall representativeness of ecosystems, but also in relation to their insufficient sizes for fulfilling their individual tasks. The fact that 59478 or 58.25 percent of the total 102102 recorded protected areas, contained within the 2003 UN list, comprise a land area of less than 10 km 2 emphasizes the global trend towards the reservation of smaller sites (World Conservation Monitoring Centre 2005). As a result has the total land area protected worldwide in reserves actually declined within the past 30 years, with the highest growth occurring between 1962 and 1972 (World Conservation Monitoring Centre 2005). According to the predominance of inadequately sized reserves, one could assume that the inclusion of larger remaining fragments of original vegetation cover into a reserve network could generally provide for viability of the network. Rothley et al. (2004) nonetheless found that, despite of the hypothesis of larger fragments including higher biodiversity levels being generally verifiable, not all conservation objectives can potentially be realized using the largest fragment approach, but that various other criteria have to be investigated in relation to multiple, often conflicting objectives, embraced in protected area planning.
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Can the vaquita be saved from extinction?

Can the vaquita be saved from extinction?

The Mexican Government has implemented several environmental and economic actions to protect the vaquita. These include: 1) creating the Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve (UGCCRDBR) in 1993 (Diario Oficial de la Federación [DOF] 1993; Figure 1); 2) creating the Vaquita Protected Area (refuge) in 2005, which limits fishing activities (DOF 2005); and 3) through the Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), launching the Programa de Acción para la Protección de la Especie: Vaquita program (Program Action for the Conservation of the Species: Vaquita; [PACE]) in 2008 (Avila-Forcada et al. 2012), which was an economic and voluntary program that considered compensation for reducing the fishing effort through the elimination of shrimp driftnet and finfish gillnets (PACE 2008; Morzaria-Luna et al. 2012).
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TítuloQuality perceived by the ecotourist in protected natural areas  A case study in dominican republic

TítuloQuality perceived by the ecotourist in protected natural areas A case study in dominican republic

Estos resultados pueden ser útiles para la Administración del Monumento Natural Saltos de la Damajagua, que recordamos estaba compuesta por varias organizaciones a través del sistema de gestión de co-manejo. Este grupo de stakeholders debe seguir trabajando en construir un recurso sostenible, con una buena atención a los clientes, generando beneficios para la comunidad local, debido a que esto le está ayudando a obtener buenos resultados, sobre todo en lo que a imagen del recurso se refiere. También pueden servir a las instituciones medioambientales del país (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de República Dominicana), puesto que este ejemplo de co-manejo garantiza resultados positivos entre los visitantes (y comunidades locales), y por esta razón puede ser puesto en marcha en otras áreas protegidas dominicanas.
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Addressing Criticisms of Large Scale Marine Protected Areas

Addressing Criticisms of Large Scale Marine Protected Areas

present limited opportunities for comanagement and there- fore require innovative mechanisms to ensure compliance and monitor responses to protection. Numerous rapidly emerging technologies (e.g., drone, radar, and satellite observation) and their decreasing costs offer opportuni- ties for cost-effective monitoring of marine life and human activities. For example, advances in satellite tracking of vessels have enabled remote monitoring and detection of illegal fishing (McCauley et  al. 2016) and near-real-time surveillance of fishing activities (e.g., see Global Fishing Watch, http://globalfishingwatch.org). This information can be used to provide evidence of illegal activity and direct enforcement vessels to those suspected of engaging in ille- gal activities, streamlining patrol activities. For instance, in 2015, it assisted with the interdiction of a boat suspected of illegally fishing within Kiribati’s Phoenix Islands Protected Area (McCauley et  al. 2016). Improvements in satellite imaging, remote sensing, and drone technologies, together with greater cooperation promoted by the FAO’s Port State Measures Agreement (www.fao.org/fishery/psm/agreement/ en), which came into effect in 2016, will make LSMPA monitoring and enforcement increasingly effective and affordable, although by their nature, enforcement actions will remain costlier than monitoring. Although enforcement Figure 3. Ten commonly aired LSMPA criticisms categorized by theme and validity, according to the three conclusions of this article: (1) little available evidence showing that the criticism is valid (solid outline), (2) the criticism is valid but applies to MPAs of all scales (dashed outline), and (3) the criticism can also be seen as advantageous from a socioeconomic perspective and applies to fully or strongly protected MPAs of all scales (no outline).
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