The duration of the questionnaire was approximately 10– 15 min. It included 21 questions (Q01–Q21), plus some generic profile information about the respondent (G01– G06). The types of questions included hierarchical ranking of elements, 1-to-10 scale scores, Likert-scale ratings, Yes/ No questions, multiple choices, and open-ended questions. For the majority of the questions, a ‘No opinion’ option was available, in order to discourage forced answers. Several questions were photo-based (Q01, Q05, Q09, Q10). Although they only give a static representation of a scene and do not include perceptions by other senses, visualization techniques permit control over other environmental vari- ables (e.g., light, cloud cover), which may shape the expe- rience of the visitor in-situ (Surova and Pinto-Correia 2008). The questionnaire was subdivided into five independent sections. Respondents were not allowed to read the fol- lowing section before having completed the previous one. We first assessed respondents’ attitudes toward nature (Section 1: Q01–Q04). Q01 assessed the esthetic attraction of a set of species considered representative of different categories of animals: hawks (native and visible in espinal), pumas (native and rare in espinal), sheep (agricultural symbolism, frequently visible in espinals), and reindeer (non-native, not appropriate to the ecosystem, and thus a control for native status and presence in espinal). These were shown with neutral backgrounds (e.g., sky). Q02 looked at the valuation of central Chile compared to other Chilean regions and Q03 the valuation of semi-natural landscapes compared to other types of landscapes. Q04 gaged Chilean cultural similarities with Europe but was omitted from analysis.
The Ramsar Convention was the first international agreement to promote the idea that human societies are an inextricable part of nature, and that human use of ecosystems, on a sustainable basis, is entirely compatible with the conservation of biodiversity and natural resources. The wise use principle encourages integration of human factors into landscape management schemes, instead of simply and ineffectively attempting to protect the environment from human influences. This integrated approach is vital to ensuring that ecosystems can continue fully to deliver their vital role in supporting the maintenance of biological diversity and human wellbeing. In other words, the wise use principle indicates that no efficient conservation policy can be based on the separation of ecological aspects and human, social, institutional, economic and cultural factors. The principle thus is based on establishing or, as said at the start, re-linking people andnature.
This first forestation policy was not particularly successful due to the limited resources made available for it. In 1936, it was estimated that “artificial forests” covered a total area of 90,548 hectares (Ministry of Agriculture, 1945, p. 32). From the 1940s onward, the Chilean State increased its promotion of forestry, but not as a means of soil conservation. Rather, it was in response to the imminent depletion of natural timber forests which had been devastated in the past (Otero, 2006; Folchi, 2015), and because of the need for timber for urban expansion and as a primary material for the growing pulp industry. The latter formed part of the import substitution industrialization (ISI) development model being promoted by the State. The fundamental instruments of this policy were the expansion of State nurseries and the granting of loans for the planting of the fast-growing tree species Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus radiata, the creation of the country’s first pulp mill (1959) and the founding of a dedicated technical body, the Forestry Institute in 1961. As a result of these measures, by the mid-1960s, the total forested area in the country’s central-southern region had increased to 277,944 hectares. 6
All this is not to say that there is nothing real ‘out there’; there is another ‘nature’ of which this is a mere fragment. It is to claim that the real is always an inextricable mixture of culture and that ultimate nature. Changing scale for the purposes of illustration from the level of landscape to that of a tree, there are real trees ‘out there’ that we cannot walk through, and some in Britain have recently been termed ‘veteran trees.’ These are ancient trees that are also valuable as a habitat to saproxylic insects. Such trees are real, but they are only in particular places because people have allowed them to grow there. Also the shape of these veteran trees will owe much to the ways people have pruned them and to adjacent land uses. In this sense these trees are creations of human will. A tree on the ground that is this mixture of culture andnature can be termed a ‘somatic tree’ (Cooper 2004). In a way it is a bit like a piece of behavior that provides evidence of the hidden thinking of an animal, evidence of the ‘nature’ that is the figment of human minds. This ‘nature’, when specifically focused on veteran trees, may be termed the ‘ideological tree.’ It is ideological in the sense of the definition in Blackburn (1994): “Any wide ranging system of beliefs, ways of thought, and categories that provide the foundation of programmes of political and social action: an ideology is a conceptual scheme with a practical application.” This gives greater precision to the notion that ‘nature’ is cultural, it is, specifically, ideological.
The work concentrated on relations between the issues of use and protection that developed in the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest last century, particularly during the post-war decades. Owing to extraordinary natural values, the area deserves very careful protection, however, negative impacts on the landscape have been widely observed. The changes involving perforation and fragmentation of forest cover caused by continuous logging are accompanied by spatial disorder in built areas and their vicinities resulting from tourism development. The aim of the research was to identify the underlying forces of negative tendencies and simultaneously, obstacles to progress in natureconservation of the area. Comparison of views and visions of land-use and management of the Forest showed that great differences in attitudes, applied perspectives and expectations to the Białowieża Forest exist. The study revealed the importance of a socio-cultural dimension for a current stage of landscape evolution. This influence is connected with a steady pressure on wood exploitation and results, at least partially, from a strong position of forest administration in this area and from specific land-use visions emphasizing economic services of the forest. Noteworthy, actions undertaken across the country and numerous efforts to extend protection of the area have not succeeded so far. It is argued that underestimation of natural values expressed by local communities in addition to weaknesses of the state’s environmental law may bring serious hazards to the analysed landscapeand affect the whole system of natureconservation in Poland.
Application of the wise use principle by agriculture is important for many wetland areas. Management contracts within the context of the EC agricultural funding programmes for rural development and payments under the EC structural fund can help us to achieve a more sustainable, better-adapted management of wetlands, e.g. salt meadows in the Wadden Sea, extensive use of grassland, and organic farming in river meadows. The Federal Länder have devised specific programmes and mechanisms depending on the landscape characteristics. For example, Bavaria operates a contract-based natureconservation programme, whereby owners and authorised users receive financial compensation for the income losses and additional costs associated with voluntary services in the management of valuable wetland areas. The North- Rhine Westphalian cultivated landscape programme also promotes contract-based natureconservation measures in addition to agro-environmental measures.
Lake Azul was shallower than at present (lowstand) and likely restricted to its present-day deeper part (NE) and its present basin was likely covered by forests. Juniperus brevifolia, a species that tolerates permanent inundation ( Dias et al., 2005), could have been especially important in the wetlands around the lake, as indicated by the pollen peak at the base of the diagram (Fig. 3). Laurifolia forests continued to be dominant at the beginning of the LIA, but Morella faya was the main tree due to a Juniperus brevifolia decline. Climates then became wetter, and lake levels started to steadily increase. The latest volcanic eruption (P17) was already completed when the first human settlers reached the caldera, where they began to perform cereal cultivation and animal husbandry. Settlements were small, and the effects on vegetation were local and limited, except in the case of Juniperus brevifolia, which virtually disappeared from the catchment by the end of the 14th century. The wood of this species, locally called “cedro do mato” (bush cedar), is highly valued and has been intensively used throughout history for a variety of purposes in the quotidian human life, whereas the wood of Morella faya is not of the same quality ( Dias, 2007). In addition, as mentioned above, Juniperus brevifolia develops well in permanent aquatic habitats, where other forest species cannot survive. The combination of water availability and quality wood makes the present-day basin of Lake Azul the preferred site for initial human settlement. If this is true, the deeper parts of the basin should contain the corresponding evidence. It would be interesting to develop complementary palaeobotanical (seeds, phytoliths, starch) and biomarker (DNA, fecal lipids) studies to corroborate this possibility.
So much has happened in this triennium: we’ve seen the launch of the new Briefing Notes Series; the adoption of the many COP11 Scientific and Technical Resolutions that will give direc- tions to our Parties in the years to come; the new adopted Ram- sar Information Sheet and its Strategic Framework: a milestone that will dramatically improve the reporting and information ac- cess for Ramsar Sites; all expertise support in Ramsar Advisory Missions and Montreaux Record listed Sites; the publication of six new Ramsar Technical Reports; eleven STRP newsletters; input into global and regional initiatives led by UN agencies and others such the IPBES; partnerships strengthening and MoUs signing; capacity building and workshops for STRP National Focal Points; participation at Pre-COP regional Meetings; development of the new STRP Platform (to be launched in January 2013); journal articles and so much more!
Wetland Committees with representation from relevant agencies will be formed to deal with all aspects of wetland conservation to achieve better wetland conservationand management outcomes across Bhutan. The implementation of the Ramsar Convention could be better linked with other nationwide programs and policies by emphasising it's importance for domestic water usage and energy security which are both priorities of the Bhutanese government. Domestic water usage includes cleaner and safer drinking water and water for irrigation for communities and growing townships. Furthermore, most of our wetlands (High Altitude Lakes) are source waters for Bhutan's major rivers, which in turn provide hydropower, one of the country's biggest GDP earners. Hydropower directly contributes to the sustainable development programs in the country as well as energy security through renewable alternatives. The biodiversity inventory nationwide are being carried out by various agencies, which also include wetlands biodiversity inventory. Thus, food security, poverty reduction, sanitation, biodiversity and climate change adaption could all be directly linked to wetland conservation.
The large number of forest specialist butterflies that were positively associated with the mesic and xeric oak forests in both sampling seasons suggests that these vegetation types are critical to preserve this group of insects. However, several habitat generalists also displayed occurrence frequencies higher than expected by chance within the oak forests (Appendix 1), which indicates that these habitats are important even for those species that can fully develop their life cycles in human-disturbed habitats. Because most species detected in this study reproduce in summer [32-36], the positive associations with oak forests in the warm-rainy season could be explained by their climatic reproductive requirements. In this season, oak forests offer mild temperatures and elevated relative humidity, as compared to the abandoned grasslands and the Eucalyptus plantations (Fig. 2), and these environmental conditions are considered favorable for butterfly reproduction because they prevent desiccation of eggs after oviposition and promote the development of larvae . Further, because most plants in the forest understory are in full bloom during this season , these positive association patterns may also be due to the elevated diversity of food resources that these habitats offer to adult lepidopterans.
This paper takes 21 natural villages in Jiangxi Province as the research objects to explore people’s rural landscape planning and design. Figure 5 shows the natural landscape of a village in Jiangxi Province. It can be seen that the landscape is unevenly distributed and well- arranged, the quality of the ecological environment is relatively high, and the presentation of the landforms, vegetation, farmland, nursery gardens and buildings is incisive and vivid. Through the overall analysis of the rural natural landscape, it is found that the area of cultivated land in the villages is huge, most of which are paddy fields, and the landscape has great potential for improvement; in addition, the space of the rural villages is complete, the buildings are quite unique, and the ancient buildings with local characteristics have been maintained, which is of deep and rustic cultural deposits. In order to evaluate the rural landscape that meets people's psychological needs and visual aesthetic design, this paper adopts the expert scoring method to
Understanding the processes and patterns of gene flow and local adaptation requires a detailed knowledge of how landscape characteristics structure populations. This understanding is crucial, not only for improving ecological knowledge, but also for managing properly the genetic diversity of threatened and endangered populations. For nearly 80 years, population geneticists have investigated how physiognomy and other land- scape features have influenced genetic variation within and between populations. They have relied on sampling populations that have been identified beforehand because most population genetics methods have required discrete populations. However, a new approach has emerged for analyzing spatial genetic data without requiring that discrete populations be identified in advance. This approach, landscape genetics, promises to facilitate our understanding of how geographical and environmental features structure genetic variation at both the population and individual levels, and has impli- cations for ecology, evolution andconservation biology. It differs from other genetic approaches, such as phylo- geography, in that it tends to focus on processes at finer spatial and temporal scales. Here, we discuss, from a population genetic perspective, the current tools avail- able for conducting studies of landscape genetics.
En coopération avec d'autres aires protégées de Slovénie, y compris les sites du patrimoine mondial et d'autres sites Ramsar, le Parc encourage la conservation de la nature et du patrimoine culturel, ainsi que le développement durable. La reconnaissance internationale des grottes en tant que bien du patrimoine mondial et site Ramsar contribue à accroître l'importance des grottes pour les visiteurs et, simultanément, l'image que les visiteurs perçoivent lorsqu’ils visitent la région les aide aussi à comprendre la signification du patrimoine mondial et des zones humides d'importance internationale – c’est-à- dire le travail qu’accomplissent ces conventions internationales. Les activités menées par le Parc régional dans le domaine touristiques ont accru sa notoriété en Slovénie et à l'étranger et lui ont permis d’explorer de nouvelles possibilités d’élargir et d’enrichir le tourisme durable et de développer l'emploi local. Tout cela est lié au travail mené par le Parc pour soutenir le
The main functions of public gardens include ecological function, beautification function, entertainment function and educational function, which are also the functions that people pay most attention to. Landscape gardens have a history of thousands of years, delivering visual enjoyment to people at most (Neher, Williams, & Lovell, 2017). In recent years, the concept of landscape ecology has been applied more and more in the environment management of public gardens. In the planning and design of public garden environment from the angle of garden landscape, we should not stress on the external color, modeling and materials as well as destroy the natural ecology (Prescott & Ninsalam, 2016; Tabor, O'Rourke, Lebowitz et al., 2010). To evaluate the landscape
Werther’s fellow nature worshipper, Oronaro, chooses the opposite path and seeks instead containment strategies. Every evening when travelling, he unpacks his beloved puppet along with his “nature in a box,” creating a nature grotto in a designated room. Goethe’s Triumph derives its energy from this problem of containment. This scene of boxes is paralleled by another enactment of intense containment: the stand- alone monodrama in Act IV that mournfully stages the sufferings of Prosperina trapped in the barren landscapes of hell, longing for escape and some decent greenery and gardens. This is performed by the queen who has fallen for Oronaro’s effusive sentimentality, much to her husband’s dismay. Triumph’s containment of nature’s landscapes also contain and imprison the figures; this is in stark contrast to the wild storms and flooding rivers that destroy landscape forms and embody openness in Werther. Together the two Goethean texts provide us with ironic sentimentality about our very real material entanglements in the world, and suggest that, if nothing else, there is confusion with regard to “nature” about boundaries, where they are, who or what determines them, and what happens when one believes whole-heartedly in one’s own ability to create them or destroy them at whim.
(karmanov and Hamel, 2009). The research on the construction of community park in China can be divided into three stages. The first stage is the initial stage of research (1978). At this time, the construction of community park is still concentrated on greening (Zeisel, Silverstein, Hyde et al., 2003). The second stage is the mid- term stage (1990s). Although researches on park design are increasing, they are not specified to community parks, and the breadth and depth of these researches need to be further improved (Mayer, Woodruff, Slymen et al., 2011). The third stage is the later stage of research (the 21st century). At this time, with a broader perspective, people have combined psychology, environmental science and other related disciplines with the construction of community parks. Thus, rich research results are obtained (Hondo and Baba, 2010). Most of the early community park design in our country is based on excellent cases from abroad. Although the research level of community park has been improved to some extent, due to the regional differences, local maladjustment often appears. Therefore, it is particularly important to design community park from the psychological and behavioral needs of community park users in our country.
The word recycle has two word parts: re- and -cycle. The word part re- means “again.” The word part -cycle means to circle around. Just as a bicycle wheel circles around and around, recycled materials can move from your home to a recycling plant and back to your home again.