Proceeding further with the homomorphism in regard to entities per- ception, we observe that ANT advocates talk about hybrids or “quasi objects” (Latour 1993). Thus, similar to eco-systems, which represent a class of systems that is neither completely physico-chemical nor com- pletely biological; the hybrid entities of ANT mix the social and the natural world. As a paradigm, we would mention the diagrams that a natural scientist employs, in the scientific laboratory, in order to describe the causal relation between grazing and nutrient concentration in the soil. Their hybrid character comes about from the fact that they enclose rela- tions among a plenty of heterogeneous entities belonging to both nature: paper, ink, grazing animals, plants, soil, chemical substances, etc., and culture: stock breeders, scientists who will validate or not the results, financial supporters, etc. Through hybrids, ANT brings nature and society onto the same level and then studies social (as traditionally occurs in the field of sociology) as well as natural entities as actors or agents within a structured network. Hence, in respect to the previous paradigm, ANT advocates consider that the actor could be the natural scientist. According to John Law, this actor is a “heterogeneous engineer,” someone who fits together bits and pieces from the social, the technical, the conceptual and the textual and brings them into patterned and robust network configu- rations in order to achieve his/her goals (Law 1987). In this context, the laboratory is perceived as an activity space that involves communication and persuasion.
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After the linguistic turn lost its glamour two decades ago, when the cheering fans of the anti-theory camp eagerly expected conventional realism to return to academia, the material turn came instead. The new materialism sought to bridge the gap between ontology and epistemology so as to overthrow dualisms of all kinds that have informed Western thought for centuries. Integrating the material and the discursive, the material turn radically reconfigured the conceptualizations of materiality, claiming that matter in every form is agentic and capable of producing meanings. Andreas Malm’s The Progress of this Storm: Nature and Society in a Warming World is a full-frontal attack not only on this school of thought, but on the entire spectrum of theoretical approaches that have emerged in recent decades to tackle the complexities of the current ecological condition. Taking their basic premises to the extreme, Malm polemically challenges postmodernism, new materialism, posthumanism, actor-network theory, and hybridism, arguing that they lack intellectual rigor and coherence, and ultimately fail to provide practical guidance in our current ecological predicament.
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What is happening here is the splitting of the ‘nature’ that sustains and surrounds all human life into two categories. In one category this nature is called by its name. This category, however, includes only species that are of no economic use (biodiversity), reconstructions of bygone eras (historic countryside), and terrain too refractory and inhospitable to be profitable. No, these do share tourist value, for without some commodity value other uses would be found for the space, if only as a receptacle for waste (as has been done to the oceans). Humans come to this desirable nature as visitors, which is nice, but no basis for a lasting relationship. The other category into which nature is split, and in which we dwell, does not have the dignity of a name. It is the nature we forget about, take for granted, abuse. A park boundary gives psychological permission to exploit whatever lies beyond it. Nature reserves can reinforce the unsustainable view that nature is separate from our ordinary lives and that humans are not really part of it. Such a misconception of the life support context of human society will end in tears.
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implications from the texts preceding it. In other words, our everyday biological experiences have their roots in the texts, not only literary but also all linguistic and semiotic experience, which we have read. We access reality through language. It does not denote that there is no reality but it connotes that we recognize realities by means of language relations. Indeed, we mold our experiences through language so as to get hold of them. Reality makes sense only through language or discourse. Language helps shape social world, social identities, and social relations. Over recent decades, discourse has been noticed and acted upon by intellectuals and theoreticians of a variety of domains like literary theories, philosophy, sociology, politics, psychoanalysis, even socio-psychology, and also other social sciences. The root of the term can be found in Greek verb “Discurrere”, which literary means wandering, trekking, traversing, digressing, disseminating. Dialogue or Dialog is considered to be the prerequisite of any discourse. Every type of speech, be it oral or written, is a social issue, i.e. they have social disposition, nature, and structure. Discourses vary in accordance with place and time. Every country has its own different discourse. Moreover, inside every country discourses vary.
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conservation in Bhutan started with WWF and local NGOs, such as the Royal Society for the Protection of Nature, on board, but the Division also collaborated with the Ramsar Secretariat, ICIMOD, IUCN, FAO and GEF. These collective efforts have helped us in leveraging funds and technical assistance, while working on the wetland conservation. 4) The World Wetland Day (2nd February) has become widely known in Bhutan and is celebrated throughout the country, which was not the case prior to 2012. This particular day has been marked as an important occasion in Bhutan with the involvement of Government, NGOs, INGOs, etc.
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A more obvious case of complicity concerns what we buy. Most people in developed nations have benefited from products and manufacturing technologies whose lower prices are the direct result of unethical behavior and misuse of science and technology. Companies such as Sony, Motorola, Ericsson, Nike, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Ann Taylor, and Dockers are able to sell their products at lower prices because their contractors’ and subcontractors’ employ “debt bondage” or indentured servitude. To secure work at the Motorola subcontractor in Taiwan, for example, Philippino workers pay a “labor broker” about $2,400. Once in Taiwan, the workers have to pay an additional $3,900 each to a Taiwan labor broker. Although their monthly salaries in Taiwan are each about $460 (or 5 times what they could have made in the Philippines for the same job), they never see the money. Debt repayment to the brokers, room, and board eat up the entire salary. Typically such immigrants work 12-16 hours per day, 7 days a week. They labor in unventilated, locked rooms, and they include children as young as 11. They sleep in locked, dirty, sometimes rat-infected small rooms. Workplace traffic in human beings is the fastest-growing criminal market in the world. Sweatshops flourish in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and even the EU. Illegal immigration to the EU is 500,000 a year, mostly from China, and illegals pay between $5,000 and $25,000 for passage, which they must pay off from their meager wages. Global profits are about $9 billion in human trafficking, and they exceed global drug profits. Yet no manufacturers have so far been prosecuted for using sweatshops staffed by illegal immigrants. In Italy, illegals fuel 70 percent of the underground economy, while western consumers reap the benefits. 50 One way
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A further factor has been the decline of the state in many countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. By the mid-1990s, 30 years after the wave of independence across sub-Saharan Africa, most African states had suffered a period of crisis in both capacity and legitimacy. The period of expansion and optimism of the 1960s and 1970s, when the state was seen by nationalists and donors alike as the central mechanism for economic and social development, gave way to a period of decline and withdrawal in the 1980s and 1990s. Although the reasons for this crisis are complex and multifaceted, including both internal and external pressures, undoubtedly the structural adjustment programmes promoted by donors since the early 1980s have had a major impact throughout Africa. Structural adjustment, especially as promoted by the IMF and World Bank, made future loans conditional on NPM reforms of the public sector, notably governments reducing the levels of both public expenditure and their intervention in the economy. These reforms came at a time of economic crisis during which many countries were faced with stagnant economies and increasing national debt. Structural adjustment has had profound effects on the ability of the state to deliver basic services. Government expenditure has been severely cut and the poor have been hit hardest, with government health care, education, agricultural and water supply programmes unable to supply adequate levels of provision.
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“ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Intensive care”; 20 “Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient. From the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN); 17 “Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Critical Illness Evidenced- Based Nutrition Practice Guidelines”; 21 “Evidence-based guidelines for nutritional support of the critically ill: Results of a bi-national guideline development conference held at Carlton (Australia). From the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS)”; 22 y las “Recomendaciones para el Soporte Nutricional del paciente crítico. Consenso SEMICYUC- SENPE”. 23
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Guéladio Cissé is a sanitary engineer, public health and environmental epidemiology researcher at the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) in Basel, Switzerland. He is currently the head of the research group “Ecosystem services, climate and health,” within the Ecosystem Health Sciences Unit of the Epidemiology and Public Health Department. He holds a M.Sc. and a Ph.D. from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). He has been, from 2001 to 2009, the West Africa Regional Coordinator of the National Centre of Competence in Research North-South (NCCR-North- South), a 12 year Swiss international partnership research programme on sustainable development. For more than 20 years, his field of research has covered mainly environment and health risks assessment in urban areas. His current interests and projects include investigations on the ecosystem health ap- proach, applied to assessments in an integrative way to climate variability and climate change effects, vulnerabilities, adaptation challenges and disaster risk reduction.
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critics, who insist on seeing nature as an historical dimension of the landscape, find themselves in an impossible position. Willem van Toorn sighs, sarcastically, that it is no wonder that very few writers in the Netherlands choose to write on the landscape. “For that will easily result into in something political, and as an artist, you will by no means want to burn your fingers” (41). 4 Apparently, in the present-day polarized Dutch climate, even remarks on the natural landscape will be understood as a (presumedly leftist) party political, self-interested interference with a pastoral dream. The Dutch tradition of pillarization has resulted in a greater ability to identify and essentialize (cultural, political) differences, than to acknowledge their historical nature, their nuances and interdependences, and to work through conflicts (Koenis 74; Gowricharn 103). Any attempt to historicize something that is seen as an essence will therefore easily be defined as political. As nature is understood as absolute, ahistorical, spiritual/religious goodness and authenticity, valuable only if it is untainted, any critique of that view is seen as “political.” The more nuanced historical approach that is now tentatively being articulated goes against the grain. 5
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The red cells transfusion is a mainstay in the treatment of anemic patients. These blood transfu- sions are not without risks.The risk-benefit profile for red cell transfusions to treat anaemia is uncer- tain, but they may contribute to adverse patient outcomes in some situations. The ability of a pa- tient to tolerate anaemia depends on their clini- cal condition and the presence of any significant co-morbidity; maintenance of circulating volume is of paramount importance. There is no univer- sal transfusion trigger. Advances in the develop- ment and validation of physiological, accessible, practical and reliable markers to guide therapy are expected. To improve patients’ outcomes, further study is required to more fully explore the risk of anemia, optimal hemoglobin level, and the risk and efficacy of RBC transfusion. Future clinical investigations with high priority should determine the efficacy of transfusion in those classified as un- certain scenarios. In the absence of data, it is pru- dent that transfusion is administered with caution in these clinical scenarios.
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Whatever the answer, these and similar questions inspired Ecozon@’s call for contributions to a special section on “Urban Ecologies.” The idea was also to give another push to the study of urbanity within ecocriticism, a mode of inquiry within literary and cultural studies that began to emerge in the mid-1990s, has since developed into a vibrant field within the humanities all over the world. For a long time Ecocriticism was fixated on the study of nature and wilderness as well as on the investigation of texts and genres devoted to what could be summarized as ecological, or environmental consciousness raising. Attempts to embrace the study of real and imagined urban environments as a legitimate ecocritical project are few and far between. The first milestone on ecocriticism’s path to the city was Michael Bennett and David W. Teague’s The Nature of Cities: Ecocriticism and Urban Environments (1999), a collection of essays that addressed issues such as “The Nature of Cities,” “Urban Nature Writing,” “City Parks” as well as conceptual intersections of race, gender, urbanity, and wilderness, and that closed with a section on “theorizing urban space.” As Bennett and Teague wrote in the introduction, the volume had two major purposes: 1) “to point to the self-limiting conceptualizations of nature, culture, and environment built into many ecocritical projects by their exclusion of urban places;” and 2) “to remind city dwellers of our placement within ecosystems and the importance of this fact for understanding urban life and culture” (4).
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short bowel syndrome (secondary to necrotizing ente- rocolitis, gastroschisis, intestinal atresia or volvulus), followed by gastrointestinal motility disorders, severe malabsorption syndromes (untreatable diarrhea by microvillic atrophy, intestinal dysplasia or autoim- mune enteropathy) and inflammatory bowel disease (especially Crohn’s disease). The most common extraintestinal processes are those associated with tumor pathology (graft-versus-host disease, post-irra- diation or post-chemotherapy enteritis) and congenital or acquired immune-deficiencies. It may also be neces- sary in cases of cystic fibrosis, chronic liver disease with severe malnutrition prior to liver transplantation, etc.
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When we assume local interactions, that is, an agent can only play with her neighbours in the interaction network, besides the EQ state, there are two other absorbing states corresponding to the inequitable strategies In networks with more than one component, there can be more types of absorbing states. In these cases, because each component is independent of the others, the absorbing state of the system is defined as the combination of the absorbing states reached by each component.. This happens when there are two separated groups of agents, in terms of the network, in which the individuals of one of the groups expect the others will demand L and hence they will demand H; and at the same time, the individuals of the other group will expect and demand the complementary decisions. In these cases, the system reaches an absorbing state, which is eﬃcient but not equitable in the payoﬀs obtained by each agent. Considering the interaction network, these inequitable absorbing states can only happen if the network is bipartite, that is, the network can be divided into two independent subnetworks such that the agents of one of them are only linked to agents of the other, and vice versa. In general, these states are rather improbable due to this topological necessity. For instance see Figure 2, whenever the interaction network has triplets of agents or any odd cycles, the coordination in the strategies H, L is not stable since there is at least one pair of agents with incentives to change their current states. Note in the examples that the expected evolution is a series of continuous changes in agents’ strategies between H and L. This unstable pattern which is directly related with a fractious regime that will be defined below can persist for very long, until the only absorbing state i.e., the EQ state is reached.
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The expression ‘civil society’ has in the meantime taken on a meaning different from that of the ‘bourgeois society’ of the liberal tradition, which Hegel conceptualised as the ‘system of needs’, that is, as a market system involving social labour and commodity exchange. What is meant by ‘civil society’ today, in contrast to its usage in the Marxist tradition, no longer includes the economy as constituted by private law and steered through markets in labour, capital and commodities. Rather, its institutional core comprises those non-governmental and non-economic connections and volun- tary associations that anchor the communication structures of the public sphere in the society component of the life-world. Civil society is composed of those more or less spontaneously emergent associations, organisations, and movements that, attuned to how societal problems resonate in private life spheres, distil and transmit such reactions to the public sphere. The core of civil society comprises a network of associations that institutionalises problem- solving discourses of general interest inside the framework of organised public spheres. These ‘discursive designs’ have an egalit- arian, open form of organisation that mirrors essential features of the kind of communication around which they crystallise and to which they lend continuity and permanence. (Quoted in Ehrenberg, 1999, pp. 222–223)
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Many of today’s important wetlands are of great antiquity and may show clear signs of early human use, whilst even areas now dry may have been wetlands in remote times and may still preserve significant evidence of human past. Along the African Rift Valley, former lake shore wetlands have preserved early hominid sites such as those in the Olduvai Gorge (which may be two million years old or more). In the bed of the River Jordan, at Gesher Benot Ya’aquov in northern Israel, the extraordinary persistence of wetland conditions has led to the survival of evidence of human activity in the valley from 800.000 years ago. Animal bones, stone tools and a great diversity of plant remains indicate that people came to the valley’s wetland vegetation for food and raw material.
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Werther’s fellow nature worshipper, Oronaro, chooses the opposite path and seeks instead containment strategies. Every evening when travelling, he unpacks his beloved puppet along with his “nature in a box,” creating a nature grotto in a designated room. Goethe’s Triumph derives its energy from this problem of containment. This scene of boxes is paralleled by another enactment of intense containment: the stand- alone monodrama in Act IV that mournfully stages the sufferings of Prosperina trapped in the barren landscapes of hell, longing for escape and some decent greenery and gardens. This is performed by the queen who has fallen for Oronaro’s effusive sentimentality, much to her husband’s dismay. Triumph’s containment of nature’s landscapes also contain and imprison the figures; this is in stark contrast to the wild storms and flooding rivers that destroy landscape forms and embody openness in Werther. Together the two Goethean texts provide us with ironic sentimentality about our very real material entanglements in the world, and suggest that, if nothing else, there is confusion with regard to “nature” about boundaries, where they are, who or what determines them, and what happens when one believes whole-heartedly in one’s own ability to create them or destroy them at whim.
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Warning, I'm sure if you ask 10 Sociologists you'll get 10 different answers to this question. In addition, each subset of Sociology has its own "classics" or definitive works. The books selected for this list meet two criteria: 1) Have stood the test of time or debate and 2) have helped to frame the current Sociological paradigm. So without further ado, here's the list:
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flex that will allow them to oppose to negative consequences of false technol- ogy applications. They are supposed to immunise themselves against the temp- tations of instant utilitarism. Students need to learn how to think critically, his- torically, and humanely. They must establish a feeling of internal freedom and independence of thoughts, and they have to learn how to distinguish goals from means, and eventually they have to understand the ways in which technology shapes their consciousness. All this implies that the students have to get ac- quainted and to absorb a system of values that is consistent with the notions of universalism, humanism and democracy, including a peaceful and synergetic coexistence of technology, culture and economy. In other words, the objective is that each student will be given incentives and models for setting up her/his own moral autonomy. Obviously, it is not an easy and rapid task to perform. The solution is not to enhance the curricula by adding one or two subjects to the university program; the point is rather to introduce relevant elements to all the subjects so that the students and teachers will become a subject to constant transformations and development.
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poración de académicos STS a las nuevas ins- tituciones reguladoras de la innovación tecno- lógica, tanto en los entornos nacionales como —de forma muy significativa— en los órganos asesores de la Comisión Europea (comisarías, comités, grupos de trabajo...). Así, resulta cre- cientemente central en la sociología de la cien- cia lo que el call for papers del próximo Con- greso conjunto (Rotterdam, 2008) de la Euro- pean Association for the Study of Science and Technology y la Society for the Social Studies of Science denomina la aproximación acting with o intervencionista. Reflexionar sobre la nueva posición en la que esta modificación del locus institucional coloca a la disciplina, y so- bre los nuevos compromisos y responsabilida- des que surgen en esta situación, es hoy una de las tareas más urgentes para los sociólogos de la ciencia.
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